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UT / Psychology / PSYC 21012 / What are the foundations of scientific evaluation?

What are the foundations of scientific evaluation?

What are the foundations of scientific evaluation?

Description

School: University of Tennessee - Knoxville
Department: Psychology
Course: Psychology 110
Professor: Alexander khaddouma
Term: Spring 2016
Tags: Psychology, notes, and study
Cost: 25
Name: Psychology 110 Week 2 Notes
Description: These notes are really from Friday January 22nd...due to the snow day and MLK holiday there was only one day of class.
Uploaded: 01/21/2016
3 Pages 28 Views 1 Unlocks
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Psychology 110 Week 2 Notes


What are the foundations of scientific evaluation?



(Martin Luther King Holiday + Snowday)

Thinking Scientifically

∙ Foundations of scientific evaluation

⮚ Ruling out rival hypothesis

⮚ Differentiating correlation from causation

 

⮚ Falsifiability

Trying to figure out cause ends up  with correlation.

⮚ Replicability  

We like to be proven wrong

An experiment repeated several times  with different variables to test for the same results

⮚ Parsimony (Occam’s Razor) – Simplest Answer is often the most accurate

∙ The Theory

⮚ The human sneeze arises from localized pressure on the ventral abdominal  during increased nasal pressure


What is the meaning of falsifiability?



⮚ There would then a development of a hypotheses to research this theory  followed by and experiment to find out what causes sneezing.

History of Psychology

∙ Descartes

⮚ “Pre-psychology” people did things and thought things just because ⮚ Until Later psychology was indistinguishable from philosophy

∙ William James

⮚ Interested in how psychological processes were adaptive

⮚ Influenced by Charles Darwin

∙ John Watson

⮚ Behaviorism being a major school of thought in psychology, arises in 1920’s ⮚ Based entirely off of learning, arose in America


What is the meaning of replicability?



∙ Wilhem Wundt  

⮚ First psychological laboratory  

∙ Cognitivism  

⮚ Arose as a response to behaviorism  Don't forget about the age old question of What are the characteristics of blood?
If you want to learn more check out What are the laws of supply and demand?

⮚ Conceptualized mental activity as a form of behavior  

∙ Sigmund Freud

⮚ Psychoanalysis, arose in Europe

Research Methods

∙ Heuristics

⮚ Mental shortcuts that help us think efficiently and streamline our experiences. ⮚ “I before E except after C”

∙ Representativeness Heuristic

⮚ Helps us think as representatives of things

⮚ Judging by superficial similarity to a prototype

∙ Availability Heuristic

⮚ Estimating likelihood of something based on the ease with which it comes to  mind

Validity Don't forget about the age old question of Who is poultney bigelow?

∙ Random Selection

⮚ Procedure that ensures every person in a population has an equal chance of  being chosen to participate.

∙ External Validity  

⮚ Extent to which we can generalize findings to real world settings

⮚ Can arise from random selection

∙ Internal Validity  If you want to learn more check out What are the main themes and thematic structure?
If you want to learn more check out Who is thermal expansion?
Don't forget about the age old question of What is the meaning of trade­ offs?

⮚ Event to which we can draw cause and effect influences.

Naturalistic Observations.

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