Psych 1001 Study Guide
Psych 1001 Study Guide Psych 1001
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This 11 page Study Guide was uploaded by Marissa Mortl on Thursday January 21, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Psych 1001 at University of Denver taught by Dr. Reichmann-Decker in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 27 views. For similar materials see Foundations of psychological science in Psychlogy at University of Denver.
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Date Created: 01/21/16
Foundations in Psychological Science Exam 3 Review Week 7 Personality 1. What is the logic behind projective tests? Open to more than one interpretation, ambiguous Subject puts down own thoughts = revealing the self, unconscious conflicts or issues 2. What characterizes objective (selfreport) and projective personality tests? What tests/measures are types of each (i.e., TAT, Rorschach, MMPI)? What is the Rorschach useful in distinguishing? Objective = unambiguous scoring (support diagnosis of clinical disorders?) Projective = ambiguous scoring (evaluator must always add interpretation) TAT = make up stories about ambiguous images, believed to project views on others and the world, own desires and internal conflicts Rorschach = inkblot test, scored according to complicated systems that classify what people see as normal or abnormal, useful in distinguishing thought disorders MMPI = objective, true or false, measures psychological constructs and personality Trait 3. What is the Eysencks’ model of personality? How does introversionextraversion relate to cortical arousal (reticular formation)? PEN = Psychoticism, Extraversion, Neuroticism (stability vs. instability) Extraversion = lower levels of internal arousal, reticular formation is not easily stimulated Introversion = higher levels of cortical arousal 4. What are the Big 5? How do Big 5 traits change over time? Openness, Conscientiousness, Extraversion, Agreeableness, Neuroticism Personality stays fairly stable over time, gets even more stable as we age, small changes can still occur Note – openness, extraversion and neuroticism decrease until age 50 o Conscientiousness and agreeableness have gradual increase o Openness to ideas is different than openness to experiences 5. What are strengths and weaknesses of the fivefactor model (Big 5)? (See text also) Strengths Accounts for as much variation in personality as possible Shows up across a wide range of participants i.e. children and adults Reliable, can be repeated around the world w/ similar results (universal) Research driven, lots of empirical evidence Weaknesses Relies on factor analysis Troublesome factor = openness o Content influenced by culture o Crosscultural reliability th o 5 factor varies by culture Psychoanalytic (psychoanalysis = approach to therapy and theory of personality) 6. What are Freud’s enduring contributions to psychology? Unconscious “the real engines of personality are forces that we are largely unaware of” Defense mechanisms pg. 361 Approach to therapy for mental disorders Ideas about conflict between id ego and superego play important roles in basic personality structure 7. What are the levels of consciousness and the divisions of mind (id, ego, superego)? How does Freud’s iceberg analogy relate to personality? Conscious, preconscious, and unconscious Id – irrational, impulsive, bodily needs, wants, and desires Superego – rule following, acts like a conscious, moralistic, judgmental Ego – rational, mediating dimension of personality, deals with life’s practical demands Analogy Iceberg: ego at the top, contains all levels of consciousness Superego in the middle, all three levels Id at the bottom “dark depths”, only unconscious 8. Describe the following: fixations, Oedipal and Electra complex, erogenous zones, libido, parapraxis (Freudian slip) Fixations: obsessive interest, pleasure seeking drives Oedipal (boys) – attracted to mother, father stands in the way, boy identifies with father Electra (girls) – realize inferior with no penis, blame mother, envy father, associate with mother Erogenous zones – areas of fixation Libido – sexual desire Parapraxis/Freudian slips – when assessing disorders, interpreted the origins of their mistakes and memory lapses – forgetting names, slips of the tongue, forgetting childhood memories, accidents 9. Describe Freud’s psychosexual stages of development. Oral stage – (01) libido – sensitive mouth region o Fixation – overindulgence in oral activities = breastfeeding Anal stage (23) – libido – anus o Fixation – overly neat compulsive or excessively messy Phallic stage (35)– libido – genitals (oedipal and Electra) o Fixation – need for attention, self assurance Latency stage (513)– sexuality repressed o Superego develops for boys not for girls o Fixation – not likely, could be asexual Genital stage (puberty on) – libido – genitals 10. What are criticisms of Freud’s theory? Vague Too limited to human instincts and motivations Theories on women are wrong Human nature more optimistic 11. What is personality? Characteristic manner of thinking, feeling, and acting that is relatively consistent over time Others – Text & LaunchPad 1. Psychoanalytic: