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Music Appreciation (MU 100) entire class notes

by: Brandon Alvarado

Music Appreciation (MU 100) entire class notes MU 100

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Notes of the entire semester of MU 100. Helps with every test.
Music Appreciation
Stuart Dameron
Study Guide
Music, MU 100
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This 81 page Study Guide was uploaded by Brandon Alvarado on Wednesday January 20, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to MU 100 at Colorado State University taught by Stuart Dameron in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 63 views. For similar materials see Music Appreciation in Music at Colorado State University.


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Date Created: 01/20/16
Music Appreciation Notes 09/01/2015 ▯ The Musical Language (learning to listen through the understanding of musical elements)  Texture o A term used to describe the sound aspects of a piece of music o This may include  # of parts  how they fit together  how they sound/are played  volume  other characteristics  warm, thin, full, etc.  Melody o A series of pitches organized into a recognizable line o Pitch= a single musical sound (only 12 pitches in western music) o Another word used for melody Is Phrase  Musical “sentence”  With OR without words  Harmony o The use of simultaneous pitches (notes) to create chords  Chords- three or more notes played together o Often supports a melody line  Dynamics (how loud or soft something is) o The volume of music o Crescendo-to gradually get louder o Decrescendo- the gradually get softer pp p mp mf f f Very soft soft med. Soft med loud loud very loud Pianissimo piano mezzopiano mezzoforte forte fortissimo o Dynamic scale (no set numbers)(itailian)  Tempo o The speed at which a piece of music is played o more then one tempo= tempi o most commonly, specific Italian words are used to describe tempo o tempo examples  grave- slow, solem  largo- very slow  adagio- slow  andante- “walking”  moderato-moderate  allegretto-slightly less than allegro  allegro- fast, “merry”, “lively”  vivo/vivace- “lively”, “brisk”  presto- Very fast  Articulation o A. legato= smooth, but separated o B. staccato= short, detached o C. slurred= connected, often through a phrase o D. accent= stressed, emphasized  Rhythm o the flow of music through time (includes the beat or pulse of the music)  Meter o The number of beats of every measure of music o 2 beats= duple meter o 3 beats= Triple meter (can you waltz to it?) o Diferent meters (time signature) 4 2 3 6 5 7 4 4 4 8 4 4 o In writing, use 4/4, 2/4, 3/4, 6/8, etc….. or use the above terms o How to find the meter  Tap the beat of the piece  Listen for the downbeat or first beat of every measure  Often more emphasized or accented than other beats  Count how many beats between downbeats- that’s the meter o Mixed meter- multiple diferent beat groupings in the same piece  Syncopation- accenting weak beats or parts of beats  Text o A. text/lyrics (interchangeable) o Lines of poetry creat a stanze o Chorus/refrain- repeating section that returns between versus o Common classical song forms  Strophic- same music, diferent text  Ex: hymns  Modified strophic- repeated but sections vary  Through composed-continuous no repetition  Timbre (tam-bur) o The quality of sound (tone quality) o Used to describe individual voices or instruments o Largely determined by acoustical construsction of the instrument (Instrument families) o Use descriptive adjectives to describe the timbre of a sound  Rough, brittle, dark, pure, clean  Form o How a piece of music is constructed o A=main theme, B= contrasting theme o Some classical examples  Binary- AB or AABB  Ternary- ABC  Rondo- ABACADA  Similar to verse/chorus  AABA- Sing form or 32-bar form  12-bar blues (three 4-bar segments)  Motion in music o All music contains a sense of forward energy o Use of tension- an unstable feeling that drives the music forward to points of relative stability  Requires resolution after tension resolves it self  Tension  Complex loud  Modulation(key change)  Less comfortable  Dissonance- unstable, restless sound  Resolution  Simple  Soft  Return to original key  More comfortable  Consonance- stable, comfortable sound  Melodic Growth and character o Cadence- a point of repose or rest at the end of a musical phrase o Motive- the smallest group of notes having an identifiable character  Not necessarily melodic- can be harmonic or rhythmic  Basis for development and growth  New section= new motive  ▯ ▯ ▯ Instruments and ensembles  Instruments o Grouped by family o Can be found in multiple genres and styles o Some easier to identify than others o Classification determined primarily by sound production and acoustical construction  Voices o Soprano(highest) o Alto o Tenor o Baritone o Bass(deepest)  String Family (vibration of strings) o Violin  Smallest/highest string instrument  Bow drawn across strings or plucked  Wood, steel strings- bow: horse hair o Viola  Larger than violin  Often plays the middle notes o Cello  End pin  Often plays bass line but can also play melodies o Double bass  Lowest/largest range in string family  Player stands or sits on stool o Guitar (not standard