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PHIL 325 FINAL study guide

by: Theint Myint

PHIL 325 FINAL study guide PHIL 325

Theint Myint
Cal State Fullerton
GPA 3.8

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About this Document

Detailed study guide reviewed by Dr. Vulich. Grade received on final: A
Richard Vulich
Study Guide
philosophy, phil, phil 325, sex, love, sex and love, vulich, Richard, richard vulich, cal state fullerton
50 ?





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This 15 page Study Guide was uploaded by Theint Myint on Wednesday January 20, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PHIL 325 at California State University - Fullerton taught by Richard Vulich in Spring 2015. Since its upload, it has received 108 views. For similar materials see PHILOSOPHY ON SEX AND LOVE in PHIL-Philosophy at California State University - Fullerton.


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Date Created: 01/20/16
Dr.  Vulich       Love  and  Sex  Final  Study  Questions     1) Explain  why  Socrates  says  that  love  is  not  beautiful.     o Love  is  of  something  that  desires   o To  desire  means  to  not  currently  have  it     o Love  desires  beauty     o Therefore,  love  lacks  beauty   2) Explain  why  Socrates  says  that  love  is  not  a  God.   o God  is  perfect  and  lacks  nothing,  so  cant  be  love  bc  love  lacks  beauty     3) Describe  the  ultimate  object  of  love  according  to  Plato  and  the  process  by  which  one     comes  to  love  it.     o Stepping  stone  hierarchy  –  5  stages   i. Individual  bodies  –  love  specific  ppl   ii. All  humanity  –  love  all  people     iii. Laws  and  institutions  –allow  us  to  live  together,  live  well,  maintain  peace     iv. Fair  sciences  –  love  all  things  in  universe  and  knowledge   v. Beauty  –  any  beautiful  thing  and  find  beauty  in  anything    =  ultimate  object  of  love     4) Explain  the  sense  in  which  love  is  a  mean  between  extremes  according  to  Diotima.   o beautiful  and  ugly,  god  and  mortal,  wisdom  and  ignorance,  poverty  and  plenty     o beautiful  and  ugly   i. love  =  not  beautiful     1. desires  to  posses  what  it  thinks  is  beauty  and  to  desire  beauty   means  it’s  lacking  beauty     ii. to  desire  beauty  shows  you’re  not  foul  or  ugly   o god  and  mortal     i. god  is  perfect  and  love  has  deficiency  where  It  wants  beauty  so  unlike   god  love  is  not  perfect   ii. love=  not  mortal  and  is  imperfect  like  us  so  its  like  messenger  between   divine  and  mortal  realm     o wisdom  and  ignorance     i. love  like  philosopher  bc    love  desires  beauty  and  wisdom  is  one  of  the   beautiful  things  and  philosopher  loves  wisdom     ii. to  desire  wisdom  means  that  you  lack  it   iii. and  to  even  desire  wisdom  means  you’re  not  ignorant  bc  ignorant  ppl   don’t  desire  wisdom   o poverty  and  plenty   i. poverty  (penia)   1. desperate,  needy,  distressed   ii. plenty  (poris)   1. bold,  fertile,  alive,  drunk  on  nectar     iii. Zeus-­‐  throws  party  for  birth  of  Aphrodite  goddess  of  beauty     iv. plenty  and  poverty  conceive  a  child  which  is  love     v. which  is  why  love  contains  characteristics  of  both  mom  and  dad  (poverty   and  plenty)     vi. love  at  times  can  make  you  feel  so  plentiful  or  empty,  like  it’s  parents     vii. never  totally  full  or  empty     5) Describe  the  three  main  reasons  that  Solomon  believes  Eros  has  not  traditionally  been   considered  a  virtue.   o 1.  Erotic  love  is  mere  sex   i. vulgar  and  beneath  human  dignity,  not  what  upright  people  do   o 2.  Eros  is  an  emotion     i. emotions=  impulsive,  irrational,  unstable  &  unreliable  bc  emotions  comes   and  goes     ii. cant  control  emotions  and  cant  rationalize/  think  way  out  of  it=  leaves   you  astray  from  right  decision     o 3.  