BMS 251 17.1-17.6 Review
BMS 251 17.1-17.6 Review BMS 251-20
Popular in Anatomy & Physiology II
verified elite notetaker
Popular in Biomedical Sciences
This 5 page Study Guide was uploaded by Claire Neville on Thursday January 21, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to BMS 251-20 at Grand Valley State University taught by Dr. Tara Alger in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 106 views. For similar materials see Anatomy & Physiology II in Biomedical Sciences at Grand Valley State University.
Reviews for BMS 251 17.1-17.6 Review
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 01/21/16
BMS 251-‐ Chapter 17.1-‐ 17.6 Review 17.1 1. Compare and contrast the two control systems of the body . 2. Describe the general functions of the endocrine system . 17.2 3. Describe the two organizations of endocrine glands. 4. The location of the five major endocrine glands. 5. Describe the three types of hormone stimulation. 17. 3 6. Describe the three types of hormones. 7. Describe local hormones (eicosanoids) structure, function and formation. 8. Compare the two stimulations of local hormones. 17. 4 9. Describe the transport of water-‐soluble and lipid-‐soluble hormones in the blood. 10. What two factors influence the amount of circulating hormone levels. 11. Describe half-‐life of hormones. 17.5 12. The steps lipid-‐soluble hormones enter into a target cell. 13. The steps water-‐soluble hormones enter into a target cell. 14. Results of signal transduction pathways 15. Apply signal transduction pathway to a hormones action 16. Explain the importance of amplification in a signal transduction pathway 17. 6 17. The influence of number of receptors on the degree of cellular response for a target cell. 18. The influence of simultaneous response to other hormones on the degree of cellular response for a target cell. ANSWERS: BMS 251-‐ Chapter 17.1-‐ 17.6 17.1 1. Compare and contrast the two control systems of the body . The Nervous System The Endocrine System • Hormones are Similarity transported through • Neurotransmitters are the bloodstream released from a • Release ligand • The hormones neuron • The neurotransmitters (chemical activate target cell messengers) to with the matching bind to target cells bind to target receptors • Localized response • There is a quicker cells to activate a • Widespread response response • There is a longer reaction time and reaction time and has short effect a long-‐ lasting effect 2. Hormones help regulate… a. development during embryonic cell division, growth, and metabolism (anabolism/ catabolism) b. blood concentration and blood volume (cell and platelet numbers) c. secretory processes and movement in digestive tract d. development and function of the reproductive system and sexual 17.2 3. a. Endocrine organs with only endocrine function 1. ex: pituitary, adrenal, thyroid gland b. Endocrine “glands”-‐ clusters of cells with multiple functions 2. ex: kidneys, 4. a. parathyroid gland 1. on thyroid b. pituitary gland 2. brain c. pineal gland 3. brain d. thyroid gland 4. around trachea e. adrenal gland 5. on top kidneys 5. a. Hormonal Stimulation 1. hormone à hormone b. Humoral Stimulation 2. change in levels of a nutrient in the blood à hormone c. Nervous Stimulation 3. nerve signal à hormone 17.3 6. a. Steroids 1. lipid-‐ soluble, made form cholesterol b. Bio amines 2. water-‐ soluble, modified amino acids c. Proteins 3. water-‐soluble, chains of amino acids 7. Local hormones-‐ don’t circulate in the blood a. Eicosanoids are a local hormone b. Formation: enzyme removes fatty acid => arachidonic acid… à eicosanoids (prostaglandins, thromboxanes, leukotrienes) 8. a. autocrine stimulation 1. hormones bind to receptors on the outside of the cell 2. “auto”-‐ self b. paracrine stimulation 1. hormones bind to neighboring cells receptors 2. “para”-‐ around 17. 4 9. a. lipid-‐soluble hormones use carrier molecules 1. carriers are water-‐soluble and protect hormones i. why are carriers needed? They don’t dissolve readily in blood 2. bound hormones and unbound hormones b. water-‐soluble travel freely 10. a. Hormone synthesis 1. The speed of hormone synthesis will determine the blood concentration levels 2. The higher rate of hormone synthesis à high blood hormone concentration levels b. Hormone elimination 1. Liver cells break down hormones through enzymatic degradation 2. Removed from blood via filtration and excretion of the kidneys 3. The higher rate of hormone elimination àthe lower the rate of blood hormone concentration 11. Half-‐life: the original level of hormones is reduced by half 1. Water-‐soluble hormones have a short half life 1. The shorter the life the more frequent is it replaced 2. Steroid (lipid-‐soluble) hormones have a long half life 17. 5 12. a. a hormone (steroid) enters from the blood stream through the plasma membrane b. In the cytosol a hormone attaches to a receptorà hormone receptor complex c. the hormone receptor complex then enters the nucleus d. the hormone tells the cell to produce mRNA e. mRNA is translated by ribosomes to make a new protein 13. The steps of a water-‐soluble proteins use membrane receptors a. Uses signal transduction pathway-‐ Adenylate cyclase 1. first messenger: hormone binds to receptor 2. G-‐protein: bind to activated receptor protein 3. GTP à GDP = Activated G protein 4. second messenger: activates adenylate cyclast= generates cAMP 5. cAMP à activate protein kinase A à phosphorylates (activates/inhibits) molecules 14. a. Enzymes can be activated or inhibited b. Stimulation for cell division c. Secretions can be released d. Change in membrane permeability e. Muscle contractility 15. a. glucagon= blood sugar is low/ insulin= blood sugar is high (antagonistic interactions) b. binds to liver receptor cells c. cAMP increases à activate kinase A d. Kinase A phosphorylates à release of glucose 16. The signal in the pathway gets stronger (amplified) at each enzymatic step a. helps to regulate pathway activities 17. 6 17. a. up-‐regulation 1. more receptors= increases hormone sensitivity b. down-‐regulation 1. less receptors= decreases hormone sensitivity 18. a. synergistic interactions 1. a hormone works together to make a stronger response of another hormone 2. b. permissive interactions 1. hormone A is required for hormone B to work 2. c. antagonistic interactions 1. a hormone works against another hormone 2.
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'