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This 9 page Study Guide was uploaded by Megan Bestor on Thursday January 21, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to at University of North Carolina - Chapel Hill taught by in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 18 views.
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Date Created: 01/21/16
Declaratory Act Parliament had power Ideological Causes • Natural rights of a man • John Locke philosopher; life liberty property • Use to go against Robert W. Regime Military Causes Concept of a standing army used for promoting certain political positions, Boston Massacre Concept of standing army; street fight. Repealers Townshend duties Committees of Correspondence Each colony would have people to keep track of events/share information Tea Act East India Tea Company bankrupt Intolerable Acts • First continental congress rejected proposal to deny independence • Second continental congress george washington was a citizen soldier, commanding general of forces Olive Branch Petition King needs to intervene to resolve problems Battle of Saratoga Arnold won. Rebels had captured entire British Army Treaty of Paris secures american independence Ben franklin indentured servant, news paperist, scientist John Jay had to go to paris, he was a french protestant, secretly negotiated with the British. Brough John adams in from Holland. American Revolution Revolt by people who already passes civil liberties. Attempt to protect civil liberties Articles of Confederation Structure for new government Congress foreign relations, war and peace Confederation Period economic problems Tariff import tax Financing the war Morris wanting to give taxing to congress. Imported tax would of paid for finance. Newburgh Conspiracy Right on hudson river. Officers had to pay for own food/uniforms. Power struggle between Horatio Gates and Washington. CLOSEST TO MILITARY OVERTHROW Northwest Ordinance of 1787 How they were going to settle territories out west and how they would become states. Thomas Jefferson constituted it Shay’s Rebellion Captain in continental army. Famers hate deflation, love inflation Annapolis Convention Alexander hamilton says rewrite articles of confederation Antifederalists People who believed in weak central government Federalists wanted a strong central government. Checks and balances Divides and separates power Patterson from NJ New jersey plan equality among states Great Compromise Equality of the person vs. equality of the states. Foreign Slave Trade government wasn’t allowed to hoard slaves 3/5ths compromise Each slave counts as 3/5 of white person Southern states got extra representation but didn’t pay for it Separation of power, checks and balances Prevent society from gaining control of government Federalist Papers James Madison, John Jay. Articles that explained what went on in a constitution. Generate support for constitution. Power comes from the people. A distribution of people’s power Washington Administration 2nd highest vote= John adams (prez of US) Precedents Rotational dinners. still follow to this day Bill of Rights # of states demanded them. 11th amendment congress can’t raise salaries until after an election has taken place Judiciary Act of 1789 Created federal court system in each state. Circuit courts clustered several states Hamilton’s financial program Indentured servants. promote efficient commerce, wanted to pay off state debts Protective tariffs industries could start producing things Exile Tax On whiskey. Convert old wheat to alcohol. Shares of stock are sold on local market Bank of United States 1/5 federally owned. source of federal deposits, fiscal agent (axexempt organization that agrees to accept donations on behalf of a group that does not have IRS tax exemption.) Tie people in to success of fed government if they invest in it. Implied Powers Necessary and proper (elastic) Specified Powers go to war, win, occupy territory Whiskey Rebellion Eastern Pennsylvania. Army sent led by Washington; was put down quickly. Hamilton made deal with Franklin. Move capital to Philly for 10 years and Potomac River Trouble overseas/ French Revolution “citizen” Edmond Genet came to promote US to support war in France. Washington had him sent back. British ruled the seas, acted how they wanted seized food and cotton “Mad” Anthony Wayn Jay Treaty Washington supported because no war Pinckney Treaty Allowed complete travel @ Mississippi River Right of Deposit store goods in New Orleans until an ocean bound ship came to get them Washington Farewell Address 2 terms was enough. Warned about rising political