orchestra)  Acoustic vs amplified  Permeates many genres  6-12 strings- chords o Harp  46-47 strings  80 pounds  Uses pedals to alter the key center o Woodwind Family  Also organized by range  All originally made of wood (not so today)  Use air to create sound  Flute  Highest pitched woodwind  Ribbon of air passes over a hole  Originally made of wood  Now made of silver or gold  Vibrant, brilliant tone- often heard as melody line  Oboe  2nd highest-ranged woodwind instrument  made of wood  uses a double reed  lower aux: English horn  Bright, somewhat buzzy tone quality  Clarinet  Middle range instrument  Uses a single reed  Dense blackwood, ebonite or plastic  Aux: alto, bass clarinet  Smooth and mellow tone – can play melody or harmony  Bassoon  Lowest voice in woodwind family  Double reed  Bocal (mouthpiece)  Deep, buzzy, resonant tone – often plays harmonic lines, also bass lines  Aux: contrabassoon  Saxophone  Youngest of the woodwind instruments  Only woodwind made of brass  Mostly used in jazz  Found in orchestra after 1840s  Aux: Soprano, alto, tenor, bari o Brass Family  Vibration of lips into a cone/bowl-shaped mouthpiece  Trumpet  Smallest/highest of the brass instruments  Three valves- change the length of brass tubing  Brilliant, prominent tone quality  Versatile- prominent in classical and jazz music  Aux: Piccolo trumpet and flugelhorn  (French) Horn  12 feet of tubing  bell faces musician- right hand is inside  rotary valves  mellow sound – blends well with other orchestral sounds  No auxiliary instruments  Trombone  Only brass instrument that does not use valves  Prominent in classical and jazz  Aux: Alto, tenor (primary), Bass  Tuba  Largest/lowest member of brass family  Aux: Sousaphone, Euphonium- often subbed for trombone o The percussion family  Diverse variety  “percussionist” vs “drummer”  Definite pitch = plays a true note  Timpani (kettle drum)  Bells  Marimba- wood  Xylophone- wood  Vibraphone- metal  Glockenspiel- Metal, highest range  Indefinite pitched= plays a noise, not a pitch  Cymbals  Snare Drum  Tambourine  Bass drum  Castanets  Gong  Maracas o The keyboard family  Organ, harpsichord, piano  Organ  14 century  forcing of air through pipes- bellows  capable of multiple timbres  manuals  Stops  Foot petals  Pipe, organ, electronic organ, water organ  Church music, jazz, baseball games  Harpsichord (developed in 1500s)  Commonly found in baroque music  Strings plucked by quill of a feather – plectrum  Not capable of dynamics  Often two manuals- soft and loud  Piano  Originally named the “pianoforte”  Capable of dynamic contrast  Larger keyboard range (8 octaves)  Single manual  Upright or 9-foot grand  Three pedals o Soft pedal (una corda) shifts hammers to the side o Sostenuto pedal- allows sustain of some notes whist playing others o Damper pedal (sustain)- Disengages dampers  Any instrument that has a keyboard  Played with hands  Multi-octave  Organized in half-steps – Western tuning  Orchestra o Symphony/philharmonic  Every family of instrument o String  No wind instruments  Wind Band (no string players) o Wind Ensemble o Began in military  Choir (only voices) o Often accompanied by piano ▯ ▯ Medieval Era 450-1450 CE  The beginning of western classical music o European/American Art Music o Greek Scholars  Pythagoras- 500 BCE  Ptolemy- 200 BCE  Aristotle  Plato o Influenced by Greek theory, not Greek practices  History of Western practice- Beginning of the Christian Era o Religious ritual(liturgy) of the Roman Catholic Church  Borrowed/adapted from Jewish synagogue servies  Cantor-chief solo singer  Antiphonal (responsorial) singing o Dominates first 1400 years th  Medieval period (middle ages) (up to mid 15 century)  Renaissance period (1450-1600) o Mainly vocal  Secular Music o Not notated o Often related to dancing  More metric/rhythmic  Use of instruments- condemned by the church  Frequently performed with other entertainment o Little surviving manuscripts o Also learned through oral tradition(memory) o Instruments  Primitive  Pre-cursors to our modern instruments  No longer regularly used today o Troubadours  Poet-composers  Rock stars of the 1300’s  Occitan/ Old French: trobar= “to compose a song”, “to invent”  Aristocratic sponsorship o Jeu de Robin et de Marion  Musical play  No proven connection to robin hood and maid marian  Liturgy of early churches varied greatly o Chant was the main musical style of religious music  Boys choirs  Schools  5 -7 centuries  Pope Gregory I (ca. 540-604) o Major musical reform o Wrote mainly of his own chants o Gregorian Chant o Legend: Holy Spirit in form of a dove dictated melodies to him  Gregorian Chant o Latin o Monophonic texture- one line of music o Short o Originally without instruments o Unmetered/no regular accent o Earliest chants not notated o Composed anonymously- “God is the composer” o Text can be given two diferent settings  Syllabic- one note per syllable  Mellismatic- multiple notes per syllable o Melody shape is fairly flat o Scale patterns derived from modes  Half-steps/whole-steps  Pre-dates Major/Minor scales we know today o Functional music  Notation o Developed Mid 9 Century o System of visual symbols  Aid singer’s memory  Specify pitches  Neumes o 13 century- notation advances to show both pitch and rhythm  still