History of Western Art 2001 Midterm Study Guide
History of Western Art 2001 Midterm Study Guide HISTART 2001
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Date Created: 01/20/16
Woman Venus of Willendorf unknown Austria 2800025000BCE Culture Prehistoric Period Paleolithic Cave Painting in the Chauvet Cave unknown France 3000028000BCE Culture Prehistoric Period Paleolithic parietal representation Presentation of offerings to lnanna unknown Uruk Iraq 3200BOOOBCE alabaster Warka Vase Culture Ancient Near East Period Sumerian Narrative art Victory stele of NaramSin unknown Susakan 22542218BCE pink sandstone Cul Ancient Near East Per Akkadian Stele with law code of Hammurabi unknown Susa Iran 178OBCE basaH Cul Ancient Near East Per Babylonian ouneiform script Palette of King Narmer unkwn Egypt 3000292080E Cul Egyptian Per Predynastic Mortuary precinct of Djoser architect Imhotep l Saqqara Egypt 26302611BCE Cul Egyptian Per Early Dynastic hypostyle hall Seated statue of Khafre unknown Gizeh Egypt 25202494BCE Cul Egyptian Per Old Kingdom Statue of Hatshepsut with Offering Jars unknown from her Mortuary Temple in Deir elBahri 14731458BCE Cul Egyptian Per New Kingdom Temple of AmenRe Karnak Egypt 12901224 Cul Egyptian Per New Kingdom Sunken Relief Panel of Akhenaten Nefertiti and Three Daughters unknown 135313358CE Cul Egyptian Per New Kingdom m9 7 E l m quota v r i Bull Leaping Palace of Knossos in Crete Greece 1400137OBCE fresco Culture Greek Period Minoan Lion Gate Mycenae Greece 130012508CE limestone relief Culture Greek Period Mycenaean Funerary Mask Mask of Agamemnon Grave Circle A in Mycenae Greece 16001SOOBCE gold repousse cul Greek per Mycenaean Mantiklos Apollo Thebes Greece 700GBOBCE bronze statue dedicated by Mantiklos to god Apollo culture Greek period Orientalizing Kroisos Anavysos Kouros Anavysos Greece SBOBCE marble kouros culture Greek period Archaic Ajax and Achilles Playing a Dice Game Exekias Q Athenian blackfigure amphora ceramic O 5405308CE 0 culture Greek 0 period Archaic Doryphoros Spear Bearer Polykleitos 0 Roman marble copy of a bronze original 0 45044OBCE 0 culture Greece 0 period High Classical 0 made to be a perfect model of the male figure highly realistic looks capable of movement use of a canon and strict proportions 0 culture Greek 0 period High Classical Parthenon lktinos and Kallikrates Acropolis Athens 447438BCE culture Greek period High Classical Panathenaic Festival procession frieze unknown detail from the Parthenon Athens 447438BCE culture Greek period High Classical V 39 i ii J I Helios and his horses Dionysos Demeter Persephone and Artemis Gods from Birth of Athena pediment east ped of Parthenon 4384BZBCE culture Greek period Late Classical Aphrodite of Knidos Praxiteles 35034OBCE caused outrage at first bc it shows Aphrodite disrobing and stepping into a bath 1 st lifesize representation of a woman pudica pose not openly erotic but is sexualized extremely humanized culture Greek period Late Classical Weary Herakles Farnese Herakles Lysippos BZOBCE Herakles exhausted after completing the 11th of 12 labors stealing golden apples attribute lion cape godlike body and human emotion culture Greek period Late Classical Battle of lssus Alexander Mosaic Philoxenos of Eretria 310 BCE King Darius being defeated looks worried while Alex looks brave roman copy tesserae mosaic used foreshortening culture Greek period Hellenistic Dying Gau Epigonos 230ZZOBCE from Pergamon Turkey roman marble copy bronze orig agony on face draws sympathy shows Gauls were worthynoble opponents but Greeks were too OP culture Greek period Hellenistic Model of a typical Etruscan temple of the 6th c BCE Vitruvius 510SOOBCE designed like houses bc they believed in afterlife wood less columns than Greek temples bc roof is lighter clear entrances doric columns decoration on roof not pediment dedicated to 3 gods made of mudbricks culture Etruscan period Archaic Sarcophagus with Reclining Couple Cerveteri Italy SZOBCE skillfully painted terra cotta archaic smilesof course cuddling couple looks naturalistic relaxed and approachable compared to Khafre and Menkaura man believed to have held an egg rebirth symbol Etruscans cremated ppl culture Etruscan period Archaic Capitoline Wolf 50048OBCE statue of shewolf sucking 2 infants based on Romulus and Remus culture Etruscan period Classical Head of an old man Osimo mid1st c BCE marble verism not at all idealized superrealistic