Bi Sci 004 Exam 4 Study Guide
Bi Sci 004 Exam 4 Study Guide Bi Sci 004
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This 13 page Study Guide was uploaded by Kristen Eckert on Wednesday January 20, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Bi Sci 004 at Pennsylvania State University taught by Maria Krasilnikova in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 116 views. For similar materials see Biological Science in Biology at Pennsylvania State University.
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Date Created: 01/20/16
The Sensory Systems 1/20/16 9:40 PM Practice Questions 1. What are the five senses? • Taste, smell, touch, sight, hearing 2. What are the five types of sensory receptors? • Mechanoreceptors: respond to a shape change in the receptor or nearby cells • Thermoreceptors: sense temp change • Photoreceptors: respond to light • Chemoreceptors: react to chemical stimuli • Pain receptors (nociceptors): respond to tissue damage or extreme temperatures 3. Which type of the receptors is only the externoreceptor? • Externoreceptors: sense external conditions, allowing us to respond to the environment o Photoreceptors: external stimuli 4. What are the somatic (general) senses? • Touch, pressure, vibration, temperature, pain, and body and limb 5. Where are the special sense organs located? • Located in the head • Special senses: sight, hearing, taste, smell and equilibrium 6. What is perception? • Our interpretation of a sensation 7. What is sensory adaptation? • If a stimulus continues over a regular span of time, perception is TURNED DOWN, a process called sensory adaption 8. What is the sensor for body position? • Muscle spindlesà type of muscle fiber that has sensory nerve endings wrapped around them that sretch to help maintain muscle tone and maintain position in space 9. When do the touch receptors transmit signals? • When they are deformed 10. Which type of receptor senses the extreme temperatures? • Pain receptorsà free nerve endings found in skin, joints, bone, and blood vessels 11. What is referred pain? • Damage to internal organs often manifests itself as pain in a different area of the body 12. What are the taste receptors called? • Taste budsà located in papilla and about 100-200 in each papilla • In total, 10,000 taste buds 13. How many taste cells are there in a taste bud? • 25 taste cells in each taste bud 14. What is the term for the smell receptors? • Olfactory receptors: respond to smells 15. What kind of receptors are in the ear? • Mechanoreceptorsà one set senses sound waves, one set provides info on position of head (helps maintain balance) 16. What is the fluid-filled tube responsible for hearing? • Cochlea 17. Which cells helps us to hear sounds of different frequencies? • Inner hair cells 18. Which part of the eye is inflamed in viral eye infections and for the lens users? • Cornea 19. What is the muscle that adjusts the pupil? What holds the lens in place? What is its function? • Iris: muscle that adjusts the pupil • Cilary muscles hold the lens in place, they also pull on and flatten the lens so eye can see objects far away 20. What is the cataract? • When lens become cloudy b/c its proteins become malformed 21. What part of the eye is modified in LASIK surgery? • Cornea 22. What are the photoreceptor cells? Which is responsible for the black and white vision in the dark, and which for the color vision? • Photoreceptor cells: rods and cones • Rods: very sensitive and function in night vision • Cones: record color and detail The Endocrine System 1/20/16 9:40 PM Practice Questions 1. What are the two main types of hormones? Which of them can diffuse through the membrane? • Lipid and protein hormones o Lipid-soluble hormones can pass through cell’s plasma membrane 2. What are the main glands of endocrine system? Make organs with other functions that can secrete hormones. • Hypothalamus and pituitary gland 3. Which other gland does hypothalamus mostly control? • Hypothalamus secretes hormones that regulate pituitary gland 4. Which gland produces oxytocin and which one releases it? What are the effects of oxytocin? • Hypothalamus produces oxytocin • Pituitary gland releases oxytocin • In malesà facilitate sexual behavior and transport of sperm • In femalesà stimulates the urine contractions of childbrith and milk ejection from the mammary glands 5. Which gland makes the growth hormone? What diseases are associated with growth hormone? • Pituitary gland synthesizes and secretes the growth hormone • Associated with gigantismà abnormallly high GH • Pituitary dwarfismà not enough GH 6. Which gland secretes prolactin and what effects does it have? • Pituitary