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P 155 Midterm and Final Study Guide

by: Meegan Voss

P 155 Midterm and Final Study Guide COLL-P155

Marketplace > Indiana University > Speech > COLL-P155 > P 155 Midterm and Final Study Guide
Meegan Voss

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This is the midterm and final study guide with majority of the answers in it and important things highlighted.
Public Oral Communication
John Arthos, Jr.
Study Guide
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This 8 page Study Guide was uploaded by Meegan Voss on Wednesday January 20, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to COLL-P155 at Indiana University taught by John Arthos, Jr. in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 643 views. For similar materials see Public Oral Communication in Speech at Indiana University.


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Date Created: 01/20/16
MIDTERM & FINAL EXAM STUDY GUIDE – FALL 2015 •The “useable concepts” in the lectures gather around a few “guiding concepts” or “master terms,” of the course, which I have highlighted. •In the final, the multiple choice questions on inference patterns and fallacies will come the reasoning chapter. •Most questions on the final (and all questions on the midterm) will be short written answers (one or two full sentences). •I’ll modify list slightly as we go along, but this study guide is a solid guide to tests. •STUDY ADVICE: Start studying now; don’t wait til the last minute. Review key terms each weekend. This study guide is up at the beginning of the semester, is noted in your syllabus, and announced in the first lecture. •Before test rewatch the lectures and consult textbook based on terms below. It’s good to work in groups so you can ask your peers for help. If there are remaining questions, consult your section instructor. If there are questions the section instructor can’t answer they will ask me. MASTER FINAL EXAM TERMS: agency, ideology, circulation, commconstitutive, convention & invention Lecture 1: "Public speaking" SLIDE TB WB social intelligence – ability to speak with others, work in teams, irreplaceable by “robots”, the distinctive human art of representation, not just a skill “the public” – a group of people who are engaged in addressing issues of common interest Consensus – is not possible on many things (bit of fiction) Dissensus – is endemic to the commons (reality) definition of p.o.c. – power of speech to achieve 27 the common good with and for others in just institutions public sphere or realm – the slender tether of practices/focuses on the role of public speaking in a society/ circulation of discourse in public sphere and helps to create publics around issues of common interest guiding concept sophistry – dangers, manipulation, equivocation guiding concept eloquence – opportunities, self reflection, inspiring change, building community Eloquence – the capacity of the beauty and power of language to illuminate and move public as tether - lifeline society vs. community   paradox of the creature of the home/city – roof and 3 square meals (needing and hating) / the distant shore (wanting and fearing) Propaganda – hypodermic needle model habitus – the sum of character attributes and propensities inculcated through education audience-centered approach – strategic: to achieve speaker’s ends, ethical: to respond to audience’s needs and demands, constitutive: created by interaction public sphere model of communication transmission model – radio and tv; first stage; depicts public speaking as a form of one way communication from speaker to audience; sender -> interference ->message -> interference -> sender Textbook: "Public Speaking & Public Sphere," circulation! Lecture 2: From Claim to Speech SLIDE TB WB components of a good claim – form of declarative sentence, tightly focuses, doesn’t contain loaded language, calibrated appropriately to audience and constrains of your speech “topic” - theme  guiding concept  “claim” – to call or cry out to someone  about something   Entailments – things that arise as a necessary consequence of  something and are derived from it  constraints ­  guiding concept  inherency – determining the main ideas you need to cover from the claim; inherent issues area when an  audience needs to have answered when you make a claim   Stasis – point in an argument where the various persepectives have been sorted, strength and weaknesses weighed,  balancing points canceled out, the controversy at the issue, the balancing point upon which the whole debate rests Lecture 3: Audience  adaptation (ideas   people) – of people to ideas and ideas  to people  discursive identity SLIDE TB WB guiding concept Communication* is constitutive. the speech event, eventfulness of speech   discourse community – our discourse is itself constitutive of  who we are as a community discursive identity  Reciprocity – ideas to people and vice