very different from Greeks culture Roman period Republican Second style wall paintings Villa of Publis Fannius Synistor Boscoreale ltaly 504OBCE Romans used perspective to give spatial sense but it s not linear perspective bc it wasn t used consistently instead is intuitive perspective culture Roman period Republican Gardenscape Second style wall paintings quot Villa of Livia Primaporta ltay 393 30ZOBCE I atmospheric perspective shows distance by fading colors shift towards a neutral blue and blurring culture Roman period Republic Augustus Primaporta ltaly marble copy bronze orig ZOBCE similarity to Doryphorus contrapposto same proportions holding spearstaff head shapesizeexpression raised hand Orator pose Etruscan raised hand pose Greek proportions and posture this barefoot like the gods cupid holding on is odd culture Roman period Early Empire Ara Pacis Augustae Rome 13QBCE altar of Augustan peace covered w reliefs I procession of imperial family shows children represented like V 7 children Colosseum Flavian Amphitheater Rome 7080 CE quot 4 2000ft around 160 16ft statues holds 50000 ppl used corinthian ionic and etruscan columns started by Vespasian finished by son Titus materials marble travertine concrete vaults covered by travertinecheap malleable fireproof but ugly and absorbs water rounded arch stronger than corbelled arch bc of weight distribution culture Roman period Early Empire Portrait of Vespasian 7579 CE balding top wrinkles fold of skin over eyes slight smile looked more realistic Nero looked like Augustus revival of Republican Verism back from looking like Greek gods ppl like Vespasian culture Greek period Early Empire Column of Trajan Forum of Trajan by Apollodorus of Damascus Rome dedicated 112 CE column of Trajan 128ft higher relief on 4ft high upper registers meant to house his ashes continuous narrative shows victorious battles and war 625 in length culture Roman period High Empire Portrait bust of Hadrian 117120 CE curly hair not the closecropped hair of a young hero smooth skin middleaged wise older man starts beard trend looks like bust of Pericles Classical period 1 Republican Verism 2 Augustus Classicism 3 Return to Verism 4 Hadrian Classicism culture Roman period High Empire Pantheon Rome 118125 CE dome on a drum dome is a perfect halfsphere 142 portico and a rotunda 20 thick walls poche and niches for statues culture Roman period High Empire Column Base of Antoninus Pius Rome 161 CE apotheosis ascent to heaven of Antoninus and Faustina decursio ritual encircling of the funerary pyre culture Roman period High Empire Portraits of the Four Tetrarchs 305 CE Constantinople porphyry purple stone used to symbolize importance same sizeheight used to show equality two Augusti holding 2 Caesers short stubby figures no more idealized proportions plebian folds in clothing are stiff and incised Khafre culture Greek period Late empire EiTrajan L Hadrian I Marcus Aurelius U Constantine Arch of Constantine Rome 312315 CE classical arch but with 3 parts spolia spoils taken from other art and reused spolia taken from Trajan Marcus Aurelius and Constantine culture Roman period Late Empire Keywords Paleolithic the old Stone Age when humans produced the first sculptures and paintings parietal representation cave wall paintings cuneiform a system of writing used in ancient Mesopotamia in which wedgeshaped letters were formed by pressing a stylus into a piece of clay that was then baked ziggurat platform that temples in the ancient near east were built on cella innermost part of a temple most sacred registers one of several superimposed bands or friezes of a narrative painting hierarchy of scale larger things are more important hierarchy of position specific locations are more important composite view chest shown frontally face shown in profile votives votive offerings a gift of gratitude to a deity iconoclasm the destruction of religious or sacred materials stele a carved stone slab used to mark graves or commemorate historical events relief sculptural technique looks like the sculpted material has been raised above the background plane ka Egyptian idea of spirit life ka statue type of Egyptian statue that s intended to provide a resting place for the ka serdab a small concealed chamber in an Egyptian mastaba for the body of the deceased canon a rule of proportion hypostyle hall hall made of columns pylon monumental entryway seen in Egyptian temples