gland secretes prolactin • Stimulates the mammary glands to produce milk 7. What other glands does pituitary affect? What are adrenal glands responsible for? Where are they located? How are the inside and outside of the adrenal gland called? Which hormones each of them secretes? • Pituitary effects thyroid, adrenal, and ovaries/testes • Adrenal Glands o Located at TOP of kidneys o responsible for fight or flight response, resistance, and exhaustion o inner region: Adrenal Medulla § secretes adrenaline (epinephrine), and noradrenaline (norepinephrine) o outer region: Adrenal Cortex § secretesà gonadocorticoids, glucocorticoids, and mineralocorticoids 8. Where are the hormone-secreting cells located in pancreas? Which hormones does pancreas secrete? • Hormone-secreting cells located in pancreatic islets in pancreas • Secretes glucagon and insulin 9. What causes diabetes mellitus? Which hormone is decreased in diabetes? Which hormones do thyroid and parathyroid glands secrete? How do they regulate the calcium level? • Abnormally high levels of glucose in blood • Insulin is decreased in diabetes mellitus • Thyroidà thyroid hormone and calcitonin • Parathyroidà parathyroid hormone o Increases levels of calcium in the blood 10. Which thyroid hormones require iodine for their synthesis? What causes goiter? • Goiterà results from a diet deficient in iodine 11. What causes the Graves disease? What are the symptoms of hypothyroidism? • Oversecretion of TH • Symptoms include increased metabolic rate and heart rate, protruding eyes from fluid accumulation, sweating, nervousness, and weight loss 12. What is melatonin and which gland produces it? What are the harmful effects of sleep deprivation? • Pineal gland • Promotes sleep, reduces jet lag, may slow aging • Effects of sleep deprivationà 13. Which hormones does thymus produce? What is the role of thymus? • Secretes thymosin and thymopoietinà promote maturation of T lymphocytes The Blood 1/20/16 9:40 PM Practice Questions 1. What kind of tissue is blood? • Connective tissue 2. What are the functions of blood? • Transports nutrients, oxygen, carbon dioxide, and metabolic wastes • Regulation of body temperature, water volume, pH, and fighting infections 3. How many liters of blood do we have? What proportion of blood loss is lethal? • 5 liters • loss of less than 1/3 of the blood volume 4. What is plasma? Which proteins does it contain? What is the function of albumins? • Yellowish liquid portion of blood • Proteinsà albumin, globulin, clotting factors • Albuminsà transport materials in the blood that are NOT water soluble, maintain tissue water balance by preventing the osmotic flow of water from the blood to the solute-rich body tissues 5. Which cell does blood contain? Are platelets cells? • Red and white blood cells • Platelets are cell pieces that make the blood clot 6. What is serum? • Plasma without clotting factors 7. Where are the new blood cells born and how is this process called? • Born from stem cells in the bone marrow of the long bones • Process is hematopoiesis 8. What is the function of erythrocytes? Do they have organelles? • Red blood cells that transport oxygen • Lack a nucleus and other organelles 9. Which protein in erythrocytes transports oxygen? • Erythropoietin 10. Which metal binds oxygen in hemoglobin? How does the color of hemoglobin change if oxygen is released? • Iron • If oxygen is released, the color of hemoglobin becomes purple 11. What is the function of leucocytes? Do they have organelles? • White blood cells that attack invading organisms and remove toxins, wastes, and damaged cells throughout the body • Contain a full range of organelles 12. Which cell do the platelets originate from and where is it located? • Come from megakaryocytes in the bone marrow 13. Which organ secretes the hormone for increase in production of erythrocytes? What is this hormone’s name? • kidneys • hormone is erythropoietin 14. What are the blood groups? Which blood type individual can accept any type of blood? • Blood groups are A, B, AB, and O • AB can accept any type of blood 15. What is the name of the reaction that occurs when the blood is mismatched? • Agglutination 16. What is the Rh factor? Which combination of the Rh of mother and fetus is problematic? • Rh factor is that a person with the Rh protein is Rh+ and someone without the molecule is Rh- • Anyone can receive Rh- blood but Rh+ blood transfused into an Rh- recipient may cause agglutination • An Rh+ fetus mixed with Anti-Rh antibodies may pass into fetus’ blood and cause blood cells to burst 17. How long do erythrocytes live? • 4 months 18. Where are the old erythrocytes recycled? • Liver