powers. Newest member of a political party Origins of Political Parties: First Party System John Adams, Hamilton, Federalist party members are not he same as psychological view Strong central government strong standing armytax to pay for it, more $ for power Republican Party Laissez faire (hands off) Weak central government antibritish government get in the way of economy Election of 1796 Papers and articles to support Jefferson. Kept government out. Adams won BFF was Jefferson talked bad about Adams Adams supported soldiers in Boston Massacre Alien and Sedition Act Alienincreased time for immigrants to become US. citizen Sedition imposed fines against speaking against British government Election of 1800 strong movement in NY Aaron Burr and 12th amendment Jefferson and Burr tiedgoes to house of reps Jefferson was elected 3rd prez of US by house of reps Jeffersonian Philosophy believed in natural aristocracy Patronage called for reduction in gov’t. Repub. wanted jobs Attack on the Judiciary Judiciary act of 1801 legislation reduced size os the US court Trial of Samuel Chase Couldn’t remove someone from partisanship Marbury VS. Madison marbury judge in North Columbia, filled against Madison. Madison didn’t delver opt list Dartmouth College Case fought New Hampshire. couldn't convert to state university Cohens vs Virginia Law outlawing lotteries McCulloch Maryland Implied powers, state of ML imposed taxes on people Gibbons VS. Ogden destroy discrimination in US Louisiana Purchase US paid $15 mil, lewis and clark expedition. Required to keep a diary Burr Conspiracy Defeated by Jefferson. Sought governorship of NY. Challenged Hamilton to a dual, fought on cliffs, Shot, killed Hamilton Foreign Slave Trade anyone who brought slaves in would be given death penalty Impressment Claiming crew were British, and seizing them Paper Blockade Closed all parts, covered France and all territory Chesapeake Leopard Affair US war ship off of coast of VA Embargo Acts Didn't’ let american ships sail for any foreign ports. Jefferson employed us military Election of 1808 James Madison, 4th prez of the US Nonintercourse act Could train with any nation except great britain and france Macon’s bill NO. 2 Respect americans rights Tecumseh Conspiracy Unite all indians and block US expansion Battle of Tippercanoe Surprise attack. Declared war in the split vote Battle of the Rive Thames Lost control of north territory but regained it Treaty of Ghent return to the things way before return to states Erie Canal NYC, leads to expansion Old northwest= ohio, Indiana , Illinois Old southwest Alabama, Mississippi sea island cotton cotton gin eli whitney had machine that took off cotton burr, to prevent the cotton from ripping Panic of 1819 Product of west price of cotton fell/hurt people on the frontier RushBegot Treaty defend border between US and canada Monroe Doctrine john quincy adams. European interfere power would seem unfriendly to US. british navy would support Tallmadge Amendment PostNatus Law “After birth” no slaves in Missouri, reached age of 25= free slaves Rufus King brutal attack on slaves, everything failed slaveholders will never compete, slave state needs to be admitted. Every 3 states= slave state comes in Talmadge Block expansion of slavery. give more expansion power to the gov’t Second Party System democrats and whigs. Martin van burn driving force behind it. Unhealthy household become lawyer, entered politics, formed political party in the city (bucktails) Buren and jackson shared views. Built democratic party together Tariff of Abominations didn't want wool imports from londong. Bill failed because VP said no. trying to pull votes away from Adams Election of 1828 Adams supporters made claims about jackson. He wont Competitive 2 party system was the best thing for US Kitchen Cabinet His newspaper men. Relied on them for their advice Patronagespoils system Sought out smart people to put in government positions PEOPLE: Thomas Paine Wrote pamphlet “Common Sense” said what people felt but haven’t yet said it Tories loyalists. Wanted to stay in Great Britain. Can’t see difference between tories/rebels Rebels population committed to the cause. They dominate militia. Wherever the British Army isn’t the revels have power Horatio Gates American Hero Benedict Arnold Real american hero Nathaniel Green Small force but divided into 3 groups. Militia fought at Kings Mountain. John Dickinson assigned to write the document (Articles of confed) Alexander Hamilton couldn't run for US president because he was born in the carribbean. The son that george washington never had. Hamilton realized we need stronger