clerestory lightwindows high up sunken relief created by carving away the image so that it is sunken background is raised column capital shaft base top shaft and base of a column 3 types Doric no base no volutes ionic base volutes Corinthian acanthus leaves colonnade a seriesrow of columns usually holding up something or spanned by lintels maat divine truth principle used by Akhenaton as reasoning for more realistic portrayals truebuon fresco technique of painting on a moist plaster surface with pigments ground up in water or a limestone mixture corbeled arch an arch formed by stones piled up and cantilevered towards the center until the blocks meet a keystone relieving triangle triangle above the lintel in Mycenaean arches used to relieve the weight corbelled vault a vault formed by stones piled up and cantilevered inwards meeting in an arch tholos tombMycenaean beehive shaped tomb with a circular plan repousse formed in relief by beating a metal plate from the back leaving the impression on the face The metal sheet is hammered into a hollow mold of wood or some other pliable material and finished with a graver kouros nude male statue kore nude female statue cellanaos central chamber of Greek temple where the statue of the god is held blackfigure technique in early Greek pottery the silhouetting of dark figures against a light background of natural reddish clay with linear details incised through the silhouettes redfigure technique in later Greek pottery silhouetting of red figures against a black background with painted linear details reverse of blackfigure painting contrapposto the disposition of the human figure in which one part is turned in opposition to another usually hipslegs turned away from chestshoulders creating a counterpositioning of the body around its central axis Sometimes called weight shift bc the weight of the body tends to be thrown on one foot creating tension on one side and relaxation on the other panathenaic festival ancient Greek festival that took place every 4yrs procession brought a new peplos to the statue of Athena continuous frieze a decorative horizontal band wet drapery figure technique of the classical and Hellenistic periods that used lots of very animated cloth that clung to the body to show the figure of the body pudica pose gesture meant to show modesty but also shows vulnerability attribute something characteristic of a certain person mosaica picture or pattern produced by arranging together small colored pieces of hard material such as stone tile or glass tesserae little stone cubes used to create mosaics foreshortening method of rendering a specific object or figure in a picture in depth The artist records in varying degrees the distortion that is seen by the eye when an object or figure is viewed at a distance or at an unusual angle patricians freeborn landowning people member of the upper class in Rome plebians a roman commoner verism superrealism naturalistic look from the Republican period in Rome linear perspective mathematical system for creating the illusion of space and distance on a flat surface vanishing point the invisible point in a drawing where two parallel lines seem to meet orthogonal a line in a perspective drawing that retreats into the distance atmospheric perspective rendering things that are farther away in duller shades a more neutral blue and blurring outlines concrete invention by the Romans vital to their infrastructure and a huge turning point cheaper stronger more malleable than stone fireproof downsides ugly and absorbs water thus it was usually coated with another layer of something ex travertine apotheosis ascent into heaven rounded arch arch invented by the romans that is stronger than the corbelled arch bc the stones are arranged in an arch rather than just horizontally better transfer of weight downwards used in the colosseum elongated into a vault rotated into a dome barrel vault elongated arch groin vault perpendicular intersection of 2 barrel vaults also called a cross vault oculus rounded opening that allows for an axis mundi to connect the earth and sky used in the pantheon and symbolizes religious importance divinity enlightenment etc arcuated having arches arched OIIIIOIIIOIIOIOIIIOOIIIOIOIIOIOIOIOCIIO apse a large semicircular or polygonal recess in a church arched or with a domed roof typically at the eastern end and usually containing the altar decursio ritual encircling of the