Eros  involves  self-­‐indulgence  of  desire     i. maybe  too  selfish  and  narcissistic     1. bc  only  trying  to  pursue  own  emotional  and  physical  pleasure   ii. distort  views     1. bc  takes  away  from  ability  to  focus  others  and  more  important   things   6) Explain  why  Kant  denies  the  moral  value  of  feelings.   o Kant:   o Love  =  emotion,  emotion=  unreliable  bc  cant  be  controlled/  commanded  by  will   whenever  you  want  (ex:  cant  command  sympathy  at  any  time)     o If  its  not  something  we  can  control  under  our  will,  then  we  cant  be  morally   obligated  to  those  things—   o only  obligate  and  encourage  you  to  things  you  CAN  control     7) Describe  the  nature  and  historical  significance  of  courtly  love.   o Nature   i. Says/  does  things  think  will  win  other  person  over  (try  so  hard  bc  at  time=   arranged  marriages,  no  autonomy,  families  choose)   ii. Allow  literary  expression  of  eroticism/  gaining  sexual  satisfaction     iii. Possibility  of  pursuing  desires     o Historical  significance   i. Paves  way  for  romantic  love  bc  start  to  pursue  another  person  sexually   and  take  happiness  into  own  hands     ii. Individuals  make  more  decisions,  not  families     iii. Introduce  sexual  gratification  as  virtue  (ability  to  court  and  achieve   person  can  be  good)   8) Explain  what  the  intention  of  love  is  according  to  Robert  Solomon.   o There’s  a  private  and  public  self  (self  that  only  you  see  and  a  self  that  others  see)   o Learn  about  private  self  via  forming  shared  identity  (intention  of  love)  and  the   intimacy  of  the  shared  identity  allows  us  to  learn  about  our  private  self   9) Describe  what  the  three  types  of  friendship  are  according  to  Aristotle.   o 1.  Friendship  of  usefulness     i. mutually  no  love  for  who  they  are,  but  mutual  exchange  for  usefulness  to   each  other     ii. self  interest  =  motive  for  friendship   o 2.  Friendship  for  pleasure   i. ppl  pleased  by  each  other  /  common  interests     ii. benefit  of  pleasurable  purpose     iii. when  interest/  pleasure/  usefulness  stop=  so  does  friendship     o 3.  Friendship  of  good     i. best/  more  stable  &  rare     ii. between  2  people  who  only  care  about  each  other’s  sake,  happy  to  be   around  each  other  &  share  activities   iii. even  if  not  useful/  pleasurable  anymore,  still  friends  bc  friendship  based   on  selflessness  aka  why  It’s  more  stable  and  friendship  lasts  as  long  as   both  are  good     iv. selfless  (rare  quality)-­‐  wish  well  on  other  for  their  sake,  even  if  no  benefit   for  you     v. require  time  (build  trust  &  know  person  is  really  good)   vi. no  slander  (bc  has  your  best  interest  in  mind)   10)Explain  what  kinds  of  friendships  bad  people  can  and  cannot  be  in  and  why.   o Bad  people  CAN  be  in  useful  and  pleasurable  friendships   i. Bc  friendship  based  on  self  interest  and  once  interest/  pleasure/   usefulness  stop=  so  does  friendship     o Can  NOT  be  in  good  friendship   i. Bad  ppl  cant  have  good  friends     ii. Bc  can  only  be  good  friends  if  BOTH  has  ability  to  care  selflessly  about   other  person  for  their  sake,  not  your  sake   11)In  what  sort  of  friendship  does  one  avoid  the  possibility  of  slander  and  why?   o (explain  other  2  types  of  friendship-­‐     o Friendship  of  usefulness     i. mutually  no  love  for  who  they  are,  but  mutual  exchange  for  usefulness  to   each  other     ii. self  interest  =  motive  for  friendship   o 2.  Friendship  for  pleasure   i. ppl  pleased  by  each  other  /  common  interests     ii. benefit  of  pleasurable  purpose     iii. when  interest/  pleasure/  usefulness  stop=  so  does  friendship     o friendship  of  usefulness  and  pleasure=  possibility  of  sander  bc    friendship  based   on  self  interest)   o 3.  