versa demagoguery, pandering, manipulation  Sophistry – slick use of the tools of rhetoric to bambooz e  your audience  vicious relativism  composite audience, composite strategies – speak to each  audience in turn with a different message, interweave appeals  to different audiences unifying symbol – “freedom” everyone see it of the same  value but some may have different opinions  scopus theory – point of view from where you are  hexis, disposition, frame of mind – make audience is good  mood; the use of pathos to prep your audience for being more  receptive to your appeals Textbook: "Audiences" heteronormative language *In this course we’ve used “communication”, “discourse”, and “rhetoric” roughly as synonyms. Lecture 4: Delivery SLIDE TB WB adaptation & rightness of fit, prepon,   appropriateness – the over riding standard for competent delivery is the same standard as for every other aspect of POC extemp, impromptu – prepared but speaking and using words on the spot; no preparation whatsoever the three registers of formal speech – high - formal, inspirational; middle – pitched between high and low, hybrid; low – colloquial, vernacular, informal the myth of the double creatures - Consubstantiation – good delivery Copia – the skill of varying expression in order to amplify an idea fully, the skill of developing a point the bumper sticker or the headline Lecture 5: The Rhetorical Situation SLIDE TB WB particular/general - Contingency  guiding concept rhetorical situation – demands speech  “a situation” vs. rhetorical situation – RS is one in which  speech is the answer to a situation which poses the question   guiding concept agency – indicates some degree of control  is available, that an individual is capable of symbolic action  Exigence – the thing that activates, excites, kindles action to  change a particular situation   audience (in this theory) – people who are changing the  situation and fixing it  Constraints – resources of invention  rightness of fit Textbook: The Rhetorical Situation  Counterpublics    structure of motives – (belief, value, feeling, emotion, habit,  desire) how all the emotions, etc of an audience interact and  construct themselves in moving an audience to react  practical judgment – the act of defining a particular person,  object, or event for the purposes of making a practical  decision  Occasion – the specific setting shared by speaker and  audience whose circumstances determine the genre, purpose,  and standards of appropriateness of what is said orientation and salience (in the “Emotion” section) –  represents how we stand in relationship to a thing; represents  how strongly this emotion is felt within a certain situation Lecture 6: Arrangement [Chapter on Organization] SLIDE TB WB  degrees of adherence  the possible and the probable  palimpsest Adaptation ­  loaded language ethos, pathos, logos – ethos – the character and credibility of  the speaker; pathos – the emotions that can be evoked ion the  audience; logos – the reasoning that is offered in the speech emotional logic – arouse, dissatisfy, gratify, visualize, move Lecture 7: Heuristics SLIDE TB WB guiding concept starting points (empirical, topical) – common grounds you locate between yourself and your composite audience that will allow you to build conviction toward your conclusion guiding concept warrant (enthymematic, syllogistic) – what  justifies the leap from something familiar or acceptable your  audiences feel comfortable with to your claim that is  unfamiliar, or strange to them topoi  (i.e., topical starting points, 'persuadables', premises) indubitable (certain) starting points – empirical and topical topical discourse – common values enthymematic warrants – ethos by example, pathos by  implication syllogistic warrants – logos by  ­ types of enthymematic warrants – pathos, ethos expert testimony – testimony from a person who is generally  recognized as an authority on a certain subject tests for expert testimony – does that speaker’s paraphroase  accurately reflect the expert’s testimony and view? Is the  expert legitimate and well qualified? Does the expert provide  support for his claim? Is the expert reasonably unbiased? Is  their testimony up to date? Example – specific instances that are used to illustrate a more  general claim Sign – something that stands for something else cause (and difficulty of inference from cause) – a mental leap  55 from the supporting material to the claim presence  48 Indeterminacy – things capable of being otherwise 53 analogy (standard form of, examples of, tests for) –  comparison of people, places, things and events lecture critierion for testing an analogy – are there basic  differences as well as similarities? Do the differences  outweigh the similarities  tests of sign (not on midterm)   tests of cause (not on midterm) strengths & weaknesses of argument from example Textbook: “Reasoning” Chapter 8      rhetorical proof – estabablished