funerary pyre spolia spoils taken from other artworks that are reused ex Arch of Constatine Parts of Doric temple architecture column shaft capital entablature triglyph metope pediment CulturesPeriods Prehistoric Paleolithic 300009000 BCE Venus of Willendorf Cave Painting in Chauvet Cave Ancient Near East Sumerian 35002332 BCE Presentation of offerings to lnanna Akkadian 23322150 BCE Victory stele of NaramSin Babylonian 21501600 BCE Stele with law code of Hammurabi Egypy an Predynastic and Early Dynastic 35002575 BCE Palatte of King Narmer predynastic Mortuary precinct of Djoser early Old Kingdom 25752134 BCE Seated statue of Khafre New Kingdom 1550107OBCE Statue of Hatshepsut with Offering Jars Temple of AmenRe Sunken Relief Panel of Akhenaten Nefertiti and Three Daughters Greek Bronze Age Minoan Mycenaean 30001100 BCE Bull Leaping from Palace of Knossos Minoan Lion Gate Mycenaean Funerary Mask of Agamemnon Mycenaean Geometric and Orientalizing 900600 BCE Mantiklos Apollo Orientalizing Archaic 600480 BCE Kroisos Ajax and Achilles Playing a Dice Game Early and High Classical 480400 BCE Doryphoros Spear Bearer high classical Parthenon high classical Panathenaic Festival procession frieze high classical Late Classical 400323 BCE Helios and his horses Dionysos Demeter Persephone and Artemis Gods from Birth of Athena Aphrodite of Knidos Praxiteles Weary Herakles Lysippos Battle of Issus Philoxenos of Eretria Dying Gaul Epigonos Etruscan Archaic 600480 BCE IIOIIIIOIIIIOIIIOOIOII Model of typical Etruscan temple Vitruvius Sarcophagus with Reclining Couple Classical 48089 BCE Capitoline Wolf Roman Monarchy and Republic 75327 BCE Head of an old man republican Second style wall paintings republican Gardenscape second style wall paintings republican Early Empire 27 BCE 97 CE Augustus from Primaporta Ara Pacis Colosseum Portrait of Vespasian High Empire 96192 CE Column of Trajan Forum of Trajan Apollodorus of Damascus Portrait bust of Hadrian Pantheon Column Base of Antoninus Pius Late Empire 192337 CE Portraits of the Four Tetrarchs Arch of Constantine Long Essay Question 30mins Answer one of the following questions discus 4 works of art from different periodscultures cite specific visual andor contextual features that support your essay These works may not be discussed in other parts of the exam Bullet point full ID information for each example at the beginning of your essay Name date location artist culture period Using your knowledge of their historical and cultural backgrounds discuss the way that different rulers or groups have conveyed or created their power and authority through visual means In your essay be sure to discuss the roles played by iconography subject and style medium and location as relevant Stele with Law Code of Hammurabi 1780 BCE Susa Iran Ancient Near East Babylonian this basalt stele depicts King Hammurabi being given the divine right to rule by the sun god It has the Law Code of Hammurabi written on it in cuneiform script this code was universally applied and used to maintain fairness and peace while Hammurabi ruled It was one of the first attempts to create an organized society and was a written declaration of how authority should be issued and justice served Statue of Khafre 2200 BCE Gizeh Egypt Egyptian Old Kingdom very rigid symmetrical and idealized so that he could appear strong youthful and special Expressioness to convey a sense of calm and control Made from diorite which was very expensive Wears the nemes headdress and fake beard that show his status as a pharaoh Statue of Hatshepsut with Offering Jars 1500 BCE Deir elBahri Mortuary Temple Egyptian New Kingdom shows Queen Hatshepsut depicted very much like a man she wears the nemes headdress beard and anatomically resembles a male she is idealized and expressionless much like the statue of Khafre Shows that she considered herself equal to men and she is idealized to look divine as she claimed her father was Re the sun god Creates a sense of eternal calm and control Furthermore the base was incised with One who gives maat to Amun showing her relationship with the important god Sunken Relief Panel of Akhenaten 1335 BCE Egyptian New Kingdom depicts Akhenaten naturalistically He has a belly thin arms and is not made to look idealized as the other pharaohs were Conveys equality between Akhenaten and his wife as they are basically mirrors of each other very similar in shape and size as well as the