Friendship  of  good     i. best/  more  stable  &  rare     ii. between  2  people  who  only  care  about  each  other’s  sake,  happy  to  be   around  each  other  &  share  activities   iii. even  if  not  useful/  pleasurable  anymore,  still  friends  bc  friendship  based   on  selflessness  aka  why  It’s  more  stable  and  friendship  lasts  as  long  as   both  are  good     iv. selfless  (rare  quality)-­‐  wish  well  on  other  for  their  sake,  even  if  no  benefit   for  you     v. require  time  (build  trust  &  know  person  is  really  good)   vi. no  slander  (bc  has  your  best  interest  in  mind)   o Good  friendship=  no  slander  bc  motive  is  not  to  harm  you  and  has  your  best   interest  in  mind   12)Explain  the  sense  in  which  it  is  both  good  and  bad  to  be  a  lover  of  self,  according  to   Aristotle.   o Bad  bc  lover  of  self=  egotistical=  love  nothing  else,  thinks  better  than  others=   bad  actions     i. By  loving  self,  going  to  create  harm  bc  has  bad  example   o Good  bc  caring,  noble,  etc=  good  actions     i. Beneficial  to  self  and  others     o If  good,  then  good  to  love  self   o If  bad,  then  no  shouldn’t  love  self     13)Explain  the  nature  of  love  according  to  Nozick.   o Infatuation     i. Intense  state  of  preoccupation   ii. Always  think  about  them,  want  to  be  with  them,  feel  their  touch,  lose   sleep,  lose  focus  on  more  important  things—person  becomes  dominate     iii. If  rejected=  suicidal,  depressed  etc   iv. Outcomes=  break  up  or  form  lasting  relationship  and  create  “we”   o We     i. Ppl  form  new  entity/  oneness  with  each  other  and  presents  themselves   as  that  to  world     ii. Personality  and  lives  intertwine     iii. Don’t  feel  alone  anymore;  now  its  you  +  them     1. Form  a  shared  well  being   a. Well  being  of  lover  is  attached  to  well-­‐being  of  loved  thing   b. Whatever  happens  to  them  directly  affects  you;  good  if   good/  bad  if  bad   c. Even  if  makes  them  happy  but  not  good  for  them,  hurts   you  bc  it  hurts  their  overall  well-­‐being   d. Risks:  If  break  up,  you  affected  too  (don’t  feel  indifferent   anymore;  youre  burdened  too)   e. Gains:  if  good  happen  to  them,  you  benefit  too;  insurance   against  harm     2. Shared  autonomy     a. When  in  love,  decisions  now  made  as  a  unit,  not  as   individuals     o Anxiety  arise  w/  distance  (worry  about  well  being)   o No/less  anxiety  when  together  (bc  know  how  they  are  bc  near  you)   14)Explain  why  it  is  impossible  for  someone  in  love  to  desire  to  trade  up  according  to   Nozick.   o If  in  love=  no  desire  to  seek/  hope/  want  for  someone  better   o To  want  to  trade  up  is  like  self  destruction   i. Bc  have  shared  well  being=  it’d  hurt  you  bc  you’d  be  hurting  them     o Economic  reasons:  invest  a  lot  of  time  so  worry  it  might  be  sunken  cause  if  you   try  tp  pursue  new  person;  better  to  try  to  make  it  work  with  the  one  you’re  with   now     o In  love,  Don’t  want  to  break  “we”  bc  worked  so  hard  and  put  so  much  time  into   creating  it     o When  start  thinking  of  you/  desire  trading  up,  just  the  existence  of  that  desire  to   trade  up  means  =  individualistic  view=  out  of  love=  destroy  “we”     15)Explain  how  Nozick  would  answer  this  question:  “Of  what  value  is  love  to  an  individual”   o incoherent  bc  assumes  that  when  in  love,  still  individuals  when  not  bc  create  a   new  identity  and  unity  w/  joint  interests  =  “we”   o in  love,  you  alternate  self  to  fit  boundaries  of  other  person     o like  sperm+egg=zygote  (  once  combined,  cant  undo  zygote  to  have  individual   sperm  &  egg  anymore)     16)Describe  the  nature  and  significance  of  infatuation  according  to  Nozick.   