What are defense mechanisms? Be familiar with defense mechanisms listed in the text. Unconscious coping mechanisms, reduce anxiety 2. HumanisticExistential Approach: What characterizes these approaches? What is the selfactualizing tendency (selfactualization; Maslow)? What is flow (Cskiszentmihalyi)? Humanistic – optimistic, potential for personal growth Selfactualization: need to be good, fully alive, and find meaning in life Flow – mental state of energized focus (when ones tasks match their passion) Existential – realization of life and death, awareness of our existence Angst – difficulties we face in finding the meaning of life, accepting responsibility of making free choices – anxiety 3. SocialCognitive Approach: What characterizes this approach? What is the personsituation controversy (see also #5, Big 5 weakness)? What characterizes someone who has either an internal or external locus of control? How does locus of control relate to outcome expectancies? Social cognitive approach – personality based upon how we view and interpret situations and how we behave in these situations Personsituation controversy – behavior caused more by personality or situational factors? Internal locus of control – believe that they are in control of what happens to them (less anxious, achieve more, cope better with stress) External locus of control – outcomes are random, determined by luck, or controlled by other people 4. The Self: Describe – selfconcept, selfverification, selfesteem, the selfserving bias, narcissism, and implicit egotism. Selfconcept – our explicit knowledge of our behaviors, traits and characteristics Selfverification – seek evidence to confirm our selfconcept Selfserving bias – we take credit for our success and downplay our responsibilities for failures Narcissism – over confidence, seek admiration and put down others Implicit egotism – gravitate toward things that resemble ourselves, nameletter effect Week 8 Social Psychology – be able to apply all concepts to examples 1. Conformity What was the procedure of Asch’s study? What factors influenced conformity? Height of lines 3 or more people in the group, participant made to feel insecure, group answers are unanimous, admire group/high status 2. Conformity – Why might people conform? What are normative and informational social influences? Text: What is the norm of reciprocity? People conform because they want to fit in, social approval from others Normative influences – another person’s behavior provides information on what is appropriate (waiter giving candy indicated tip) Information influences – a person’s behavior provides information about what is true (man looking up at the top of the building) Norm of reciprocity – when you do a favor for someone, you expect a favor in return 3. Obedience – What was the procedure of Milgram’s study? Roughly what percentage of teachers shocked learners to the maximum voltage? What factors influenced obedience (% who will give the maximum shock)? In this experiment there was a teacher and learner, the teacher asked the learner questions and if learner answered incorrectly teacher gave him a shock 62% of teachers shocked to the maximum voltage Factors that influenced obedience – perception of authority, experimenter selfassurance and responsibility Proximity, new situation 4. Obedience What is the primary conclusion from Milgram’s studies? Ordinary people can become agents of destruction when ordered to act by perceived authority 5. Social Facilitation (acting/performing tasks in front of people) – What are social facilitation and social interference? Under what conditions will an audience improve or diminish performance? Social facilitation – to better on simple tasks while being watched; enhancing effect of an audience on task performance Social interference – decline in performance when observers are present Increased drive of arousal o Improved performance of dominant responses o Worsened performance of no dominant responses 6. Role Playing – What happened in the Stanford (Zimbardo) Prison experiment? What does this tell us? More presented in Launchpad video activity. Behavior changed based on the role and identity that they played Guards became so abusive to prisoners People who have a sense of power and authority will use it to their advantage 7. Cognitive Dissonance: What is it? What did Festinger’s classic study show (i.e., boring study paid $1 or $20)? Unpleasant feeling people get when their actions, beliefs and attitudes don’t match up Knob turning activity, participants felt less bad when they were paid $1 to tell the lie instead of $20 We want to change our attitudes or beliefs as well as justifying our actions 8. Persuasion: Sequential Requests What are the DITF and the FITD? When do they work best? How does cognitive dissonance relate to FITD? DITF – first request = unreasonable, second request = real target FITD – first request = small, second request = large Door in the face works best for prosocial requests (reciprocity norm) Foot in the door works best for no extra incentives (cognitive dissonance) o Example: drive safely sign; if people agree to the small request they will feel obliged to say yes to the second request 