Psychology 110 Week 2 Notes
(Martin Luther King Holiday + Snowday)
∙ Foundations of scientific evaluation
⮚ Ruling out rival hypothesis
⮚ Differentiating correlation from causation
Trying to figure out cause ends up with correlation.
We like to be proven wrong
An experiment repeated several times with different variables to test for the same results
⮚ Parsimony (Occam’s Razor) – Simplest Answer is often the most accurate
∙ The Theory
⮚ The human sneeze arises from localized pressure on the ventral abdominal during increased nasal pressure
⮚ There would then a development of a hypotheses to research this theory followed by and experiment to find out what causes sneezing.
History of Psychology
⮚ “Pre-psychology” people did things and thought things just because ⮚ Until Later psychology was indistinguishable from philosophy
∙ William James
⮚ Interested in how psychological processes were adaptive
⮚ Influenced by Charles Darwin
∙ John Watson
⮚ Behaviorism being a major school of thought in psychology, arises in 1920’s ⮚ Based entirely off of learning, arose in America
∙ Wilhem Wundt
⮚ First psychological laboratory
⮚ Conceptualized mental activity as a form of behavior
∙ Sigmund Freud
⮚ Psychoanalysis, arose in Europe
⮚ Mental shortcuts that help us think efficiently and streamline our experiences. ⮚ “I before E except after C”
∙ Representativeness Heuristic
⮚ Helps us think as representatives of things
⮚ Judging by superficial similarity to a prototype
∙ Availability Heuristic
⮚ Estimating likelihood of something based on the ease with which it comes to mind
Validity Don't forget about the age old question of Who is poultney bigelow?
∙ Random Selection
⮚ Procedure that ensures every person in a population has an equal chance of being chosen to participate.
∙ External Validity
⮚ Extent to which we can generalize findings to real world settings
⮚ Can arise from random selection
∙ Internal Validity If you want to learn more check out What are the main themes and thematic structure?
If you want to learn more check out Who is thermal expansion?
Don't forget about the age old question of What is the meaning of trade offs?
⮚ Event to which we can draw cause and effect influences.