central government. secretary of treasury James Madison Massachusetts government structure was the way to go. People and property Eurocrat negative connotation. Established cabinet level positions John Jay first chief justice James Madison Wrote Virginia Resolution Thomas Jefferson wrote Kentucky resolution John Pickering federal judge, wouldn’t resign. Impeached him. John Marshall Chief justice till 1835. Expanded its powers William Fulton steamboat inventor James Wilkinson Became commanding general of US. Turn Louisiana over to Spanish. Arrested individuals War Hawks John C Calhoun and Henry Clay William Henry Harrison Led militia men Thomas Macdonough battle of lake champlain. set his boats “abroad side” and fired at British Andrew Jackson Had many positioned in 2 shooting rows/ranks. As Americans advanced shot at British Samuel Slater0 British textile factories Eli Whitney Interchangeable parts Senator J.B Thomas half=free territory, half=free salve territory. Tallmadge amendment was abandoned Henry Clay from kentucky, he owned slaves. “the American system” economic plan. Have congress pass protective tariff. create jobs, with the $=build roads/canals Doughfaces Northerners who are soft on slavery William Crawford planter from GA, secretary of treasure. Monroe wanted another southern planter John Quincy Adams from north John C Calhoun didn't have support. take him as VP instead of president Andrew Jackson won bottle of new orleans. running on reputation as an american war hero HIST127 A)Chesapeake Vs. New England Colonies • Differences including population, religion, and economy. • Located near rivers in order to ship goods • Hard to sustain churches • Included Virginia, Maryland, New Jersey, and Pennsylvania • 1607 Jamestown, first English colony in the New World was founded along James River • New England was north of the Chesapeake; included Massachusetts Bay Colony, Plymouth, Rhode Island, Connecticut and New Haven. • New Englanders were Puritan Separatists who sought religious freedom • New Englands population consisted of religious families, such as Puritans, Quakers and catholics • Chesapeake consisted of black slaves this was because of the economic gold mine that they slaves were brought in • The established church in the Chesapeake was the “Anglican Church” • Chesapeake economy revolved around tobacco industry. Slave trade relied fully on the tobacco plantation owners. • New England economy was based on fishing, shipbuilding and farming. Because religion was so familyoriented, farms were usually just large enough to feed one’s family • New England’s focus was NOT economic gain • Plymouth Colony led by Carver in september, People were a minority group on the Mayflower. Sailed around capped and landed in Plymouth. Had problems with scurvy. • William Bradford drafted the Mayflower compact which set up rules on how to live in Plymouth • Squanto part of Wampanoags • Massachusetts Bay Colony John Winthrop, came up with the cambridge agreementvote a new leader. • Because of this is why the Chesapeake and the New England regions of the New World because so different by 1700 B) Indians King Phillip’s War: 1675 tried to form an alliance with Indian Nations. India found out plan and told the pilgrims. Pilgrims shot and killed King Phillip Pequots War: 1637 CN. An indian nation, Thomas Hooker moved in and squeezed them. Chose to fight puritans. • Indians: Corn was grown in New World and sent back to the Old World. As well as potatoes. Europe. Beaver skins, finite goods. Indians had no tolerance for alcohol due to genetics • Powhatan Indians: 1622 Indians launched surprise attack 347 VA were killed C) Slavery, the Slave Trade, and Racism Origins of racism: As Islamic empires spread began enslaving Africans. Dutch entered slave trade. Introduction to the New World: linked leaves to animals in the minds of Englishmen Blacks were prohibited to participate in militia 1654 Black women permitted to wrk in fields (same as VA) Population declined that reduced indentured slaves Slave Codes: Pass laws with what you can and cannot do with you slaves. Can’t teach them how to read and write and they are not allowed to handle fire arms. NO more than 3 slaves can meet in public without the presence of a white man George Bush wealthiest man in time of Revolution D) Economics of Society/Religion/American Revolution Triangular Trade: Molasses and rum. Pennsylvania was the boom state Sea Island Cotton: high end cotton, long growing, sand soil, hot and humid climate **Natural Elites**: People who got involved with trade, they thought that they are superior to others Salem Witch Trial: Putnams vs. Porter= Newcomers. Merchant oriented. 