9. Attribution Theory – What is an attribution? What are external (situational) and internal (dispositional attributions)? What is the fundamental attribution error (correspondence bias)? What is the selfserving bias (week 7)? What is the actorobserver effect? Attribution: inference about the cause of a person’s behavior External (situational) – person’s behavior was caused by the situation o When we experience failure Internal (dispositional) – person’s behavior was caused by personality characteristics o When we do something well Correspondence bias – we make dispositional attributions before we make situational ones Actorobserver effect – we make situation attributions about our own behavior but dispositional attributions about other people 10. Students’ dilemma – why do students normally NOT earn 2 or 7 pts extra credit? What factors can influence the outcome of the social dilemma presented in class? Failure due to conflict between individual interest and group interest (Freudian contribution) “The Tragedy of Commons” Factors o Communication o Someone takes on a leadership role 11. Who were Kitty Genovese and Deletha Word? What is the bystander effect & diffusion of responsibility? Two women who were killed – bystander affect – no one stopped their murders Bystander effect – act of helping someone in an emergency situation Diffusion of responsibility – individuals feel less responsibility when surrounded by others 12. What should you do if you need help when in a crowded area (consider 4 things needed for helping behavior)? 13. What is altruism? Selfless concern for and giving aid to others 14. Who won the NixonKennedy presidential debate? What are benefits of attractiveness in U.S. culture? Kennedy More sex, more friends, have more fun, earn about 10% more money, mother more playful and affectionate towards attractive children In PowerPoint: decreased prison sentencing, career influences, more likely to receive helping behavior 15. Mere Exposure Effect – What is it? Has to do with attraction, the more you are around novel stimuli increases liking of them Text & LaunchPad 16. What is the frustrationaggression (FA) hypothesis? What do many scientists currently believe about FA consider negative affect. When humans become frustrated, we have aggressive behavior to get what we want Scientists actual cause of aggressive behavior is negative affect Anything that makes us feel bad should cause aggressive behavior 17. What are prejudice and discrimination? Prejudice positive/negative evaluation of another person based on their group membership Discrimination – positive/negative behavior toward another person 18. What are groupthink and group polarization? Groupthink – tendency to make decisions based on group members feelings, don’t want to disrupt interpersonal harmony Group polarization – tendency to make decisions that are more extreme than the decisions an individual would make 19. Altruism: What are kin selection and reciprocal altruism? Kin selection – evolution selects individuals who cooperate with their relatives Reciprocal altruism – behavior that benefits another, we expect those benefits to be returned in the future 20. Persuasion: What is systematic and heuristic persuasion? Systematic – changes due to reason Heuristic persuasion – attitudes and beliefs are changed by appeals to habit or emotion Ex: strength of speakers arguments vs. status 21. How do men and women differ in their attitudes toward casual sex? Be familiar with results of study from LaunchPad. Men – much more casual – ¾ agreed to casual sex Women = none agreed Thania’s lecture: 1) How is mental illness typically defined? Why have researchers/psychologists/psychiatrists struggled with finding a definition for what a mental illness is? Causing impairment, distress, not attributed to other medical conditions or substance Normal vs. abnormal, how do you define distress 2) What are the five ways that we can look at in cross cultural psychopathology to help us determine whether or not a disorder looks the same in different cultures? What has the research shown about this? 3) What are culture bound syndromes? How can they help us determine the cross-cultural validity of mental illness? Disorders present in a limited number of cultures Understanding how other countries treat mental illness can be informative Week 9 Psychopathology (note: some info will be presented in Week 10) 1. Where should we draw the line between normal and disorder (characteristics of psychological disorders)? Characteristics: dysfunctional, distressful, disturbance “Normal” is culturally defined 2. What is the difference between mental disorders and insanity? Mental disorders are a psychological term Insanity is a legal term 3. What is the DSM? What are criticisms of the DSM system of diagnosis? What is the medical model? DSM = book used to diagnosis disorders Criticisms – reliance of the medical model o Emphasize on categorizing instead of understanding o Negative effects of labeling o Excessive range o Older version = vague Medical model – go about treating mental disorders like physical disorders, look for signs and symptoms, have biological and environmental causes 4. What is the diathesis-stress theory (multiple/complex causation) of psychopathology? In other words, how do predisposing and precipitating (e.g., stress) factors interact to predict whether a disorder manifests? People are already predisposed to mental disorder, experience a stressful event, triggers disorder Most disorders have both internal (biological and psychological) and external (environmental) causes Schizophrenia 5. What symptoms (positive, positive-disorganized, and negative) characterize schizophrenia (Sz)? What types of delusions and hallucinations occur in Sz? Positive symptoms = presence of atypical perceptions/thinking o Hallucinations & delusions Auditory, visual, touch Persecution, being controlled, grandeur – “I am Jesus” Disorganized = speech and behavior o Inability to filter out irrelevant stimuli o Random/loose associations (over inclusion rambling speech that doesn’t make sense) o Paralogic o Magical thinking – childish stepping on a crack Ideas of reference – everything relates back to you/people are always watching Inappropriate effect o Catatonic behavior Negative = absence of typical speaking, emotion, and behavior o Flat affect, poverty of speech – can’t form logical sentences, avolition – don’t want to engage in social behavior 6. What are biological bases of schizophrenia (e.g., congenital influences, others)? Risks increase with genetics Difficult birth oxygen deprivation Prenatal viral infection Increased levels of dopamine (theory not enough) Enlarged cerebral ventricles Reduced frontal lobe activity What it affects CAPAB – cognition, attention, perception, affect, and behavior Dissociative Disorders 7. What are dissociative amnesia (including dissociative amnesia with dissociative fugue) and dissociative identity disorder (DID)? What are the arguments for and against DID as a ‘real’ disorder? Dissociative amnesia – memory loss the only symptom o May be localized/selective or generalized/global o Rare; more common in combat vets or sexual assault victims Dissociative fugue – memory loss with identity loss, confusion o Usually wanders and creates a new identity DID – multiple personalities o 2 or more distinct personalities o 90% report childhood abuse and neglect o Symptoms of PTSD Arguments against – huge increase in number of cases, increase in number of personalities, more cases in North America, DID can be caused by treatment Arguments for – brain functioning changes with different personalities, physical changes in alters (ex: the alter may b=need glasses), differences can’t be mimicked by others Anxiety Disorders 8. What are generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) and panic disorder? GAD – consistent worrying, can’t control worry o Symptoms (3/6) – restlessness, fatigue, difficulty concentrating, muscle tension, irritability, sleep disturbance Panic attacks – helpless terror, feels like a heart attack, high physiological arousal (sweating, trembling) o One month worrying about attacks aka. Behavior changes due to the attacks 9. What is a specific phobia? What is social anxiety disorder or social phobia? Specific phobia irrational fear of a particular object or situation (animals, natural environment, etc.) Social phobia – irrational fear of being publicly humiliated/embarrassed – restricted to situations such as public speaking Social anxiety disorder – social situations cause anxiety – lasts at least 6 months Obsessive-Compulsive and Related Disorders 10.What are the symptoms of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD)? Obsessions – persistent, irrational, disturbing thoughts Compulsions – repetitive actions or mental acts performed to alleviate obsessions People usually realize their thoughts are irrational Timeconsuming (at least 1 hr/day) Depressive Disorders 11.What are the characteristics of major depressive disorder and persistent depressive disorder (dysthymia)? At least 5 symptoms every day for two weeks Dysphoria – sadness, anhedonia lack of pleasure, sleep disturbances, eating disturbances, psychomotor symptoms, feelings of worthlessness, poor concentration, fatigue, lack of energy, suicidal Dysthymia – lasts for two years, at least two or more symptoms, never without symptoms for more than 2 months 12.What are biological, situational, and cognitive (i.e., helplessness theory) bases of depression? What is helplessness theory? Increased levels of norepinephrine, dopamine, and serotonin Heritability Less brain activity in the left prefrontal cortex than the right Situational factors (ex: stress) Pessimistic views Helplessness theory – global, stable, internal – everything in their life is negative Bipolar Disorders 13.What are the symptoms of bipolar disorder (I & II)? Bipolar I – depression to mania o Symptoms of major depression o Manic episodes Elevated, irritable mood, increased activity, more energy o Strong heritable component Bipolar II – depression to severe irritability or hypomania Personality Disorders 14.What is a personality disorder (PD)? What are the clusters used to characterize PDs? What are features of antisocial, obsessive-compulsive, and borderline personality disorders? Inflexible, persuasive patterns of thinking, feeling or behavior that impair interpersonal functioning or