ORH1030 Final Exam Notes
ORH1030 Final Exam Notes ORH1030
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This 22 page Study Guide was uploaded by Paige Lenczden on Thursday January 21, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to ORH1030 at University of Florida taught by Clark,David G in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 215 views. For similar materials see Plants, Gardening and Yo in Environmental Science at University of Florida.
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Date Created: 01/21/16
8/27/15 Horticulture – the science and art of growing plants for man’s use (beauty and utility) - Plants are imported for: o food, clothing, paper/fiber, shelter, culture/art, aesthetics, change behavior, fuel, medicine, and climate control - Gardens are important for: o human well being o safe healthy food o exercise (300 calories/hour) o add beauty o learn biology o meet people o gardening is the #1 pastime in the U.S. - Interesting: o U.S. students prefer to study animals rather than plants o A tendency to under-emphasize plants in teaching biology o Particularly common with urban people - Plant blindness: o Inability to see or notice plants in one’s own environment o You can’t have animals without plants! - What do plants need? o Environment Right temperature Right amount of water Right light Right soil Right nutrition - Tomato plant: solanum lycopersicum “sweet 100” 9/3/15 Plant Propagation: How to Make New Plants How do plants grow? - Photosynthesis o Occurs in green tissues o Requires light o Produces food o CO2 + H2O (light)C6H12O6 (glucose) + O2 - Respiration o Occurs in all cells o Occurs in light and dark o Releases energy o Glucose + O2 CO2 + O2 + energy - Transpiration o H2O movement through plants o Involves 90% of plant H2O o Process by which plants lose H2O through stomates o Necessary because plants are 95-98% water Types of Plant Propagation - Sexual o Seeds o Genetic recombination - Asexual o Clones; same characteristics as parent plant o Multiplication of plants from vegetative parts o Shoots, roots, leaves, bulbs, or corns o Grafting and budding Media (potting soil) - Stay light - Peat moss holds water - Vermiculite, bark, and perlite are good for aeration - Peat moss and bark are organic matter Seed Propagation - Cheapest way to produce many new plants - Lots of genetic variability - Best for grasses and palms - Seeds must be collected when fully ripe - Most tropical plant seeds have short viability (so you need to plant immediately) - Gymnosperms do not flower. They form cones (i.e. pine cones/conifers/not a lot of genetic variability) - Angiosperms are flowering plants and therefore have more genetic variability (i.e. monocots and dicots) Seed Germination Basics - 1. Get out of the ground - 2. Become self-sufficient through photosynthesis Cuttings – Asexual - Utilize: stems, roots, leaves, or combo of stems and leaves - Makes clones - Use healthy stock plants - Stem cuttings: o Softwood to hardwood material Softwood cuttings: current season’s growth Hardwood cuttings: older growth (harder to root) o 1-6 inches long o Lower leaves removed from bottom part o Rooting hormones May or may not need Applied to basal ½ inch Composed of auxins (IBA/NAA) May contain fungicide Liquid or talc formulations o Leaf-bud cuttings Include leaf blade, petiole, and stem Every node can be made a cutting Layering - New plant formed while attached to parent plant - Benefits: o Less stress Tip Layering - Climbing roses, jasmine, abelia, oleander, and azaleas - Bend lower branch to ground, wound, and pin 2-3 inches below soil line; keep moist Divisions - Involves cutting or pulling apart large clumps into smaller sections - Each section must have adequate stems, leaves, roots, and buds - Anytime during growing season - Ferns, orchids, daylilies, bulbous plants, nandina, and liriope Propagation Units - Aquarium or terrarium - Two inches of gravel placed in bottom - 2-4 inches of growing media placed on gravel - Glass/plastic cover (pot or bag) can be used - Cutting in the pot - Place pot in the bag with wire hoops to keep bag off foliage - Seal top to maintain high humidity 9/10/15 Plant Biotechnology The Lab: - Enhance aesthetic appeal - Increase flavor and nutrition - Develop what consumers want Plant Biotechnology: - A set of genetic techniques used to adapt plants for specific needs - Humans have genetically improved plants for about 16,000 years - Cis/transgenic crop technology (GMOs) are a precise extension of conventional plant breeding o Techniques pose no risk o No health issue/illness has been associated in 19 years - More than two thousand peer-reviewed publications focusing on GMOs; in more than ten years 100 billion animals have been fed with no detrimental effects - Regulation of genetically modified foods is done by three government agencies (most rigorous and extensive in human history for food) - GMOs are the fastest-acquired techniques used by farmers o Gets farmers more profit - Throughout the history of agriculture farmers have altered the genetic of crops via introduction of selective breeding Selective