used today  Hildegard von Bingen o German abbess o Writer, herbalist, artist, visionary o Earliest female composer o Founded her own convent o Wrote numerous chants o Sung by women  Style  Similar to chant  Fluid rhythmic/no rhythm  Latin  Increased melodic range- women’s voices  Polyphonic music o 9 -13 century th fundamental changes o 11 century- second melodic line added to chant  harmony  Polyphonic texture- two or more melodies with diferent/ contrasting rhythms  Renaissance 1450-1600 CE o A rebirth/shift in thinking… o Church losing power  Corruption  Bubonic plague (black plague)- 1347  The Canterbury Tales- Chaucer  Lutheran Reformation- 1517  Church of England- 1534 o Inventions  Printing press- 1450  Gutenberg Bible  Dissemination of knowledge (including music)  The compass  Gunpowder o Arts  Visual  Michelangelo  Raphael  El Greco  Science  Leonardo Da Vinci  Literature  William Shakespeare o Architecture- Gothic o Humanism- ideal of the human spirit and the importance of education and moral law o Era of learning, philosophy and artists  Shift church -> Courts/Civic life/Aristocracy  First professional composers/performers o Changes in music  Both sacred and secular  Increased polyphony  Ars Nova (“New Art”) in France  New rhythmic symbols  Time signatures  Instruments become more prominent  16 C: first pieces written specifically for instruments  Choral and Vocal Music o Three choral genres established:  Mass  Part of catholic liturgy  Comprised of multiple sections of specific text, recited in a specific order  Proper- varies according to season/event  Ordinary- never changes  Low mass- priests intones or recites prayers  High mass- liturgy sung by a choir  Motet  Sacred polyphonic work  New words- not part of the catholic liturgy- sometimes in vernacular  Latin+ vernacular  A cappella- without accompaniment/instrument  Trathed singers  13 C= three parts  Renaissance (15 C) = four to six parts  Polychoral motets- multiple choirs  Madrigal  Secular vocal chamber music  Vernacular  Four or five parts- one singer to a part  Topics: love, the countryside, death  Italy and England  Court festivities  Social gatherings  Composers free from the constraints of the church  Word painting- mimicking the text by the musical line  Imitation  Instruments of the Renaissance o Primitive o Used minimally compared to later historical periods o Dance o Accompanying/doubling voices o Gradually gain prominence through the era  Lyre (string)  U-shaped instrument  Cousin of the harp  Plucked strings  One of the “oldest” instruments  Mesopotamia 3000 BCE  Lute (string)  Most popular renaissance instrument  Cousin of the guitar  Middle eastern origin  Oud  Arabian lute  Vielle (string)  Predecessor to the violin  Larger version eventually become viola cello and double bass  Five strings (as opposed to four today)  Shawm (wind)  Predecessor to the oboe  Louder  Double-reed  Made of one piece of wood  Crumhorn (wind)  Double reed  Wind-cap  Curved lower end  Consort- group of varying instruments played together  Recorder (wind)  Wood  Largely unchanged today  Elementary music classes  Mouthpiece- fipple  Similar to flute  Sacbut  Early trombone  Smaller bell  Not as loud as modern trombones but one of the loudest renaissance instruments  Frequently used in cathedrals to support choirs  Virginal (keyboard)  Smaller, rectangular version of the harpsichord  Plucked strings  Meant for amateur players in the home  Hurdy Gurdy (string)  Stringed instrument  Crank handle turns a rosined wheel  Similar to a boe  Drone strings  Often interchangeable with bagpipes  Notable composers o Josquin Desprez (c. 1440-1521)  Franco-Flemish court musician/ composer  Prestigious positions in France/Italy  Most successful with motets  Emotional expression- humanist ideals  Kyrie o Giovanni Pierluigi da Palestrina  Choirmaster/composer- Rome  Mostly sacred works  “the savior of polyphony”- counter reformation  shift from modal writing to major-minor tonality  first style in history to be consciously preserved and imitated o ▯ ▯ The Baroque Era 1600-1750 CE  Transition into the Baroque Era o Protestant Reformation – 1517  Martin Luther  Church of England- 1534  Counter-Reformation  Council of Trent o Ancient Greek Revival  Florentine Camerata  Staged dramas  Monody- solo singing with accompaniment  Birth of Opera o Cultural Characteristics  Emphasis on the dramatic/emotional  Pomp and splendor  Aristocratic courts  Protestant Church firmly established  Beginnings of opera o Musical Characteristics  Instrumentalists more proficient  Texture  Homophony- diferent pitches, same rhythm- one predominant melody  Major- minor tonal system  Continuo  Bass- bass line  Keyboard- improvised harmony based on chord symbols  Figured bass- musical shorthand using numbers to identify chord tones  Word painting  Continued/expanded from the Renaissance  Contrasts  Voices vs. instruments  Loud vs. soft  Sudden, not gradual- terraced dynamics  A section vs. B section  Small group vs. large group  Steady pulse vs. recitative  Vivaldi- the four seasons OP. 8 (spring)- Mvt. I –Allegro o Instruments  Equal importance as the voice  Orchestras  No standard set of instruments  Not as large/loud/varied  Strings + trumpets, flutes and oboes  Lute, harpsichord, organ  Fortepiano