cause distress o Odd/eccentric o Dramatic/erratic o Anxious/inhibited Antisocial PD (dramatic/erratic) – serial killers, psychopaths, superficial charm, manipulative, no shame Borderline PD (dramatic erratic) – instability, fear of abandonment, aggressive, impulsive, likely self harm OCPD (anxious/inhibited) Other from text 15. Diagnosis: what are signs and symptoms? What is comorbidity? Signs = objectively observed indicators of a disorder Symptoms = subjective behaviors, thoughts and emotions Comorbidity cooccurrence of two or more disorders 16. Anxiety Disorders: What is preparedness theory? What is agoraphobia? Preparedness theory – people predisposed toward certain fears; conditioned to have a fear response to stimuli Agoraphobia – fear of places or situations that might cause panic, helplessness, or embarrassment 17. Trauma and StressRelated Disorders: What characterizes Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)? PTSD – chronic physiological arousal, recurrent unwanted thoughts or images of the trauma, avoidance of things that remind one of the traumatic event 18. Depressive Disorders: What characterizes Seasonal Affective Disorder (SAD)? Most common in fall/winter – lack of light 19. Neurodevelopmental Disorders: What characterizes Autism Spectrum Disorder(ASD) and Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)? Autism (ASD) – persistent communication deficits, restricted and repetitive behavior, interest, and activity patterns Disinterest in others Peculiar mannerisms 20. Disruptive, ImpulseControl, and Conduct Disorders: What characterized Conduct Disorder? Very disruptive and aggressive behavior against people or animals, destruction of property, theft, rule violations 21. SelfHarm Behaviors: Be familiar with the information presented about suicide in the text (e.g., who is most likely to complete suicide). What is nonsuicidal selfinjury (NSSI)? 80% of suicides occur among men White people more likely to commit suicide Common among people ages 1524 NSSI – ex: cutting, Week 10 Therapy 1. What types (demographics) of people are most likely to seek treatment for mental illness? Women more than men Wealthy White people College educated 2. What are the aims, techniques, and goals of each of the following types of therapy: humanistic (personcentered), cognitivebehavioral, and psychodynamic? Humanistic – personal growth – active listening: paraphrasing, seekclarification, reflect feelings empathy, positivity o Goal – client takes control of their own life Cognitivebehavioral – problem focuses approach, cognitive restructuring (more realistic about negative thought processes) o Goal – identify and replace ways of thinking and acting Psychodynamic make unconscious conflicts conscious, free association, analysis of transference and resistance o Goal – insight into unconscious 3. Humanistic – What is active listening? What are the types of active listening? Active listening – make person feel understood Paraphrasing, seekclarification, reflect feelings 4. CognitiveBehavioral – How does systematic desensitization work? What is EMDR? Systematic desensitization – person is asked to relax while being gradually exposed to their fear EMDR – eye movement, think about traumatic event o Response prevention Counterconditioning – combine imagery of exposure to feared object with muscle relaxation 5. Psychodynamic What are: resistance and transference? What is the difference between the manifest and latent content in dream analysis? Resistance – reluctance to corporate with therapy Transference – relationship one develops with therapists, gives insight to other relationships Manifest – explicit aspects of the dream Latent content – analysis 6. Is psychotherapy effective? Explain. What illusions relate to treatment effectiveness? Yes, although those who didn’t go to therapy improved, those who did go to therapy were more likely to improve Illusions: natural improvement, nonspecific treatment effects, reconstructed memory (expectations of success) 7. What are the benefits of psychotherapy? New hope, fresh perspective, trusting and caring relationship with therapist Text 8. What is eclectic therapy (briefly mentioned in class too)? Approach to therapy that combines multiple methods 9. What is mindfulness meditation? Encouraging those to be aware of their thoughts, feelings, and sensations – detect symptoms before they become a problem 10. Be familiar with medication – antipsychotic, antianxiety (benzodiazepines), antidepressants (SSRI, SNRI). What are serious risks associated with taking benzodiazepines? Antipsychotic (schizophrenia) – blocks dopamine o New version – atypical – block dopamine and serotonin Antianxiety (benzodiazepines) – calming affect – facilitates the action of the GABA neurotransmitter Antidepressants – SSIRs selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors – block the reuptake of serotonin in the brain, makes more serotonin available in the synaptic gap of the neurons = sends desired signal SNIR Breaks down 11. What is an iatrogenic illness (mentioned in class regarding DID)? Disorder or symptom that occurs due to medical or psychotherapeutic treatment
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