Breeding - Organisms with desirable characteristics are mated to produce offspring with equal or better qualities than parents o 7,000 years of alterations led to current corn Mutation Breeding - Came about around 1945 - Exposing seeds and/or tissue to chemicals/radiation in order to generate mutants with desirable traits to be bred with other cultivars Advanced Breeding - Came about around 2010 - Using contemporary technology like DNA-sequence, RNA-sequence, Chip sequence, or Bis-sequence Genetic Engineering - Came about around 1995 - Transgenic – being or used to produce species into which one or more genes of another species have been incorporated - Transformation – genetic alteration of a cell resulting from the direct uptake, incorporation and expression of exogenous genetic material (viruses and bacteria) o Unlike traditional breeding approaches, transgenic systems alter very specific segments, genes, or parts of the genome 1 commercialized GEs - People’s Republic of China – first country to allow commercialized GE plants (a virus resistant tobacco) in 1992 - US – first GE crop approved for sale in 1994 (FlavrSavr tomato, which had a longer shelf life) - European Union – first GE crop approved in 1994 (tobacco, resistant to bromoxynil) - US – 1995: potato, canola, corn, cotton, soybeans, squash Economic Impacts - 20 years of commercialization - Developing countries grew more of global biotech crops in 2012 than industrial countries - Food security: higher quality and quantity o Increased crop production by $98.2 billion o Saved 473 million kg of pesticides - Environment: reduced CO2 emissions by 23.1 billion kg Social Impacts - More and higher quality plant products - Diversity in the source of genetic information - Speed to modified elite varieties - Nutritional traits increased - Increase in living standard for farmers Summary - Plant biotechnology has been around for a long time and humans have benefited tremendously (civilization) - Plant biotech is simply using biology to create new plant products that are useful to humans (food, nutrition, medicine, polymers, fuel, aesthetics, etc.) - Many different types of plant biotech methods and techniques exist (eg. breeding and genetic engineering) - Plant biotech has an extremely large economic and human impact; it must continue to advance as the global population grows, and advances must be diverse US Horticulture – 9/17/15 - Native Americans believed in subsistence and to remain in harmony with nature - Three sisters method: beans, corn, and squash grow in same area o Squash leaves (grows on ground) prevents weeds from forming o Corn has starch o Beans provide protein - Thomas Jefferson o First great seed collector Especially exotic fruits and vegetables Had international connections due to his presidential status, giving easier access to seeds - Frederick Law Olmstead o First great landscape architect – a visionary in terms of city planning Central Park, Baltimore Estate etc - The Morrill Act – 1862 o Formed one school in each state o Established Land Grant Colleges for teaching, research, and extension (extension office with additional information) o Provide education for common people - Liberty Hyde Bailey o First great botanist o One of our first scientists to adopt Mendel’s laws o Linked technology to the farm o Co-founded ASHS American society for horticultural science - Luther Burbank o Our first great commercial plant breeder o Entrepreneur o Russet Burbank potato, tree fruits, and many others - Sixty years ago… o Watson and Crick’s discovery of the structure of SNA led to the age of biotechnology o Focus shifts to understanding genetic diversity o Producing for the masses o Baby boomers require much more food availability - Production Technologies o Managing the supply chain from farm to consumer shapes breeding targets Farm machinery Greenhouse technologies Harvesting and transport Processing and handling Cold storage Packaging and food science o Agricultural chemicals – more environmental management Fertilizers Pest management Growth regulation Mostly synthetic - Environment Technologies o National weather service and satellites o Resource management Soil Water Light Temperature Nutrition o Everything is now digital and remote - Where are we now? o Our flowers, fruits, and vegetables have changed very much Production has changed Product always available Product not always good Food products are diverse Food is inexpensive o We have a serious obesity/diabetes/etc problem - Our future o Key words for US horticulture: Healthy Physical health o We are not vitamin deficient o We are fat, sugar, and salt dependent Psychological health o Understanding the value of plants around us Safety Sustainable Nothing is free Water, chemicals, fuel, people, soil, air, light, and space equal $ Good, fast, and cheap – you can only have 2/3 Consumer preference Giving people what they want There will be nine billion people on earth by 2050 Safety Global production and constant availability leads to problems o Importation of pests and diseases Exploitation and disruption of natural resources We are returning