through interaction in which  the speaker and listeners reason together; doesn’t ensure that a conclusion is correct but it offers support for a conclusionƒ degrees of support the criterion of the reasonable – would be taken seriously by a broad and diverse group of listeners exercising their best  critical judgement  be sure to study types of syllogistic warrants  Fallacies are not on the midterm Lecture 8: From Reason to Style SLIDE TB WB polisyndeton (Powerpoint)  climax (Powerpoint)  anaphora (Powerpoint) – uses repeated words to stir an  audience  antithesis (Powerpoint) – contrasting phrases to balance out a  Tropes – a turn of phrase away from its literal meaning  Analogy – comparison of people, places, things, events or  more abstract relationships  schemas – unusual or distinct pattern of speech or word order  simile, metaphor – simile – comparison using like or as,  metaphor – comparison not using like or as  red herring  (not on midterm)  false equivalence (Powerpoint) (not on midterm)    slippery slope (not on midterm)  ad hominem (not on midterm)  post hoc (Powerpoint) (not on midterm) – occurs if you  assume that because one event occurred after another, it was  caused by the earlier event  non sequitur (Powerpoint) (not on midterm) – claim does not  follow from supporting material (latin for it does not follow)  circular reasoning (Powerpoint) (not on midterm)     fallacy of composition (Powerpoint) (not on midterm) –  interference that appears to be sound but that contains a big  flaw FOR MIDTERM, ALL OF THE ABOVE, STOP HERE!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! Lecture 9: Symbolic Action SLIDE TB WB guiding concept: symbol – an arbitrary representation of something else, a word or an image that represents a things, thought or action  sedimentation  connotation/denotation, ideological network  icon  constitutive rhetoric  materiality  representation  referentiality  affect  cathexis  guiding concept double­agency    mobilization  guiding concept ideology – the ideas, values, beliefs,  perceptions, and understandings that are known to members  of a society and that guide their behaviors  Hegemony – the dominant ideology of a society, exerting  social control over people without the use of force  normalization  ideological distortion           Textbook:  "Symbolic Action” – expressive human  action, rhetorical mobilization of symbols to act in the world Identification – a communicative process through which  people are unified on the basis of common interests or  characteristics the construction of social reality – reality as understood  through the symbols humans use to represent it constitutive rhetoric “rhetoric as addressed” “co­producing meaning” culture, public & collective memory – culture­historically  transmitted pattern of meanings in symbols, a system of  inhereited conceptions expressed in symbolic forms by means of which people communicate and develop their knowledge  about attitudes toward life; public memory­particular type of  collective memory that combines the memories of the  dominant culture and fragments of marginalized groups  memories and enables a public to make sense of the past,  present and future; collective memory­memory that is not  simply an individualized process, but a shared and  constructed created of a group  power, ideology, hegemony public memory, collective memory *Be sure to learn the definition of ideology. Sometimes we’ve used the terms paradigm shift, mindset, or perspective, which can mean roughly the same thing but are a bit more generic. Lecture 10: Identification (Textbook: "Putting Words to Work) SLIDE TB WB the 5 canons of rhetoric x x guiding concept ideograph – compact x expressions of a group’s basic political faith schemes/tropes (lecture version, the difference between the  x two) anaphora x Synechdoche – representing a subject by focusing on a ­ vid  part of it or on something closely associated with it “overcoming time” x x  amplification x x  Antithesis – a language technique that combines opposxng  x elements in the same sentence or adjoining sentences           Textbook:  "Putting Words to Work” x x Lecture 12: The Hard Bits SLIDE TB WB guiding concept circulation (public sphere x model) - paradigm shift x x ideological webs x x bias x x dissoi logoi x x sensus communis x x Lect 13 Change the World SLIDE TB WB relationship of theory & practice  guiding concept double agency (again!)  emergent identity  discourse regimes  constitution vs. transmission (again!)  the role of figurative transference (metaphor, synecdoche) in  the Coatesville Address  ideographic distortion Lecture 14 Closing Lecture SLIDE TB WB transmission theory (again) the ideal speech situation dissensus (again) dissoi logoi (again) convention & invention (again) speech genres: epideictic, deliberative, forensic condensation symbol (again) consensus/dissensus (again)


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