P 155 Midterm and Final Study Guide
P 155 Midterm and Final Study Guide COLL-P155
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verified elite notetaker
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This 8 page Study Guide was uploaded by Meegan Voss on Wednesday January 20, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to COLL-P155 at Indiana University taught by John Arthos, Jr. in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 643 views. For similar materials see Public Oral Communication in Speech at Indiana University.
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Date Created: 01/20/16
MIDTERM & FINAL EXAM STUDY GUIDE – FALL 2015 •The “useable concepts” in the lectures gather around a few “guiding concepts” or “master terms,” of the course, which I have highlighted. •In the final, the multiple choice questions on inference patterns and fallacies will come the reasoning chapter. •Most questions on the final (and all questions on the midterm) will be short written answers (one or two full sentences). •I’ll modify list slightly as we go along, but this study guide is a solid guide to tests. •STUDY ADVICE: Start studying now; don’t wait til the last minute. Review key terms each weekend. This study guide is up at the beginning of the semester, is noted in your syllabus, and announced in the first lecture. •Before test rewatch the lectures and consult textbook based on terms below. It’s good to work in groups so you can ask your peers for help. If there are remaining questions, consult your section instructor. If there are questions the section instructor can’t answer they will ask me. MASTER FINAL EXAM TERMS: agency, ideology, circulation, commconstitutive, convention & invention Lecture 1: "Public speaking" SLIDE TB WB social intelligence – ability to speak with others, work in teams, irreplaceable by “robots”, the distinctive human art of representation, not just a skill “the public” – a group of people who are engaged in addressing issues of common interest Consensus – is not possible on many things (bit of fiction) Dissensus – is endemic to the commons (reality) definition of p.o.c. – power of speech to achieve 27 the common good with and for others in just institutions public sphere or realm – the slender tether of practices/focuses on the role of public speaking in a society/ circulation of discourse in public sphere and helps to create publics around issues of common interest guiding concept sophistry – dangers, manipulation, equivocation guiding concept eloquence – opportunities, self reflection, inspiring change, building community Eloquence – the capacity of the beauty and power of language to illuminate and move public as tether - lifeline society vs. community paradox of the creature of the home/city – roof and 3 square meals (needing and hating) / the distant shore (wanting and fearing) Propaganda – hypodermic needle model habitus – the sum of character attributes and propensities inculcated through education audience-centered approach – strategic: to achieve speaker’s ends, ethical: to respond to audience’s needs and demands, constitutive: created by interaction public sphere model of communication transmission model – radio and tv; first stage; depicts public speaking as a form of one way communication from speaker to audience; sender -> interference ->message -> interference -> sender Textbook: "Public Speaking & Public Sphere," circulation! Lecture 2: From Claim to Speech SLIDE TB WB components of a good claim – form of declarative sentence, tightly focuses, doesn’t contain loaded language, calibrated appropriately to audience and constrains of your speech “topic” - theme guiding concept “claim” – to call or cry out to someone about something Entailments – things that arise as a necessary consequence of something and are derived from it constraints guiding concept inherency – determining the main ideas you need to cover from the claim; inherent issues area when an audience needs to have answered when you make a claim Stasis – point in an argument where the various persepectives have been sorted, strength and weaknesses weighed, balancing points canceled out, the controversy at the issue, the balancing point upon which the whole debate rests Lecture 3: Audience adaptation (ideas people) – of people to ideas and ideas to people discursive identity SLIDE TB WB guiding concept Communication* is constitutive. the speech event, eventfulness of speech discourse community – our discourse is itself constitutive of who we are as a community discursive identity Reciprocity – ideas to people and vice versa demagoguery, pandering, manipulation Sophistry – slick use of the tools of rhetoric to bambooz e your audience vicious relativism composite audience, composite strategies – speak to each audience in turn with a different message, interweave appeals to different audiences unifying symbol – “freedom” everyone see it of the same value but some may have different opinions scopus theory – point of view from where you are hexis, disposition, frame of mind – make audience is good mood; the use of pathos to prep your audience for being more receptive to your appeals Textbook: "Audiences" heteronormative language *In this course we’ve used “communication”, “discourse”, and “rhetoric” roughly as synonyms. Lecture 4: Delivery SLIDE TB WB adaptation & rightness of fit, prepon, appropriateness – the over riding standard for competent delivery is the same standard as for every other aspect of POC extemp, impromptu – prepared but speaking and using words on the spot; no preparation whatsoever the three registers of formal speech – high - formal, inspirational; middle – pitched between high and low, hybrid; low – colloquial, vernacular, informal the myth of the double creatures - Consubstantiation – good delivery Copia – the skill of varying expression in order to amplify an idea fully, the skill of developing a point the bumper sticker or the headline Lecture 5: The Rhetorical Situation SLIDE TB WB particular/general - Contingency guiding concept rhetorical situation – demands speech “a situation” vs. rhetorical situation – RS is one in which speech is the answer to a situation which poses the question guiding concept agency – indicates some degree of control is available, that an individual is capable of symbolic action Exigence – the thing that activates, excites, kindles action to change a particular situation audience (in this theory) – people who are changing the situation and fixing it Constraints – resources of invention rightness of fit Textbook: The Rhetorical Situation Counterpublics structure of motives – (belief, value, feeling, emotion, habit, desire) how all the emotions, etc of an audience interact and construct themselves in moving an audience to react practical judgment – the act of defining a particular person, object, or event for the purposes of making a practical decision Occasion – the specific setting shared by speaker and audience whose circumstances determine the genre, purpose, and standards of appropriateness of what is said orientation and salience (in the “Emotion” section) – represents how we stand