19 people were hung in the trial Bacon’s Rebellion: William Berkeley had friends known as Green spring clique. Raising taxes but not paying taxes Enlightenment: Through reasoning you can sort problems Arminianism: Saving faith VS. good works E) Factors that Influenced the Coming of the American Revolution Mercantilism: economic policy to get speecie and increase employment through trade Navigation Acts: directed all colonial trade. English built ships and crew Indigo: plant used for dye Hat Industry: not allowed in colonies. Already been made in England Admiralty Courts: oversee cases involving trade French and Indian War: being in the US and went all the way around the world. William Pitt. launched campaigns in the New World, promised to reimburse expenses of war Proclamation of 1763: Colonists had to stay east. The rest of it was Indian Reserve Sugar Act: tax on molasses, sugar, and rum Political Crisis: Rise of colonial assemblies Stamp Act: tax on all published materials, books, newspapers Stamp Act Congress: 9 people came together in NY to discuss “Taxation without representation’ Billeting Act: troop having colony pay for troops Townshend Duties: Tax on glass, lead, paper, paint and tea. Colonists were mad and organized a boycott of trade with England. Terms to know: Matrilineal Through your mothers side, women cultivate the fields Blue Grass: limestone region. Kentucky and Tennessee (App mountains) Americo Vespucci: America map maker compass and caravel Speecie: gold and silver Mercantilism: Economic policy with powerful relationship with government. product of unequal trade balance Headrights System: If you pay expenses, they will give you 50 acres of land Royal Colony: ruled by crown; different colonies Quitrent: Land tax. 3000 acres= 30 shillings a year George Calvert: Civil servant, advisor to king Maryland State: proprietary because it is owned by Calvert family Roger Williams: separatist who took matters to extreme, isolated himself Anne Hutchinson: claimed a personal revelation from God. Puritans believe that God can only communicate to you through the Bible Creation Myth: Sky woman, turtle, Good and Evil twin every fall @night, people told creation myths. is a symbolic narrative of how the world began and how people first came to inhabit it Iroquois: 6 indian nations against central NY Sachems: Individuals appointed by clan matron. they hold responsibilities Requickening Ceremonies: Put the spirit of a dead person in a new person so they have everything the dead person had Scalping: their spirits will wonder around for eternity Slave codes: Pass laws with what you can and cannot do with you slaves. Can’t teach your slaves to read or write. Don’t want them to handle guns. Piney Wood Folk: Indentured servants homeless stole the cattle Miscegenation: Sexual relations between different races Stone Rebellion: 200 slaves were insurrected Gulluh: A language spoken by Congo/Senegal. Slaves spoke this because white people did not understand it King Phillip’s War: 1675 tried to form an alliance with Indian Nations. India found out plan and told the pilgrims. Pilgrims shot and killed King Phillip Pequots War: 1637 CN. An indian nation, Thomas Hooker moved in and squeezed them. Chose to fight puritans. Prince Henry: Began exploring Southward. Spices from Africa and India. Ships built markers along the African coast. Vasco de Gama: The man who made it all the way to India and back in 1492 Naval Stores: England is always looking for new materials to build ships. 90% of people died in Virginia in the winter Indentured Servants: Ben Franklin. Indians taught white “slash and burn” cut the tree, let it die, set fire in order to clear area. This allows sunlight to reach bottom soil John Rolfe and Tobacco: 1616—2300 lbs of tobacco House of Burgesses: all white males could vote, land distribution, fixed tobacco pricing, reviewed lawed. Punish citizens for drunk, pay attention to church attendance (2x on sunday) Saving Faith: Conviction within the people that they are going to be saved Wardlock: male witch Spectral Evidence: needing to have real proof Factor: a merchant Geography • Everything east of the Fall line is Atlantic Coastal Plain, or Tidewater. Fall line marks a change at ACP and Piedmont • Rapids and waterfalls occur which allowed transportation. Rapids were in NC, DC, VA, and SC • Blue Ridge is known as Appalachian Mountains. 2400——4200 ft elevation. Limestone based soil • Blue Grass limestone region, Kentucky and Tennessee • Biggest iron range is in Minnesota, production of steel •
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