o Infatuation     i. Intense  state  of  preoccupation   ii. Always  think  about  them,  want  to  be  with  them,  feel  touch,  lose  sleep,   lose  focus  on  more  important  things—person  becomes  dominate     iii. If  rejected=  suicidal,  depressed  etc   iv. Outcomes=  break  up  or  form  lasting  relationship   17)Is  the  significance  attached  to  love  justified  according  to  Schopenhauer  and  why  or  why   not.     o Loved  based  on  need  of  reproduction/  survival  of  human  race     o Justifies  how  much  people  pay  attention  to  love  bc  it’s  purpose  is  for   reproduction  and  there  is  nothing  more  important  than  that     o Not  important  if  you  mistakenly  thought  love  is  based  on  individual  happiness   o Reproduction  is  what  justifies  loves     18)In  what  ways  is  love  deceptive  according  to  Schopenhauer  and  why  is  this  deception   necessary?   o Everyone  believe  finding  love  for  personal  happiness,  but  its  not  for  personal   happiness  but  for  reproductive     o Think  its  gonna  make  you  happy,  but  it’s  actually  going  to  make  you  unhappy  bc   all  negatives  and  hurt  that  comes  with  it     o Have  to  be  deceived  into  thinking  its  for  our  own  sake  not  for  reproduction  or   else  we  wouldn’t  be  motivated  to  pursue  relationships   19)Explain  the  role  of  instinct  in  love  according  to  Schopenhauer.   o Instinct  =  behavior  set  by  nature  for  the  good  of  the  species     o There  to  protect  overall  health  of  species  so  they  can  collectively  survive  and   reproduce   o Sexual  impulse=  human  instinct     o Desire  to  pursue  mate  emplaced  in  us  by  nature  to  find  someone  suitable  for   reproducing,  but  not  for  our  individual  interest     o If  pursue  love  out  of  individual  interest,  we  would  end  up  unhappy  and   disappointed     o Doesn’t  matter  unhappy  bc  purpose  is  to  reproduce     20)Explain  why  Schopenhauer  says  that  adultery  in  a  woman  is  worse  than  adultery  in  a   man.   o Love  based  on  reproduction  =  give  men  and  women  different  drive     o Men  can  father  more  children   i. Natural  impulse  to  seek  variety  to  make  max  amount  of  children     =  what  nature  wants   o Women  instinct     i. Be  faithful  and  keep  man  to  protect  child   o Women  adultery  worse  bc  goes  against  women  natural  instinct  to  be  faithful   whereas  men  being  unfaithful  is  seen  as  natural  instinct     21)Explain  De  Beauvoir’s  claim  that  no  man  is  a  great  lover.     o Different  mind  of  sexes   o Women   i. Want  to  be  totally  devoted  to  man  and  show  sensitivity     ii. Make  him  main  centerpiece  of  life   o Men   i. Want  to  possess  her     ii. Expect/  want  to  receive  total  devotion  from  her,     iii. But  doesn’t  show  devotion  to  women     o No  men  great  lover  bc  has  passion,  but  cant  be  completely  devoted  to  lover,   which  is  quality  of  great  lover     o Women  great  lovers  bc  can  be  completely  devoted,  focused,  attentive  to  lover,   and  not  just  themself     22)Explain  De  Beauvoir’s  disagreement  with  Sigmund  Freud.     o Freud   i. Girls  attracted  to  father  =  why  they  seek  a  man  similar  to  father     o De  Beauvoir   i. Seek  man  similar  to  father  not  bc  sexually  attracted  but  bc  represents   safety,  taken  care  of,  avoid  abandonment  and  hes  the  first  man  she  had   relation  with  and  she  wants  to  restore  those  feelings  of  protection,  love,   and  guardianship  under  care  of  a  strong  man  =  reason  she  seeks  a  man   like  dad     23)Explain  De  Beauvoir’s  claim  that  only  in  love  can  a  woman  reconcile  her  narcissism  and   eroticism.     o Narcissism  =  feeling  of  self  worth     o Eroticism=  desire  of  sexual  satisfaction     o If  not  in  love,  women  can  only  have  one  or  the  other;  not  both     o Flattery  and  attention  helps  her  to  see  herself  as  he  sees  her=  boosts  ego  bc   feels  validated  in  beauty   -­‐  can  go  from  feeling  unappreciated,  abandoned  etc  to  feeling  wanted,  treasured   etc.  women  cant  validate  their  own  beauty  so  seeks  a  man  to  do  so   o If  just  sex,  can  feel  unworthy  and  used  sexually  bc  the  man  had  sex  with  her  but   doesn’t  love  her    =  lower  self  esteem,  higher  sexual  satisfaction     o If  her  self  esteem  is  so  high,  she  may  not  reject  sex  unless  there  is  love,  but  then   there  is  no  sexual  satisfaction  bc  no  sex   o Only  having  sex  with  a  man  she  loves  doesn’t  diminish  her  self  esteem  bc  she   knows  its  about  shared  affection  and  mutual  care  for  each  other,  not  just  empty   sex  to  feel  sexually  satisfied     24)Explain  what  qualities  attract  young  women  to  men  according  to  De  Beauvoir.   