o Musical forms and genres  Opera  First Operas- 1600 Italy  Developed for several reasons  Interests in Greek tragedies  Florentine Camerata  Word Painting  Homophony  Aria and recitative  Recitative  Free Rhythm  Minimal accompaniment  Opera- moves story along  Aria  Metric/metered  Melodic  More song-like  Orchestral Works  Concerto- instrumental solo with orchestra  Concerto Grosso- small group (2 or 3) with orchestra  Three movements- fast, slow, fast o Slow movement in contrasting key  French Overture (opening)  Opening to an opera- king’s entrance  Two sections, each played twice  Homophonic, majestic  Faster, polyphonic, imitation  Dance Suite  Set of contrasting dance movements  Orchestra keyboards  Four main dance used  Allemande- Germany- 4/4 moderate  Courante- France- ¾ quick  Sarabande- Spain- ¾ slow  Gigue- England- 6/8 fast  Format was flexible- other dances  Often performed in concert without actual dancing  Chamber Music  Solo instruments playing in a small ensemble  Sonata- Multi-movement work for a solo instrument and continuo (accompaniment)  Solo sonata  Trio Sonata- two soloists and continuo  Keyboard works  Harpsichord  Toccata, prelude, Fantasia  Single movement works  Fogue  Compositional technique  May be used within any composition  Imitative contrapuntal form built on one of two themes o Theme stated alone o Restated in a second “voice” while first voice has new music o Subject stated in a third voice, other voices interplay, etc…  Highest form of Baroque polyphonic music  Choral Music o Cantata  Multi-movement choral work  Accompaniment  Lutheran worship services  Chorales-Congregational participation o Oratorio  Multi-movement choral work  Accompaniment  Longer then cantata  Like opera but no sets/props/costumes-“concert version  Opera banned during lent ▯ The Classical Period (1750-1830)  Classical Music- synonym for all of western art music  Classical Period- “specific” set of dates within western art music  Transition- the 18 century o Balance of power- centralized states  France, Britain, Austro- Hungarian Empire, Prussia  Poland Divided  American revolution (1755-83)/French Revolution (1789) o Economic Expansion  Improved agriculture/manufacturing/trade = growing urban middle class o Education/literacy improves  New Schools founded  Daily newspapers in London (1702)  Novels most popular form of literature  The Enlightenment o Themes: reason, nature, and progress o Pursuit of truth o Natural Law- individuals had rights o Individual faith and morality over the church o Universal Education  Encyclopedia- Diderot  Music in Society o Musical amateurs and connoisseurs o Public concerts o New Music- Increased output o First Journals and histories about music  Musical Characteristics o Preference for the “natural” o Emotional restraint o Balance and clarity o Clear and precise formal structure o Simplicity/symmetry o The new gallant style:  Singable melody  Sparse accompaniment  More homophonic  Uncomplicated and predictable rhythms  Tonal structure more audible/ clear  More frequent cadences- arrival points in the piece  Instruments o Solidification of the orchestra o Absolution of continuo and figured bass o Pianoforte surpasses harpsichord in popularity o String quartet, piano trio, piano quintet, etc.  Most notable composers o Franz Joseph Haydn (1732-1809) o Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart (1756-1791) o Ludwig von Beethoven (1770-1827)  Genres o Instrumental- multi-movement works (continued from baroque period)  Symphony- multi-movement work for orchestra  Born from Italian overtures- sinfonia  Concerto  Sonata  Chamber Works  Vocal/choral  Opera dominated  Oratorios, masses, other sacred works still composed o Typical multi-movement format  I. Fast: Sonata-Allegro form  Four sections  1. Exposition- introduces two themes, often with a bridge connecting the two o repeated  2. Development- two themes are expanded into larger melodic and harmonic material o instability/experimentation  3. Recapitulation- “restatement” of the material that was presented in the exposition o return to stability  4. Coda- the ending, consisting of new, previously unheard music. A musical tagline  II. Slow: ABA or theme and Variations form  Begins with a statement or theme  Can be varied in many diferent ways  Tempo  Dynamics  Articulation  Tonality  Instrumentation  Texture  III. Dance: minuet (or scherzo) and trio  Two parts  Brief and repetitious  Always in ¾ time  Minuet-two brief section, 8 bars each  Each section is repeated  Trio- originally played by only three players  Also two repeating sections  Minuet section returns at the end  IV. Fast: Rondo or sonata form ▯ The romantic period nineteenth century  The transition o Ludwig von Beethoven (1770-1827)  Virtuoso pianist/composer  Romantic  Highly afected by the French Revolution  New level of drama, expression and struggle – reflects his life  Rule-breaker – redefined what listeners expected o The new order  European landscape changing  French Revolution/Napoleonic wars  Liberty, equality, brotherhood and national identity o Decline of aristocratic patronage  Musicians now free agents o Middle-class music making o The new piano  Increased availability- lower costs  Design improvements  Ideal for the home o Amateur