to the local farm 9/24/15 Houseplants - A plant that is grown indoors in places such as residences and offices - Why houseplants? o Decorative purposes o Home and offices o Retail o Events o Gifts o Positive psychological effects o Make you feel comfortable o Make you more productive o Impress people o Show affection o Health reasons o Reduce air pollution o Reduce noise pollution - Where do they come from? o Tropics – often referred to as tropical foliage plants o Rainforest understory plants - What do they need? o Consistently warm conditions o Low light levels o Ample moisture o Plants never forget where they come from - Where are they grown? o Florida! o Supplies many foliage plants used in the US and Europe o Apopka is the foliage capital of the world o Lots grown in south Florida - Consumers o What do they want? Color (if possible) Grows anywhere Low maintenance Long-lasting - What are common house plants? o Dracaena marginata Over forty species of dracaena Lucky bamboo is dracaena sanderiana Native to southeast Asia Very easy to grow o Dracaena deremensis Southeast Asia Tolerates terrible growing condition o Golden Pothos Epipremnum aureum Native to north Australia through southeast Asia It is an epiphyte A good air purifier o Philodendron A large genus of 900+ species Still many undescribed species Native to Caribbean and central America Tolerate low light levels Philodendron bipinnatifidum A good air purifier o Dieffenbachia Often called dumb cane Native to central America Cells contain calcium oxalate crystals If eaten, it makes the throat go numb Tolerates very hot conditions and dry climates Great air purifier o Crotons Native to Malaysia, Indonesia, and India o Caring for houseplants It really is not difficult Light Should be indirect If too little, bring them out on a patio if possible Temperature Whatever you are comfortable with, they can handle Stay away from extremes Water When in doubt, check using the finger test Overwatering kills more houseplants than under- watering Soil Stay light Fertilizer Not too much; slow release is best 10/1/15 Sports and Athletic Field Management Scope of the turf grass industry - 1982 study estimated that the industry was valued at $25 billion o At that time, Florida turf grass industry estimated to be $1.1 billion - Currently: (2007) o Florida is #1 in US with 3.94 million acres o Total employment of 173,166 jobs o Total revenues for Florida estimated at $7.82 billion in 2007 Introduction - Athletic facilities are a vital part of today’s society o Community o High school o Collegiate o Professional - How do you expect the turf grass management to be the same or different when comparing these issues? o Budget o Wear and tear Florida field is used a dozen times a year vs. constantly with community fields o Safety is always priority for both Turf grass 101 - Proper identification, understanding demands o Cultivation/mowing o Fertilization - As needed: o Pest and disease control o Renovation/establishment - Bermudagrass o Hybrid bermudagrass (cynodon dactylon x C. transvaalensis) Description: Originated in eastern Africa in 1751 or earlier Sometimes called devil grass Stolons and rhizomes Vernation – folded Ligule – fringe of hairs One of the biggest challenges: overuse Coleus - 10/8/15 - Origin: Indonesia - Descendants from coleus blumei - Coleus is from the Greek word koleos which means sheath - Blumei – named for Karl Ludwig Blume (1796-1862), a Dutch botanist - Botanical classification o Family Lamiaceae (mint family) Genus: plectranthus Over 150 species of plectranthus o Recently re-named Plectranthus scutellarioides Constantly renamed because mints are very promiscuous (you can breed different species of plectranthus together) - Early breeding attempts o First introduced by Dutch traders mid 1800s o First breeding attempt 1880 William Bull o Popular among Victorian era gardeners because of coloring - UF Coleus Breeding Program o Established 2003 o Mostly open-pollinated seeds o Recurrent Mass Selection (collection of seeds and planting) o Selections and establishment of vegetatively propagated cultivars - Coleus o Amazing genetic variability o It is very promiscuous o It has inbreeding depression but readily self pollinates o It is a tetraploid with active transposons - Main research objectives o Make “tough idiot-proof” plants o Brighter colors with less fading o Superior branching and habit o Late flowering cultivars o Train tomorrow’s plant breeders o Plant consistency o Easy to grow - Recurrent Mass Selection o Collection of seeds and planting - Field Trials o Pine acres (sun) and Gainesville (shade) o Data collection Plant vigor Branching habit Color consistency Plant consistency LATE flowering - UF Coleus o Continue to grab market share o Tough, easy to grow plants o Now going global o Last year – 6.2 million plants sold o UF coleus have been in one million US gardens o Royalties – most goes to the lab to pay students Creating an Edible Landscape, October 15, 2015 Any landscape can become an edible landscape - Choose for appropriate size o Most popular is 100 square feet; tomatoes - Plant what you