o Boys  early  on  seen  as  subjects/  dominate  and  girls  seen  as  lacking  (objects)  bc  its   how  society  conditions  gender  roles,  presented  through  media  and  films     o boys=  guns,  strength,  bravery,  etc   o girls=  dolls,  babies,  domestic  stuff     o to  be  more  equal,  women  more  attracted  to  men  who  have  qualities  the  girl   lacks:     i. strength,  fitness,  wealth,  status     25)Explain  these  two  concepts  as  they  pertain  to  love,  appraisal  and  bestowal.     o Appraisal   i. Conditional  love  that’s  rational  and  value  is  based  on  features   ii. Value  based  on  what  other’s  (the  market)  wants  and  how  much  it’s  worth   to  you     iii. Not  real  love  bc  If  features  change,  values  change  too     o Bestowal     i. Unconditional  love  that’s  irrational  and  given  regardless  of  features  and   how  suitable  it  is  to  your  interests  and  needs       ii. Person  may  change  for  better  or  worse,  but  it  doesn’t  make  you  love/   value  them  any  less/  it  stays  same  =  real  love     iii. Supports  your  needs  even  if  no  benefit  to  them     iv. Still  loves  you  regardless  of  negatives     26)Explain  Singer’s  analogy  between  love  and  attending  a  play.   o Appraisal  and  bestowal     o When  love,  give  bestowal     o Don’t  see  negative  features  bc  perceives  beloved  as  perfect     o When  go  to  play/  movie,  you  get  emotional  even  though  its  not  real,  but  you  can   feel  bc  you  use  your  imagination  to  relate  to  it  ,  not  real  but  provoke  real  feelings   o Feeling  lover  is  real=  real  feeling     o We  know  lover  is  not  perfect  but  in  love,  use  imagination  to  feel  like  lover  IS   perfect  (think  perfect  by  imagination  not  self  deception  )   27)Explain  the  difference  between  objective  and  individual  appraisal.     o Objective  appraisal     i. Value  based  on  social  norm  standards/whole  market’s  interest   o Individual  appraisal   i. Value  based  on  personal  standard-­‐  how  much  individual  values  thing     ii. Can  value  more/  less  than  the  market     28)Explain  Singer’s  claim  that  in  love  morality  becomes  more  erratic(subject  to  change)  .   o You  love  them  unconditionally  and  attached  through  bestowal     o So  things  you  thought  were  bad  before,  you  excuse  or  overlook  them  when  your   partner  does  it     o Sometimes  even  make  excuses  for  lover  and  don’t  see  as  negative     bc  you  accept  them  whether  they’re  good/bad  bc  love  them  unconditionally       29)According  to  Soble  what  is  wrong  with  Singer’s  account  of  love?   o Singer:  2  ways  of  valuing  things:  appraisal  (conditional  based  on  attributes   relative  to  your  interests)  and  bestowal  (unconditional  grant  of  love  regardless  of   features/  benefits  to  you  )     o Singer:  says  bestowal=  real  key  feature  of  love     o Soble:  found  fault  that  bestowal  is  real  characteristic  of  love  bc  if  don’t  say   appraisal  is  necessary,  then  not  considering  concept  of  erotic  love  (physical   attraction)  which  needs  appraisal  to  attract  person  in  first  place     o erotic  love-­‐  physical  attraction/  possession  of  other  person  =based  on  attraction/   desirable  feature  of  other  person   o singer:  Appraisal  should  be  thought  of  as  separate  from  real  nature  of  love     o soble:  thinks  wrong  appraisal  at  least  necessary  if  talking  about  eros  love  bc  need   appraisal  to  even  find  people  attractive,  so  singers  analysis  fails  bc  it  unifies  all   types  of  love  under  one  definition     30)What  are  two  possible  interpretations  of  Singer’s  