publishing boom- musical requirements  Accessible and appealing  Beautiful melody, striking harmony, small forms  Evocative titles, national or exotic associations  Romanticism o Derived from medieval romance poems- King Arthur/Charlemagne o Reaction/rebellion against former ideas:  Science/technology- past, myth, dreams, the supernatural/irrational  Urban life – looked to nature for refuge, inspiration, revelation  Efect on Art o Before (classical)  Elegant, natural, simple, clear o After (romantic)  Original, interesting, evocative, individual, expressive, extreme o Breakdown of musical forms/genres o New styles emerge  Based on emotional or functional purpose rather than structure  Changes in Musical life o The Virtuoso- touring solo performers  Celebrities with God-like status  Throngs of audience members attending their concerts  Franz Liszt- piano  Changes to music o Lyrical “romantic” melodies o Chromaticism- using all 12 pitches of Western music  Standard major scale plus 5 additional sharp or flat notes  All the black and white keys on a piano o Increased dissonance- tonal center less clear o Highly emotional, strong contrasts, unexpected chords, long build-ups to exciting climaxes o Complex rhythms that are syncopated and irregular  Syncopated- music played on the of-beats or do not fall on the main numbered beats o Bigger and more varied orchestras  Romantic music styles o Multi-movement works still used o Very flexible models o Longer phrases, cadences less clear o Program music  Music that is about a person place idea or story  Depicts a mood, image or character  Self-expression through music  Not a new idea  Significant counter-reactions o Symphonic poem  Work for orchestra  One movement  Relatively short- 15-30 minutes in length  Conveys a poetic idea, story, scene, or moods through the use of musical themes  Nationalism o Showing pride in ones country of origin through music o Inclusion of folk songs, national anthems, or indigenous melodies or rhythms into major chamber or symphonic works o Sparked in part by French revolution  Die Moldau  Second movement describes Czech Republic’s great river  Uses tone painting- music to describe the literal aspects of a piece  Exoticism o The evocation of foreign lands and cultures o Opposite of nationalism o Japan opens borders- 1868  The Mikado- Gilbert and Sullivan  Madama Butterfly/Turandot- Puccini o Series of world fairs throughout the 1800’s o Frederic Chopin  Miniatures- short, one movement piano compositions o Mazurka No. 5 in B flat Major  Polish folk dance popular in Parisian balls  ¾ time with accent on beat two  Uneven tempo- twirling/lifting dancers o Carmen- Georges Bizet  Opera  French composer- French language  Set in Seville, Spain  Main character: seductive, rebellious Romani gypsy woman  Habanera  Set to the rhythm of a Cuban dance  Absolute music o Developed out of a strong reaction to program music o Music’s purpose+ imagination and expression o Emancipation for the listener o “Music for Music’s sake” o Johannes Brahms (1833-1897)  Born in Germany- moved to Vienna at 30  Traditionalist- devoted to principles of Sonata- Allegro form  Romantic emotional expression with a classical approach to formal organization  Symphony NO. 4 in E minor, Op. 98, III. Allegro giocoso o Richard Wagner(1813-1883)  German composer- primarily opera- self taught  Music critic/journalist  Beethoven’s 9 symphony= “path to the future”  Music, drama, poetry, and stage work are equally important in art- Gesamtkunstwerk (“total work of art”)  Used specific melodies and motives to convey certain moods- leitmotifs  Similar to a symphonic poem  Designed his own opera house- Bayreuth, Germany  Orchestra pit extended below the stage  Dimmable lights  Still active today  The Ring Cycle  Wagner’s most colossal work- 20 years tom complete  Cycle of four dramas- over 19 hours of music  Premiere lasted four evenings  “flight of the Valkyries”  Incidental Music o Music meant to accompany a play or the theater o Often presented in-concert as stand-alone pieces o Modern equivalent: Movie soundtracks o Examples  The Nutcracker- Tchaikovsky  “Wedding March” from A midsummer Night’s Dream- Mendelssohn  ▯ The 20 century  Reflection of the society in which it was created  Composers not easily classified  Avant-garde- experimental music at the forefront of the development of the new and unconventional musical styles  Technology opens windows/ changes our perspectives  Many composers created music not for general public  Ironic- speaks th a contthporary language to an audience that prefers the 18 and 19 century music  General Characteristics o Divers and complex o Every conceivable medium o Orchestra still around o Chromaticism o Push boundaries of tonality o Emphasis of timbre and rhythm rather than the melody and harmony  Impressionism o Began by French painters o Reaction against German Expressionism/Wagner o Delicate sonorities and subtle shadings rather than massive sounds and dramatic contrasts o Sensuous, beautiful, seldom harsh  Claude Debussy (1862-1918) o Prelude to the afternoon of a Faun o Claire de Lune  Ocean’s eleven – fountain scene  Igor Strcinsky (1882-1971) o Russian born- also lived in Switzerland, France and US o Became US citizen in 1945 o Experimental o