chairs they sit on Rays of the sun are giving life to akhenaten and his wife depicting their relationship with the gods Akhenaten s depiction along with his interaction with his children shows his character as more feminine and nurturing as opposed to the very masculine and idealized figures of Khafre and even Hatshepsut Augustus from Primaporta 0 CE Roman Early Empire The statue of Augustus from Primaporta is idealized and shares the same proportions as Doryphorus as well as contrapposto head shapesizeexpression and their posture of holding a spearstaff The raised hand is a gesture of authority and is reminiscent of The Orator By associating himself with perfection Doryphorus and calling for attention the statue of Augustus shows him as the ideal ruler Furthermore the armor he wears depicts the return of Roman legionary eagles as the result of Augustus negotiating showing that he ruled through peace and not war He is also barefoot much like the statues of gods at the time The cupid riding a dolphin at his feet also support his family s lineage from the goddess Venus which gives him a relationship to divinity though not divine status itself Portrait of Vespasian 70 CE Rome Italy Roman Early Empire the bust of Vespasian is different from the statue of Augustus as lmperator as it is much more naturalistic and does not claim any relationship with divine beings It depicts Emperor Vespasian as balding wrinkly and older than the depictions of Augustus and Nero who was depicted to look like Augustus This was an important distinction to make politically as many people strongly disliked Nero This started the idea of an older wiser and very experienced leader and a revival of Republican Verism Vespasian s lined complexion shows him as a battlehardened military leader which is what he was known for during the time he ruled Portrait of the Four Tetrarchs 300 CE Constantinople Roman Late Empire The sculptures depicting the four tetrarchs is all about their equality To show their equality in authority all four men are roughly the same size and shape They are not idealized and instead are very stocky The only distinction made is between the Augusti and the Caesars as the Augusti are holding the two younger Caesars To show the importance of these rulers the statue is built with porphyry an extremely expensive purple marble This was very hard to carve which also affected the very schematic style of the statues drapery write an essay in which you discuss how the depiction of the human figure has changed over time Be sure to explain the specific changes and the historical social andor cultural reasons for these artistic choices Venus of Willendorf Austria 28000 BCE Prehistoric Paleolithic human figure of a woman is not naturalistic at all very exaggerated reproduction parts which could suggest that people back then focused on fertility The figure is undetailed and faceless and stands on its toes which is an unusual position Shows that rather than trying to depict a realistic representation of a female the focus was on fertility Statue of Khafre 2500 BCE Karnak Egypt Egyptian Old Kingdom In the statue of Khafre the human figure is depicted more naturalistically than before but still very idealized and symmetrical It does not express very much movement and instead gives the impression of a calm cool and incontrol ruler with eternal strength and perfection Kroisos of Anavysos 500 BCE Anavysos Greece Greek Archaic typical archaic statue has the archaic smile which may have been used to emphasize facial curvature showing that they are becoming more naturalistic Muscular more realistic than EX Khafre but still idealized Used to mark Kroisos who had died in war shows that artwork had a purpose and function now Doryphoros 480 BCE Polykleitos Greek High Classical lost the archaic smile head turned sideways expressioness staring ideal face and body built to be a canon for the human male figure Shows how the Greeks became more concerned with naturalistic representations and the influence of math and proportions looks very capable of movement with one relaxed armleg and one tense armleg contrapposto Kritios Boy 480 BCE Greek High Classical lost the archaic smile now he has a peacefulrelaxed face This classical style is less posed and more naturalistic and realistic in terms of weight shift which shows a new understanding of movement and anatomy Introduces contrapposto which would be very