view  of  the  role  of  appraisal  in  love?   o 3  various  ways  of  interpreting  love;  inconsistent     o appraisal  necessary  for  bestowal     o soble  criticizes  singer  bc  singer  doesn’t  specify  the  role  of  appraisal  and  it’s   confusing     31)Explain  whether  God’s  love  for  mankind  is  based  on  appraisal  or  bestowal  and  why.     o Bestowal  bc  god  is  perfect  and  lacks/  desires  nothing,  so  we  have  no  interest  to   god     o God  loves  man/  humanity  unconditionally  w/o  appraisal     32)Explain  whether  man’s  love  for  God  is  based  on  appraisal  or  bestowal  and  why.   o Appraisal  bc  we  recognize  god  as  perfect  and  we  love  god  whether  or  not  he   changes  =  implies  that  he’s  not  perfect  =  we  cant  love  him  based  on  bestowal  bc   bestowal  thinks  loved  one  is  perfect     o We  don’t  love  god  unconditionally  but  we  love  him  bc  of  the  fact  that  he’s  not   lacking  anything     33)Why  is  love  inherently  frustrating  according  to  Sartre?   o Love  ends  up  getting  divided   o Goal=  balance  other  person  between  being  subject  and  object     o 1  person  end  up  being  dominate  and  follower=  balance  gets  ruined  and  now   neither  is  happy  bc  neither  wanted  to  objectify  other     34)Explain  Sartre’s  claim  that  in  love  we  would  like  to  act  on  our  partner’s  freedom.   o Thinks  when  love,  thing  they  want  is  like  contradicting  bc  want  other  person  to   be  free,  but  be  their’s  too     o Make  sure  that  they  CHOOSE  you  bc  they  want  to  freely  on  their  own     o We  want  them  to  be  free,  but  we  want  to  control/influence  them  in  a  way  that   chooses  us     o If  we  have  our  way,  we’d  want  to  force  them  into  freely  choosing  us   35)How  is  seduction  like  a  language  according  to  Sartre?   o Love  want  both  subject  and  object  (explain  whats  subject  and  object)(control   their  choice  in  choosing  us)   o Seduction  –  way  to  get  them  to  freely  chose  us  by  appealing  to  them     o Seduction  and  language:   i. Both  have  communication:  intended  to  pass  a  message  of  thoughts/   feelings   ii. Both  can  be  miscommunicated  and  misinterpreted  intended  message   36)Explain  why  the  masochist  is  unable  to  achieve  his  goal  according  to  Sartre.   o Explain  subject(  dominating  person)  and  object     o Masochist  likes  pain  and  want  to  be  hurt     o On  surface,  they’re  submissive  and  make  it  seem  like  they’re  object  by  being   whipped,  etc  bc    tired  of  trying  to  balance  roles  of  subject  and  object  so  just  says   they’ll  be  object     o But  by  taking  charge  and  directing  other  person  to  play  out  their  fantasies,  they   are  being  the  subject  bc  they  chose  to  be  there  and  giving  commands  to  get   what  they  want,  which  is  to  be  the  object     37)Explain  Fox’s  example  of  the  observant  neighbor.     o Cathy  and  steve  –  steve  break  up,  cathy  want  to  confront  him  but  cant  get  ahold   of  him  and  decide  to  drive  to  him  ;  cost  her  job  and  negative  impact  on  life     o Friend  come  and  interfere  with  her  decision  –  like  paternalism  interference   (interfere  with  autonomy/  someones  life  and  their  freedom  of  action  for  their   own  welfare)  -­‐  and  takes  purse  ok  she  did  it  bc  has  best  interest  in  life     o Focus  less  on  when  its  ok  and  focus  more  on  WHO  its  okay  for  them  to  do     o Observant  neighbor  =  has  same  information  that  friend  Elizabeth  has  regarding   cathy  and  steve     o Knows  its  not  good  for  her,  negative  effect  on  her  live       o And  takes  it  upon  himself  to  take  her  things  to  stop  her  from  leaving  and  ruining   her  career     o Know  all  same  info  but  interference  unacceptable  bc  they  don’t  know  each  other     o Ok  for  friend  bc  intimate  relationship  justifies  for  interference  not  with  stranger   bc  no  intimacy  even  though  has  all  same  info     o Intimacy  makes  difference  in  justifying  interference     38)Explain  and  describe  Simmon’s  five  conditions  of  tacit  consent.     