Rite of Spring  Ballet  Violent beginning of spring and tribal sacrifice  Rioting at the premiere  Neoclassicism o Style of modern composition o Based on forms/structures of the past o Particular the aesthetics and musical values of the Classical era  Arnold Schoenberg (1874-1951) o Born in Austria o Professor of composition in Berlin – 1925 o Moved to US o Serialism (12-tone style of composition based on a tone-row of 12 pitches)  Pushing boundaries o John Cage (1912-1992)  Silence – 4’33”  All sound and silence is music  No such thing as silence  Change music- imaginary landscape No.4  Loss of control  Performer participates in creative process ▯ ▯ World Music  What? o Non-western art music/popular music o Music that comes from the ethnic roots of the society or culture o Cross-cultural music or crossover music  Why? o To better understand our own culture and music o Broadening our horizons o Not to change tastes or habits  Acknowledgments o Developed vs. developing countries o Tradition, history and value o Regional diferences o Likes vs. dislikes  Natural bias o Our musical tastes shaped from birth o Difficult to respond favorably to unfamiliar music o Melody/rhythm (or “lack” thereof) o Much world music may sound familiar  Blending several styles of music o Classical and Jazz o Jazz and Latin o Latin and Asian o Classical and Latin  “world music” ceases to exclude any music  a more accurate title: o Cultural music: music that is shaped by an ethnic group or society o Modes, ethnic, scales, instruments, vocal techniques, etc.  Discussing/Analyzing Cultural Music: the 4 categories o 1. Function  purpose the music serves  entertainment  dancing  ceremonies  spiritual o 2. Notation  the use of symbols to represent aurally received music  fully notated, partially notated, or no notation whatsoever (aural tradition) o 3. Melody/Harmony  who is playing the melody?  are phrases long or short?  Does it have a smooth or leaping texture?  Is the melody filled with text or is it presented through few words or syllables?  Is there a connection to styles of melody with function?  Is it singable, chant-like. Simple complicated?  Scales used- Major/minor/pentatonic (black keys on keyboard)  Ornamentation with voices or instruments  Vocal techniques  Harmony  Does the melody have an accompaniment that is not produced by drums or other non-pitched instruments?  If it does, what does that say about the music and the culture it is from?  Does harmony indicate an advanced culuture? o 4. Rhythm  the flow of music through time  time signature( or is there a clear one?)  what instruments play the rhythm  what are the dominant rhythmic groupings?  is it complicated or simple?  is it dominant over harmony?  is there a constant rhythmic patterns?  Native American Music o Indigenous music of North America  Ironic that it is treated as world music- several reasons:  Diferences- culture, styles, instruments, etc.  Ignored by most Americans and Europeans  Of little consequence in development of music in American society  No recorded history  Many old songs have been lost  Each native people have their own culture, language, and music – cultural isolation  Cultures of Mexico and South America assimilated more quickly than North America and Canada  Style and Context  Highly functional/ritual – everyday life  Transmitted by oral tradition- no notation  Vocbales- carry no meaning  Singing- intense, earthy and harsh- pentatonic scale common  No harmony o Instruments  Drums  Seldom by itself- accompanied singers and/or dancers  Melody instruments rare- vertical flute, whistle, panpipes o Assimilation and preservation  Many Native Americans have entered “mainstream” America  Music has not influenced European-based music  Public events, intertribal ceremonies, pow wows help preserve culture  Ethnic Muthc in the United Stthes o 19 century->Early 20 Century – 35 million European Immigrants o 1900’s- recordings of folk music available o immigrants become acculturated o recorded companies able to provide music more pleasing to them  music from the deep south: blues, jazz, and hillbilly o Today: some music remains “ethnic”, some now mainstream  Reggae o Born mid 1950’s o Originated from Ska= R&B+ Mento+ Cuban Brass o Ska-> rocksteady-> reggae o Toasting- pre-cursor to rap/hip-hop o Hesitation beat- strong accent on the of beat- feeling of delay o Early connections to Rastafarianism/Black Power o Three factors made reggae popular in the U.S.  The film The Harder They Come (1972) STARRING JIMMY CLIFF  Chris Blackwell- Island Record Company- London  Bob Marley and the Wailers  Latin American Music o High Function in urban life o Call for celebration/pride/heritage o Strong roots in percussion o Four popular styles in the U.S.  