like to eat - Choose for desired maintenance level - Select appropriate varieties - Vegetables and herbs Choose appropriate varieties - Chilling hours are important o Hours below 45 degrees F - Required to induce proper flowering and fruit set - Choose according to your location in the state - Get locally grown material when possible Citrus - Not native; from Asia - Typically grafted - Long harvest season - Easy to grow - Florida citrus industry is in deep trouble Citrus Care - Locate in full sun location - Soil should be well drained - Fertilize o Young (1-3 years) = often o Mature= four times a year - Water: one inch of water per week through irrigation/rain fall - Pest control as needed - Citrus canker o From Asia o Cancerous tumor - Citrus greening o Huanlongbing o Asian psyllid insect infects trees 10/22 - Industry Trends The gardens of tomorrow - Will be about more than just beauty - Three Es o Economic benefits More garden plants at the front of businesses increases number of consumers Traffic modification o Environmental benefits o Emotional and health benefits Garden project in Singapore: bio-lung Plants inside airports and other busy places will help clean the air Stress reduction Cities as gardens; the new urbanism - New spaces to gather - Green infrastructure o 40-48% of new nonresidential construction will be green, equating to a $120-145 billion opportunity - Future cities will incorporate vertical urban forests o Asian countries are leading this trend - Google’s director of engineering predicts vertical farms will be standard by 2030 - People are tired of timid; they want DRAMATIC plants Product blending - Is it a native? A cultivar? Annual? Perennial? o No consumer actually cares about this o Industry talks in classes; consumer thinks plants Consumers don’t care what type of plant it is, just that it has a wow-factor Go native - Consumers prefer a “loose look” with mixed colors and types rather than uniform gardens - 1/3 of all new commercial buildings are LEED certified, requiring native landscapes - Nobody wants plants that look like they came from a factory anymore, EXCEPT growers. It is much easier for growers to properly water and fertilize plants if they are categorized together by type Sustainability - Transparency Local trumps industrial: - Organic - Sustainable - Environmentally friendly - Climate change Retail Renaissance - In the past there were three outlets: o Mass marketers o Independent garden centers o Landscapers - In the future there will be these three plus many more Industry challenges - Make it easy for the consumer to care for the plant - Find other outlets to sell plants - Attract new people: as gardeners and employees and laborers - Cure plant blindness - Improve packaging/branding o Something more attractive and exciting than the black plastic pots o Those who live in apartments (particularly the 40/50 story high buildings in Asia) have trouble carrying the plant all the way up and then having to bring the wasteful temporary pot back down to dispose of it - Change perception - Sell online - Automation/robots - Logistics - Increase pollinators - Control diseases What are the benefits of a career in horticulture? - Relatively small industry, so one person can have a big effect - Products benefit society and make people happy - Huge variety of careers - International - Demand is great 10/29 - Giving people what they want: making new plants that look, smell, and taste better What do consumers experience? - Sight - Touch - Smell - Taste – memory What do breeders experience? - Quantifiable o What number of breeds were sold last year o Run ten different kinds of tomatoes over a conveyor to see which ones fall apart the easiest; these are then not focused on Who are the consumers? - Women Who are the breeders? - Older men A serious disconnect - Most flowers, fruits, and vegetables are bought by women and they influence the purchasing decisions on much of the rest - Most plant breeders and many industry decision makes are men A problem: - Men and women are wired differently A big question: - How do we find out what consumers want? o Most people really don’t know… o It is very hard to measure emotion o It is even harder to measure how much more people will pay if stimulated - How do we decide goals for new crop development? o Usually based on yield characters (retrospect) o Easy to measure and predict o It is difficult to measure the pleasure and value of flavor and fragrance To influence people, we should probably understand them… sight/smell/taste all goes to your brain which is why producers go to brain institutes to help decide Appealing to consumers’ senses - Psychophysics – quantifies the relationship between physical stimuli and the sensations and perceptions they effect (behavior and emotions) - Physical stimuli in plants – controlled by genetic traits that are measured empirically o Sight: pigments (anthocyanins, carotenoids, etc.) o Taste and smell: sugars, acids, volatiles o Feel: physical features (trichromes etc.) - Find out what people want first, and then make the product - Link plant science, consumer