o Tacit  consent  to  something:   i. proposed  action  has  to  be  something  appropriate  you  can  consent  to,     ii. in  reasonable  time  period  to  descent,     iii. know  in  advance  how  long  before  time  to  dissent  /  period  expires,   iv.  means/  way  of  dissent  must  be  reasonable  like  raising  hand,(nothing   outrageous  like  backflips)   v.  consequence  of  descent  cant  be  too  harmful  or  else  person  feel   pressured  to  consent,  which  is  not  free   39)Explain  subsequent  and  hypothetical  consent.   o Subsequent     i. “you’ll  thank  me  later”  –  imagine  will  consent  later  on     ii. interfere  with  something  someone  does  even  if  they  don’t  want  you  to   iii. know  someone  so  well  that  you  know  them  so  well  you’ll  know  that   they’ll  consent  later   o hypothetical     i. imagine  they  will  consent  right  now  if  they  were  not  currently  impaired   ii. think  they’ll  approve  of  what  you’re  doing  rn     40)Explain  Fox’s  example  of  Allison  and  Leah.   o 2  friends-­‐  share  clothes  and  wardrobe  mutually     o ok  to  share  bc  they’re  friends     o Allison  and  stranger-­‐  ok  to  share  wardrobe  bc  put  out  ad  and  has  formal  consent   and  contract     o When  friends  interfere  in  life,  don’t  need  consent  or  typically  seek  consent  bc  its   implied  through  the  intimacy  of  their  friendship,  and  the  intimacy  is  what  makes   interference  okay       o Consent  only  needed  if  interacting  with  strangers  and  not  friends     o Bc  w/  strangers,  don’t  know  whether  or  not  has  your  best  interest  in  heart   where  that’s  implied  in  friendship     41)Explain  Conlon’s  criticism  of  the  Platonic  model  of  intimate  human  relationships.   o Plato  =  different  relations  based  on  degree  of  intimacy     o Colon=  different  relations  based  on  kind  of  friendship     o Plato  hierarchy     i. Spouse   ii. Lovers   iii. Friends   iv. Coworkers,  friends     o Plato:  you  accumulate  a  higher  degree  of  attachment  as  you  move  up  the   hierarchy  of  love  and  nothing  from  the  old  relation  is  gone     i. Implies  that  lovers  can  be  friends  bc  you  just  add  on  to  the  relation  and   don’t  lose  anything   ii. Also  implies  a  higher  lever  relationship  in  the  hierarchy  is  a  better  quality   and  more  intimate  relationship     o Colon:  says  wrong;  lovers  can  not  be  friends     i. When  you  abandon  1  type  of  relation  and  adopt  another,  you  lose  the  old   relation  you  had  prior     ii. (  theres  always  a  loss  of  each  relation  in  transitioning  to  a  different  type   of  relation)   iii. there  shouldn’t  be  a  hierarchy  bc  no  relation  is  better  is  another  (lover  is   not  better  than  friend—each  has  different  qualities  to  offer)   1. it’s  not  like  a  stepping  stone  like  plato  suggests  to  reach  the  best   type  of  relationship  by  accumulating  all  types  of  prior  relations   and  going  up  hierarchy       42)Explain  the  illustrative  metaphor  that  Conlon(lovers  cant  be  friends)  uses  about  people   standing  side  by  side  versus  face  to  face.   o Mutually  exclusive;  cant  have  both  at  same  time  like  literary  genres;  have  to   chose  one     o Face  to  face  (  lover)     i. Looking  right  at  each  other,=  same  view     ii. Other  person  is  your  world  and  you  want  to  do  everything  with  them     iii. Misleading  when  think  that  person  is  the  best  thing  bc  each  type  relation   is  equal  bases  on  your  interest  of  the  qualities     o Side  by  side  (friends)   i. Other  person  does  NOT  dominate  life   ii. Have  different  views  and  share  experience  of  world  w/  each  other       43)Explain  Conlon’s  reference  to  ‘different  literary  genres’.   