Salsa, Bossa Nova, Tex-Mex, and Mariachi  Salsa  Dance music- afro-cuban style  Emerged 1970s  New synonymous with Latin Jazz  Ethnic pride- apolitical  Artists: Tito Puente, Celia Cruz, Willie Coon, Eddie Palmieri  Bosa Nova  Pop-jazz style- derived from Brazilian samba  First brought to US late 1950’s- internationally popular by early 1960s o Stan Getz and Charlie Byrd- visited brazil in early 1960’s  Classical guitar with percussion- syncopation  “heartbeat” rhythm  Tex-Mex (tejano) style  Mexican-based dance music  Working-class  Conjunto- accordion & bajo sexton (Mexican 12-string guitar)- modern groups usually add drums and sometimes alto sax  Ranchera-modern country/western style song  Corrido- More traditional story song or ballad  Song texts typically sentimental or superficial, not political  Mariachi  Traditional Mexican folk music  Today- Urban entertainment music- restaurants, performance halls, parades, folk festivals, weddings, parties o Instruments  Trumpet  Violin  Guitar  Vihuela  5 string high range guitar  Guitarron  Bass guitar  Music beyond the Americas o “non-western”- not necessarily far away from us o Music beyond “America,” but may still impact America’s music  Immigrants  Technology  Composers/artists  Increased access  Music in India o Not as distant/exotic as it may seem-  Years of imports  1960’s Beatnik/hippie movement in U.S.- fascination with Indian religion/philosophy  Ravi Shankar and others o Indian Classical Music  Style that Westerners know best  Highly developed, improvisatory and melodic  Harmony not valued  Two styles: Hindustani (North) and Karnatic (South)  Rasa- underlying aesthetic/mental basis  Instruments  Sitar- melody (somewhat related to guitar)  Tabla- rhythm and energy  Tambura- drone  Songs pre-composed but performed from memory  Organized using established melodic and rhythmic patterns – Raga/Tala  Musicians develops raga and tala through improvisation  Raga  Similar to a scale, but much more  Melodic shape, rather than a structure of pitches  Patterns, registrations, and ornamentations  Conveys the mood and aesthetic character  Tala  Organizes the rhythm  Pattern or cycle of counts, as well as subdivisions  Ex. 16(4+4+4+4) or 14(5+2+3+4)  Two or my cycles=phrase o Indian popular music  Cassette culture  Inexpensive- piracy  Films – hundreds each year  Films – hundreds each year  Success depends on male star, director and music  “MTV on the big screen”  “playback” singers – record music in advance  Bollywood – Bombay + Hollywood – (  Music in Japan o Modern japan(last 100 years) has embraced Western aesthetic musical values  Wide variety of tastes  Schools teach Western aesthetics o Traditional Japanese music very distinct/separate o Performance style/context  Performed in concert halls, theaters and courtyards  Screens – nature  Strong connection to visual and dramatic efects  Learned by memory o Music style  High, tight-throated, nasal vocal quality  Handclapping, drums, flutes  Small-group performances  Preservation of styles/tradition  Restraint and control o Musical characteristics  Narrow range of dynamics  Pentatonic scale (black keys on piano)  Nonexistent or incidental harmony  Delicate, nuanced timbres  Little to no improvisation o Instruments (sankyoku)  Koto (13 string plucked instrument)  Shakuhachi (like flute, in charge of melody  Shamisen (3 string plucked instrument, folk instrument of Japan) o Styles  Gagaku  Oldest documented orchestral music in the world  Imperial courts- 9 -11 centuries  Dance, masks, visual efects  Very static- blocks of sound – little forward movement  Kabuki  Theatre  Onstage music ensemble called the Nagauta  12 performers  Concert performers outside theater  Still popular today  Indonesian Music o SE Asia between Philippines and Australia o 100’s of ethnic groups- Indonesian is the official language, but there are over 200 o High level of diversity o Two main genres: Gamelan and Indonesian Pop o Gamelan music  Gongs, drums and metal mallet instruments  Recreation and entertainment  All sizes 4-30 players  Formal concerts rare  Non-western tuning system  Performed from memory  Not common in the US  New Zealand o Function- how can music be used to instill fear? o Haka  Traditional Maori tribal chant  Traditionally used before charging into battle  All blacks rugby team  Other functions  Multiple kinds of haka’s not all for fear  Celtic Music o NOT the music of the Celts o Two definitions come close:  Traditional music of Ireland, Scotland, Wales, and Brittany  A modern multinational music industry o Shares many traits with folk music (any country) o Instruments  Bouzouki- close cousin to guitar  Bodhran- drum  Uillean Pipes-  Guitars, fiddles, Celtic harps, flutes accordions, hurdy gurdys o American fascination started in 1993 by Voltswagen commercial  Album was in top charts for 55 weeks o In 1996 13 albums were released that contained Celtic in the title o Atlantic records created a CD line called “Celtic Heartbeat” o Irish and Celtic are overlapping but separate genres o ▯ Jazz  What is Jazz o American  Recognized worldwide o Widely divergent styles – entertainment to art music to avant- garde o Origins: Early 20 century  Radio/recordings o Never achieved mass popularity  Exception: the swing era o High level of musicianship  The feel of swing o Manner of performance o Swing rhythm  Uneven subdivision of beats  Long, short, long, short – 2:1 ratio common  Heighted energy and vitality o Melodies not played as written o Vibrato – usually wider  Big Band Instrumentation o Standard  Rhythm section  Piano  Bass  Drums  Brass section  4 trumpets  4 trombones  Woodwind Section  2 alto saxes  2 tenor saxes  1 baritone saxophone o Extended  Rhythm Section  Guitar  Vibraphone  Various percussion  Brass section  Flugelhorn  Tuba  Woodwind section  