important in the era The Scraper L ysippos 350 BCE Late CIassicaI The Late classical era introduced a new canon which included a thinner taller body and a smaller head Now the head was 18 the height of the body out down from the 17 scale used in Doryphorus The use of a mundane relatable activity humanizes the statue although it is an idealized human form still uses contrapposto to bring about a quality of movement Aphrodite of Knidos Praxiteles 350 BCE Late Classical shows Aphrodite disrobing and stepping into a bath This was the first lifesize representation of a woman in Greece Shocked the audience because it was sexualized and depicted a god doing something very commonplace Style and representation of the human form has become extremely humanized with the pudica pose showing vulnerability This like the other statues from the late classical era including the Weary Herakles and the Scraper were beginning to show extremely human emotion on beings associated with divinity Extremely naturalistic idealized bc it s a goddess and lifelike Late classical era also introduced a new canon that called for a taller body and smaller head than Doryphorus Weary Herakles Lysippos 35OBCE late classical shows Herakles after completing the 11th of 12 tasks to steal golden apples Instead of showing a physically and mentally ideal divine being this statue shows physically idealized the exhaustion that Herakles is feeling This combination of a godlike body and human emotion was key to the late classical era lunnanted Dying Gaul Epigonos 220 BCE Pergamon Turkey Greek Hellenistic extremely humanistic shows agony on his face much like the seated boxer which also elicits sympathy This was very naturalistic and Epigonos even put copper in his lips to make it even more realistic Sarcophagus with Reclining Couple 600 BCE Cerveteri Etruscan Archaic archaic smiles even though it s made out of terra cotta the statue is very naturalistic and the couple looks alive and approachable compared to Menkaura and his Wife The cuddling couple is much more relaxed and relatable showing that artists were beginning to not only explore the human form in more naturalistic ways but also the relationship between art and the viewer Also shows that in Etruscan culture women were very much equals with men Augustus of Primaporta 0 CE Roman Early Empire Shows a return to the classical Greek style and is very similar to Doryphorus in many aspects contrapposto proportions holding a spearstaff head shapesizeblank expression idealized young perfect ruler r 39 Raklng Cornice n v i quoti r 39 Pediment i I l Cornice 7 1 Freize H Metope 4L 39 1 l l Trig39yph En tablature Entablature 7 7 J Capital T quotquot T 39quot 3221 v Capital LRRT W k m LECWUS I Volut 7 l Necklng I 4 L 1 l l quot Shaft Column Column I V 1 if M 0 l H l l I l H F Base l L quot Stylobate f f A W J r I V l l Prehistoric Ancient Near Egyptian Greek Etruscan Roman East 30000 Paleolithic BCE Venus of Willendorf Chauvet Cave 3000 Sumerian PreEarly Dynastic Bronze Age BCE Presentation Palette of King MinoanMyc of Offerings to Narmer Bull Leaping Inanna Uruk Mortuary temple of Lion Gate Iraq Djoser lmhotep Mask of Aga Saqqara Grave Circle A 2200 Akkadian Old Kingdom Bronze Age BCE Victory stele Khafre Gizeh of Naram SinSusa Iran 1 600 Babylonian New Kingdom Bronze Age BCE Stele with Hat w Jars Deir law cold of elBahri Hamm Susa Temple of AmenRe Iran Karnak Sunken relief of Akhenaten 1 400 Bronze Age BCE 700 Geometric Monarchy Republic BCE Orientalizing Mantiklos App Thebes 500 Archaic Archaic Monarchy Republic BCE Kroisos from Etruscan temple Anavysos model Vitruvius Anavysos Sarcophagus w AjaxAchilles dice reclining couple game Exekias 45o EarlyHigh Classical Monarchy Republic BCE Classical Capitoline Wolf Doryphorus Polykleitos Parthenon Iktinos and Kalikrates Athens Panathenaic Festival Frieze 400 Late Classical Monarchy Republic BCE Heliosamphorses Aphrodite of Knidos Praxiteles Weary Herakles Lysippos 300 Hellenistic Monarchy Republic Battle of Issus Head of old man BCE Philoxenos Dying Gaul Epigonos Pergamon Turkey Second style wall paintings Boscoreale Gardenscape Primaporta OCE Early Empire Aug Primaporta Ara Pacis Colosseum Vespasian ptrat 100 CE High Empire Column of Trajan Apollodorus Dam Bust of Hadrian Pantheon Column Base of Antoninus Pius 200 CE Late Empire Portrait 4 Tetrarchs Arch of Constantine
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