o Colon:  each  type  of  relation  is  different  w/  different  qualities  and  cant  be  used  in   same  way   i. When  you  abandon  1  type  and  adopt  another=  old  type  of  relation  is   abandoned/  lost     ii. Will  get  disappointed  if  think  can  accumulate  different  types  of  relations   bc  cant     o Literary  genres   i. Poems,  plays,  scripts,  novels     ii. All  different  types  of  literature     1. Not  1  more  superior  than  another     (they’re  just  different  w/  different  qualities)   2. Different  by  kind  of  genre,  not  degree     3. Cant  be  combined     (if  combine  poem  +  play  =  loses  value,  not  same  anymore=  whole   new  genre)     iii. Same  for  humans  ^^^   44)Compare  and  contrast  the  advantage  and  disadvantages  of  love  versus  friendship.   o Strength  and  weaknesses  relevant  to  each  type       o Love     o (+)   i. intense  sharing  of  life  and  physical  and  emotional  aspect  of  life   ii. excitement       o (-­‐)   i. “love  blinds”  –  start  neglecting  other  things  in  life  bc  so  focused  on  lover     ii. less  freedom/  autonomy;  possessive     iii. cant  be  yourself  as  much     iv. less  willing  to  critique  bc  lover  just  wants  to  agree  and  support  you     v. last  shorter  than  friendships;  not  as  many  long  lasting  relationships   1. cant  be  w/  1+  ppl     2. if  you  don’t  think  they’re  the  one,  you  leave  (unless  you’re   married  to  the  one  and  will  be  together)     vi. less  willing  to  critique  bc  lover  wants  to  agree  w/  you  and  support  you     o Friends   o (+)   i. can  have  1+  friends   ii. more  freedom  and  autonomy   1. don’t  have  to  talk  to  them  all  the  time     2. don’t  have  to  tell  whereabouts   3. don’t  have  to  coordinate  (can  do/  watch  separate  things)   iii. more  willing  to  critique-­‐  can  imagine  themselves  in  your  shoes     iv. more  stable   o (-­‐)     i. no  erotic  pleasure     ii. no  sharing  identities,  companionship,  constant  support,  other  things   romantic  relationships  offer   45)According  to  English,  what  do  grown  children  owe  their  parents  and  why?   o Wrong  to  think  you  have  a  debt  and  obligation  to  owe  parents  bc  things  parents   did  for  child  were  voluntary  sacrifices,  not  debt  or  favors       o Voluntarily  sacrifices=  not  debts=  not  obligated  to  owe  parents  anything     o Favors=  requested  burden/  sacrifices  that  should  be  repaid   o Only  owe  parents  if  debts  are  favors  aka  you  ask  them  for  a  favor,  so  you’re   obligated  to  return  favor  (of  similar  and  equal  burden)     o More  like  gestures  of  friendship  that  happen  in  any  intimate  relation  and  don’t   expect  them  to  reciprocate   o Hope  they  feel  mutually  and  when  they  have  ability  to  do  something  nice  for   you,  they’ll  do  it  on  their  own     o  Bc  in  friendship  offer  what  can  and  take  what  need,  but  neither  party  keeps   track  of  benefits  given     46)Explain  the  difference  between  ‘duties  of  friendship’  and  ‘debts’.     o Duties  of  friendship:  do  things  out  of  love  and  care  for  friend  and  don’t  expect   anything  in  return  or  keep  track  of  how  many  “favors”  they’ve  done  for  them   o Debts:  keeps  track  of  favors,  people  expect  something  in  return.  Not  real  friends     47)Explain  English’s  example  involving  adoptive  versus  biological  parents.   o Adoptive  children  don’t  owe  biological  mother  for  giving  birth  and  going  through   child  bearing  process  bc  even  though  it’s  a  big  sacrifice,  there  no  relation  there   anymore  so  don’t  feel  obligated  to  anything     o Only  continuation  of  relation  will  dictate  any  duties  of  friendship  between  those   in  relation  not  quantity  or  quality  of  past  sacrifices     o In  ongoing  relations,  past  sacrifices  doesn’t  matter  bc  its  not  accumulation  of   debts  against  you  but  they  were  voluntarily  sacrifices  don’t  on  your  behalf     o No  relation  between  you  and  biological  parents  but  there  is  a  relation  between   you  and  your  adoptive  parents    


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