Flute  Clarinet  Soprano saxophone  Jazz combo o 3-5 players  more intimate o infinite arrangements, for example:  piano, sax, trumpet  piano, guitar, trumpet  piano, drums, bass  bass, sax, vibraphone  Jazz style o Improvisation  Making up music as you go along  Not written down  There is a structure  Ex. 12-bar blues o Walking Bass  Plays the root pitch of each chord  Plays the notes in between in a “walking” motion o Comping  Syncopated chords at irregular time intervals  Usually piano or guitar o Rifs  Short syncopated melodic patterns  Usually for groups of instruments (brass, saxes) o The head  The main melody (refrain) of a song  Used as a basis for solos (improve) o Typical song structure  Head>improve solos>head>ending  The roots of Jazz o Turn of the century (early 1900’s) o Southern U.S. – New Orleans  Large slave culture  Melting Pot of other nationalities  Lack of urbanization o 1900- what’s popular?  Vaudeville (theater)  Ragtime (piano)  Blues – female singers  Brass Bands/marches/parades  Gospel  Tin Pan Alley – New York  New Orleans Jazz o Traditional Jazz/Dixieland Jazz o Storyville  Bars, nightclubs, brothels  Closed down in 1917- “urban reform”  Many musicians left and traveled north  Chicago Jazz o Result of New Orleans musicians moving to urban centers o 1920’s o larger audiences o radio  New Orleans vs. Chicago jazz similarities o High energy/ rhythmic vitality o Solo instruments  Clarinet  Trumpet (cornet)  Trombone o Rhythm sections  Piano (banjo/guitar)  Bass (or tuba)  Drums o “head” arrangements – Not notated o Group improvisation – strict conventions o Rhythm section – timekeepers – no lead o Breaks (stop time)  All musicians stop except for one who improvs for 2 bars o Fills  Melodic movements and embellishments, often during a break  Solo or rhythms instruments  New Orleans vs. Chicago jazz diferences o Shift in instrumentation  Tuba replaced by the double bass  Guitar replaces banjo  Addition of saxophone  More energetic sound  Individual solos rather then group improv.  Artist Feature: Louis Armstrong o Illustrious career well into the 1960’s  Trumpet player, singer, actor, entertainer o “The Hot Five” and “The Hot Seven” o Chicago recordings in 1920’s some of the most influential to jazz musicians to this day o Contributions  Innovative jazz improv.  Scat singing- vocal improv using nonsense syllables ▯ The Big Band Era (1930’2-40’s)  Stride Piano Style o 1930’s- great depression o evolution of ragtime  strongly rhythmic “striding” left-hand  patterns  syncopated right-hand melody o First solo pianists  Boogie-Woogie o Piano style o 12-bar blues form o constantly repeated left hand ostinato o Energetic, also syncopated right-hand patterns  The Big Band is Born o Rebound from the Great Depression  Growing need for entertainment  Prohibition o Kansas City and New York  More players  More skilled o Exploration, expansion, and innovation o More musicians=harder to stay together o Complex arrangements  More section playing – more written out parts  Tells musicians when to solo  Less spontaneous o Greater musical skill  The Big band sound o Diferences from early jazz  Strong rhythmic pulse suitable for dancing  Section sound (saxophone, trumpets, etc.)  Band leaders that often solo with the band  Improv solos are well planned out in the music  Notated arrangements  1940’s- WWII o Big bands became entertainment centers o nationalism o rallying cry for troops o escapism o only time in history that jazz was #1 in all popular music  hit parade  Birth of the Crooner o Microphone technology improves o Notable crooners  Frank Sinatra  Bing Crosby  Perry Como  Dean Martin  Nat King Cole  The Band Leaders o Benny Goodman  The “King of Swing”  Clarinet  Integrated his band o Duke Ellington  Pianist  Considered one of the greatest composers of Jazz o Count Basie  Pianist  Kansas City  Count Basie Orchestra  Toured the US o Glenn Miller  Trombone  Radio  Supported the war  Performed for troops overseas ▯ Jazz in the 1950’s  The birth of bebop o Big Band musicians looking for new ways to play jazz  Advanced harmonies/melodies/rhythms o Swing arrangements too restrictive  LP (long play) records not invented yet (1948)  Songs limited to 3 minutes o Late-night/after-hours jam sessions  WWII o Money was tight o Travel was restricted o Shortage of musicians  Big band popularity declined o Return to the combo  First Bebop recording? o “Body and Soul” (1939) by Coleman Hawkins  straying from the ordinary resolution of themes  double-time- playing in a rhythmic manner that is (or at least sounds) twice as fast  Bebop o Began in NY- 1930’s-40’s  Threads in Kansas City, St. Louis, and others o Combo Jazz  Two solo leads+ rhythm section o Most common leads – Sax/trumpet/piano  Can also be trombone, vibraphone, flute, or guitar o Characteristics  Complex  Unusual harmonic, melodic, and rhythmic treatments  Virtuosity  Longer compositions  Meant for listening, not dancing o Drums  “Old” style = “four-to-the-bar” steady pulse on bass drum  Bebop = time-keeping shifts to the cymbals and hi-hat  Bass drum – occasional accents – “dropping bombs”  Listening to and responding to soloists o Increased importance of the bass player and “walking” o Typical f


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