and spleen 19. Which protein makes a net for blood clotting? • Collagen/fibrin The Cardiovascular System 1/20/16 9:40 PM Practice Questions 1. What are the components of the cardiovascular system? • Vascular system, the heart, and the blood 2. What are the components of circulatory system? • Lymphatic and cardiovascular system 3. What are the functions of the circulatory system? • Moving fluids, nutrients, hormones, salts, and dissolved gasses throughout the body • Exchanging these substances with body tissues 4. What are the types of the blood vessels in circulatory system? • Arteries • Veins • Capillaries 5. What are the layers of the large blood vessels walls? How are the smaller blood vessels called and how are their wall different? • Elastic tissue and smooth muscles make up the walls • Arteriolesà smallest arteries, lack elasticity bt are encircled by smooth muscle 6. What is vasoconstriction and vasodilation? • Vasconstrictionà reduces diameter to reduce blood flow and increase pressure • Vasodilationà increases flow and reduces blood pressure 7. What is the pulse? • Wave of blood • Used to measure heart rate 8. What are the names of the largest artery and the largest vein? • Largest artery is aorta • Largest veins are inferior vena cava and superior vena cava 9. What is the inside of the capillaries lined with? • Single layer of endothelium 10. What happens at capillary beds? Why does liquid come out? Where does it enter back? • Capillary bedsà exchange of gases, wastes, nutrients between blood stream and the body • Higher pressure at the arterial end forces material out • Venous end of the capillary, osmosis pulls water inside 11. Why does the blood accumulate in veins? What is the difference between veins and arteries walls? What proportion of blood is there? • Blood accumulates b/c it collects blood from the capillaries • Veins have thin, non-elastic walls that are stretchy • 2/3 of the body’s blood 12. What happens with veins during exercise? • Veins constrict during exercise 13. How is the backflow of blood in veins prevented? • Valves close to prevent regurgitation of blood into the ventricles 14. What is the respiratory pump? • Breathing movements help move blood through veins 15. What are the components of the lymph? Where does the lymphatic fluid come from? • Lymph capillaries and lymph ducts • From tissues and white blood cells 16. What is the blood pressure? • Force of blood against arterial walls 17. Which factors can contribute to hypertension? • Excess salt intake, psychological stress, genetics and obesity 18. What happens to arteries in atherosclerosis? • Plaque within artery walls causes high blood pressure 19. What are the systolic and diastolic pressures? • Systolic pressureà as pressure in the cuff is reduced, blood enters the artery and makes a sound • Diastolic pressureà the cessation of sounds indicates the artery is fully open 20. What is the aneurysm? • Hypertension increases this risk • A bulge in a blood vessel that may rupture and cause disability or death 21. What are the risks associated with the high blood pressure? What is the difference between thrombus and embolus? • Hypertension, thrombus (large accumulation of material inside a blood vessel), high blood pressure can dislodge a thrombus producing an embolus (floating mass) that can cause a blood vessel, blocked blood vessels that serve brain can result in a stroke 22. How many pumps does the heart consist of? What is the name of the wall that separates them? • Two pumps • Septum 23. What are the two chambers of each pump? With which valves are they connected? • Atrium is thin-walled and ventricle is thick-walled • Atrioventricular valves connect the atra and ventricles of both sides of the heart 24. Which valves prevent the backflow of blood in the heart? • Semilunar valves 25. What can a heart murmur indicate? • Indicate valve disease 26. What are the pulmonary and systemic circuits? • Pulmonary circuità moves blood between the lungs and the heart • Systemic circuità takes oxygenated blood from the heart and pumps it to the rest of of the body 27. What is the name of the heart muscle? What is the coronary circulation? • Myocardium • Coronary circulationà provides blood to the heart muscle itself 28. What causes myocardial infarction? What condition usually precedes the myocardial infarction? • If plaque blocks a coronary artery 29. What condition usually precedes a cardiac arrest? • Unusual heart rhythm known as arrhythmia 30. What is angioplasty? • Susing a stent to prop open the walls 31. Where do the new blood vessels come from in a coronary bypass surgery? • May come from the patient, or may be a synthetic or hybrid