in relationship to a thing; represents how strongly this emotion is felt within a certain situation Lecture 6: Arrangement [Chapter on Organization] SLIDE TB WB degrees of adherence the possible and the probable palimpsest Adaptation loaded language ethos, pathos, logos – ethos – the character and credibility of the speaker; pathos – the emotions that can be evoked ion the audience; logos – the reasoning that is offered in the speech emotional logic – arouse, dissatisfy, gratify, visualize, move Lecture 7: Heuristics SLIDE TB WB guiding concept starting points (empirical, topical) – common grounds you locate between yourself and your composite audience that will allow you to build conviction toward your conclusion guiding concept warrant (enthymematic, syllogistic) – what justifies the leap from something familiar or acceptable your audiences feel comfortable with to your claim that is unfamiliar, or strange to them topoi (i.e., topical starting points, 'persuadables', premises) indubitable (certain) starting points – empirical and topical topical discourse – common values enthymematic warrants – ethos by example, pathos by implication syllogistic warrants – logos by types of enthymematic warrants – pathos, ethos expert testimony – testimony from a person who is generally recognized as an authority on a certain subject tests for expert testimony – does that speaker’s paraphroase accurately reflect the expert’s testimony and view? Is the expert legitimate and well qualified? Does the expert provide support for his claim? Is the expert reasonably unbiased? Is their testimony up to date? Example – specific instances that are used to illustrate a more general claim Sign – something that stands for something else cause (and difficulty of inference from cause) – a mental leap 55 from the supporting material to the claim presence 48 Indeterminacy – things capable of being otherwise 53 analogy (standard form of, examples of, tests for) – comparison of people, places, things and events lecture critierion for testing an analogy – are there basic differences as well as similarities? Do the differences outweigh the similarities tests of sign (not on midterm) tests of cause (not on midterm) strengths & weaknesses of argument from example Textbook: “Reasoning” Chapter 8 rhetorical proof – estabablished through interaction in which the speaker and listeners reason together; doesn’t ensure that a conclusion is correct but it offers support for a conclusionƒ degrees of support the criterion of the reasonable – would be taken seriously by a broad and diverse group of listeners exercising their best critical judgement be sure to study types of syllogistic warrants Fallacies are not on the midterm Lecture 8: From Reason to Style SLIDE TB WB polisyndeton (Powerpoint) climax (Powerpoint) anaphora (Powerpoint) – uses repeated words to stir an audience antithesis (Powerpoint) – contrasting phrases to balance out a Tropes – a turn of phrase away from its literal meaning Analogy – comparison of people, places, things, events or more abstract relationships schemas – unusual or distinct pattern of speech or word order simile, metaphor – simile – comparison using like or as, metaphor – comparison not using like or as red herring (not on midterm) false equivalence (Powerpoint) (not on midterm) slippery slope (not on midterm) ad hominem (not on midterm) post hoc (Powerpoint) (not on midterm) – occurs if you assume that because one event occurred after another, it was caused by the earlier event non sequitur (Powerpoint) (not on midterm) – claim does not follow from supporting material (latin for it does not follow) circular reasoning (Powerpoint) (not on midterm) fallacy of composition (Powerpoint) (not on midterm) – interference that appears to be sound but that contains a big flaw FOR MIDTERM, ALL OF THE ABOVE, STOP HERE!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! Lecture 9: Symbolic Action SLIDE TB WB guiding concept: symbol – an arbitrary representation of something else, a word or an image that represents a things, thought or action sedimentation connotation/denotation, ideological network icon constitutive rhetoric materiality representation referentiality affect cathexis guiding concept doubleagency mobilization guiding concept ideology – the ideas, values, beliefs, perceptions, and understandings that are known to members of a society and that guide their behaviors Hegemony – the dominant ideology of a society, exerting social control over people without the use of force normalization ideological distortion Textbook: "Symbolic Action” – expressive human action, rhetorical mobilization of symbols to act in the world Identification – a communicative process through which people are unified on the basis of common interests or characteristics the construction of social reality – reality as understood through the symbols humans use to represent it constitutive rhetoric “rhetoric as addressed” “coproducing meaning” culture, public & collective memory – culturehistorically transmitted pattern of meanings in symbols, a system of inhereited conceptions expressed in symbolic forms by means of which people communicate and develop their knowledge about attitudes toward life; public memoryparticular type of collective memory that combines the memories of the dominant culture and fragments of marginalized groups memories and enables a public to make sense of the past, present and future; collective memorymemory that is not simply an individualized process, but a shared and constructed created of a group power, ideology, hegemony public memory, collective memory *Be sure to learn the definition of ideology. Sometimes we’ve used the terms paradigm shift, mindset, or perspective, which can mean roughly the same thing but are a bit more generic. Lecture 10: Identification (Textbook: "Putting Words to Work) SLIDE TB WB the 5 canons of rhetoric x x guiding concept ideograph – compact x expressions of a group’s basic political faith schemes/tropes (lecture version, the difference between the x two) anaphora x Synechdoche – representing a subject by focusing on a vid part of it or on something closely associated with it “overcoming time” x x amplification x x Antithesis – a language technique that combines opposxng x elements in the same sentence or adjoining sentences Textbook: "Putting Words to Work” x x Lecture 12: The Hard Bits SLIDE TB WB guiding concept circulation (public sphere x model) - paradigm shift x x ideological webs x x bias x x dissoi logoi x x sensus communis x x Lect 13 Change the World SLIDE TB WB relationship of theory & practice guiding concept double agency (again!) emergent identity discourse regimes constitution vs. transmission (again!) the role of figurative transference (metaphor, synecdoche) in the Coatesville Address ideographic distortion Lecture 14 Closing Lecture SLIDE TB WB transmission theory (again) the ideal speech situation dissensus (again) dissoi logoi (again) convention & invention (again) speech genres: epideictic, deliberative, forensic condensation symbol (again) consensus/dissensus (again)
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