science, and consumer$ Tomato topline: graphic representation of a psychophysics survey from a population where you ask people how much they like a certain feature of a plant and how willing they would be to pay for it So what do people want in a garden tomato? - Psychophysics analysis: 300+ US consumers o Sweet, classic tomato flavor – sensory o Prolific fruiting – psychological (gratification) o Early season fruiting – psychological (gratification) o Has deep, red color – sensory o Name: “garden gem” o All of these traits are controlled genetically A new source of sweetness? - Can we add the volatiles that induce sweet in citrus (and potentially other fruit) products to make them sweeter with less sugar? Yes Garden Gem - Sweet classic tomato flavor - Prolific fruiting - Early season fruiting - NEEDS deep red color – have markers for crimson gene - Versatile use Consumer- assisted selection - A great tasting “commercial” tomato is still a challenge. But… o We have defined the target o We have identified many of the key genes o We have started moving them into elite germplasm o It is not just a matter of putting the biochemical and genetic recipe together - this integrated approach is applicable to any horticultural crop 11/5/15 – Strawberries Fragaria genus - Temperate and tropical distribution - Herbaceous perennial - Greater source of Vitamin C than oranges - Crown – basal central stem - Runner – stolon o Self-propagating - 20+ species o Ploidy diversity Human n = 23 2n=2x=46 Fragaria n = 7 2n=2x=14 2n=4x=28 2n=6x=42 2n=8x=56 (octoploid) 2n=10x=70 We do not eat any of these, we eat fragaria x ananassa (hybrid between two species) - Fruit Development o Numerous ovaries give rise to aggregate fruit Seed – achenes, the true fruit Single ovule Flesh – receptacle, the false fruit Epidermis Cortex Internal pith o Receptacle (flesh) development and ripening is in sync - Global Production o 4.3 million tons annually o 563,000 acres o Production, cultivation, and yield increasing o US produces more than any other country 57,000 acres, only 4% organic 1.3 million tons for $2.4 billion Exports to Canada and Japan, imports from Mexico (for very cheap) Basically the US is a strawberry pimp 7.2 pounds consumer per person per year o Very labor intensive - Perennial Beds o Traditional production method o Temperate climates Cold/dormancy o 2-4 years of production No marketable fruit in first year o Renovation Mow plants above the crown Disk between the rows Fertilize Irrigate Pre-emergence herbicide - Annual Plasticulture o Polyethylene beds o Drip irrigation/fertilization o Soil sterilization Methyl bromide Steam o Need to buy transplants yearly High elevation/cold climate nursery - Tunnel Production o Polyethylene sheeting over hoops o Extend growing season Warmer spring and fall o Convertible - Hydroponic o Soilless cultivation Nutrient solution o Increased water efficiency o Increased control of fertilizer o Higher density o Increased yields - Oregon o 1,900 acres, 18,000 tons, $15 million o June – three weeks o Perennial o 90+% processed o Haagen dazs – senga sengana - California o 38,600 acres, 780,000 tons, $1.8 billion o Year round production o Annual plasticulture o High elevation nurseries - Spain o 20,000 acres, 300,000 tons (fresh market, 80% export) o January to June o Annual tunnel production Huelva, Spain has large plots of plastic in order to produce enough strawberries to provide to all of Europe - Florida o 10,000 acres, 114,000 tons (100% fresh market), $400 million o Annual plasticulture, tunnel, and greenhouse o Winter production September Transplants from Nova Scotia November – March Harvest FROST April Clear fields 11/12/15 – The Accidental Horticulturist: Tales of Plants and the Environment Phototropism – the orientation of a plant in response to light - Rule of thirds - Thought One: Be flexible Thigmotropism – is a movement in which a plant moves or grows in response to touch or contact stimuli (sensitive plant i.e. Venus fly trap) - Reacts so quickly by releasing potential energy - Thought Two: Be aware and somewhat responsive Bioindicators for environmental stress - Canary in a coal mine Photomorphogenesis – fifteen minutes of light at the end of each photo period Six Degrees of Separation and Kevin Bacon - “the small-world problem” pointed out by Stanley Milgram in 1967 Gravitropism – turning or growth movement by a plant in response to gravity - It ensures that the shoot will grow upward toward light and the roots will grow down into the soil, no matter how the seed lands in the soil Significant Interactions between Organisms Grouping - Competition – results in mutually adverse effects to organisms that utilize a common resource in short supply - Plant recovering from wilting th November 19 , 2015 – Opportunities in Plant Science Plant Science Majors - Bachelors of science in: o Crop ecology o Sustainable food production o Plant genetics o Landscape and nursery horticulture o Restoration horticulture o Plant health - Bachelors of Arts in: o Community food systems o Garden design and management
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