vessel from a synthetic scaffold The Immunity System 1/20/16 9:40 PM Practice Questions 1. What are the three lines of defense against infection? • Physical and chemical surface barriers • Internal cellular and chemical defenses • Adaptive immune response 2. What is the first line of defense based on? • Innate response, keep foreign organisms and molecules otu 3. What cells is the second line of defense based on? • Innate response • Attack any foreign organism or molecule that has gotten past the surface barriers 4. How do macrophages and neutrophils fight microbes? • Engulf pathogens 5. What is the function of eosinophils? Natural killer cells? • Attack pathogens that are too large for phagocytosis • Natural killer cells kill abnormal cells, including cancer cells 6. Which cells release histamine? What does histamine cause? Why does the infected tissue swell? • Basophils and mast cells • Histamine promotes inflammation • Delivers defensive cells and removes dead cells and toxins b/c blood vessels dilate 7. What are pyrogens? • Causes fevers • Chemicals that reset the brain’s thermostat to a higher temperature 8. What are the cell of adaptive immune system? • Lymphocytes o B lymphocytes o T lymphocytes 9. What are antigens? • Nonsef substance or organism that triggers an immune response 10. What are the two classes of lymphocytes? Which class secretes antibodies? Which class attacks infected cells? In which organs are the B and T lymphocytes produced? • T cells and B cells • B cells secrete antibodies • T killers of T cells kill cells infected by viruses • Produced in bone marrow 11. How many antigen-binding sites does an antibody have? What is the other term for antibodies? • 1à they only bind to a specific antigen • immunoglobulins 12. Does antibody bind to a specific antigen or any antigen? • Specific antigen 13. Make examples of autoimmune diseases. • Multiple sclerosis, insulin-dependent diabetes, lupus, and Rheumatoid arthritis 14. What is the mechanism of vaccinations? • Injections made up of some harmless part of a disease-causing organism • Causes immune response and memory cells are stored to respond to the same infection in the future 15. What are memory B and T cells? • Long-lived cells that remember the invader and mount a quick response when it is next encountered 16. Which cells are antigen-presenting cells and what do they present antigens to? • Dendritic cells and macrophages • Present antigens to T cell 17. What happens if an antigen on antigen-presenting cells matches the receptor on a T-lymphocyte? • If an antigen matches the receptor • Immune system attacks normal body cells resulting in autoimmune response 18. Which cells does HIV attack? • Helper T cells which activate all the immune system cells Infectious Diseases 1/20/16 9:40 PM Practice Questions 1. What are pathogens? What proportion of world deaths are caused by pathogens? • Disease-causing organisms • 1/3 of deaths 2. What are the three shapes of bacteria? • Rod shaped (bacilli) • Spherical (cocci) • Spiral (spirochetes) 3. What are the bacterial cells missing comparing to eukaryotic cells? What do they have that eukaryotic cells don’t? • lacking membrane-bound organelles • cell wall 4. Where do the antibiotic resistance genes usually located in bacteria? • On plasmids 5. Which cells are smaller: bacterial or mammalian? • Bacteria 6. What are bacterial flagellum and pili for? • Locomotion and transfer of materials 7. How often do bacteria divide? • Doubles about every 20 minutes 8. How do bacteria cause diseases? • Cause an infection that uses nutrients from cells, thus preventing the cell from functioning normally 9. What anaerobic bacteria can cause paralysis? • Botulism 10. What disease is caused by bacteria that lives in soil? • Tetanus 11. What are the benefits of normal flora? • Competes with pathogenic organisms which prevents them from colonizing the intestinal tract 12. Can viruses replicated without host? • No 13. Which nucleic acid can a virus have in its genome? What is the viral capsid? • DNA or RNA • Viral capsid is the protein coat surrounding the virus 14. How does virus kill the cell? • Causes the cell to burst 15. What type of virus causes common cold? • Rhinovirus 16. Which disease does Epstein-Barr virus cause? • Mononucleosis 17. Why is it more difficult to treat infections caused by eukaryotic organisms? • Cells are more similar to human cells, harder to detect 18. Make an example of a fungal infection. • Athlete’s foot, joke itch 19. What are prions: bacteria, viruses or proteins? • Proteins 20. What is the vector for infection? • Intermediate organism
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