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BMS 251 17.1-17.6 Review

by: Claire Neville

BMS 251 17.1-17.6 Review BMS 251-20

Claire Neville
GPA 3.209

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About this Document

The questions are mainly pulled from the notes which are what we are tested on. There are answers to the questions after the first page. Please email me if you have questions or need clarific...
Anatomy & Physiology II
Dr. Tara Alger
Study Guide
anatomy, Physiology, Biomedical Science, 251, Science, A&P, Endocrine, BMS
50 ?




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This 5 page Study Guide was uploaded by Claire Neville on Thursday January 21, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to BMS 251-20 at Grand Valley State University taught by Dr. Tara Alger in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 106 views. For similar materials see Anatomy & Physiology II in Biomedical Sciences at Grand Valley State University.

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Date Created: 01/21/16
BMS  251-­‐  Chapter  17.1-­‐  17.6  Review   17.1   1.   Compare  and  contrast  the  two  control  systems  of  the  body .     2.   Describe  the  general  functions  of  the  endocrine  system .     17.2   3.   Describe  the  two  organizations  of  endocrine  glands.     4.   The  location  of  the  five  major  endocrine  glands.     5.   Describe  the  three  types  of  hormone  stimulation.     17.  3   6.   Describe  the  three  types  of  hormones.       7.   Describe  local  hormones  (eicosanoids)  structure,  function  and  formation.     8.   Compare  the  two  stimulations  of  local  hormones.       17.  4   9.   Describe  the  transport  of  water-­‐soluble  and  lipid-­‐soluble  hormones  in  the  blood.     10.  What  two  factors  influence  the  amount  of  circulating  hormone  levels.     11.  Describe  half-­‐life  of  hormones.     17.5   12.  The  steps  lipid-­‐soluble  hormones  enter  into  a  target  cell.       13.  The  steps  water-­‐soluble  hormones  enter  into  a  target  cell.       14.  Results  of  signal  transduction  pathways     15.  Apply  signal  transduction  pathway  to  a  hormones  action     16.  Explain  the  importance  of  amplification  in  a  signal  transduction  pathway     17.  6   17.  The  influence  of  number  of  receptors  on  the  degree  of  cellular  response  for  a  target  cell.     18.  The  influence  of  simultaneous  response  to  other  hormones  on  the  degree  of  cellular   response  for  a  target  cell.     ANSWERS:  BMS  251-­‐  Chapter  17.1-­‐  17.6   17.1   1.   Compare  and  contrast  the  two  control  systems  of  the  body .       The  Nervous  System   The  Endocrine  System     • Hormones  are     Similarity   transported  through   • Neurotransmitters  are   the  bloodstream   released  from  a   • Release  ligand   • The  hormones   neuron   • The  neurotransmitters   (chemical   activate  target  cell   messengers)  to   with  the  matching   bind  to  target  cells   bind  to  target   receptors   • Localized  response   • There  is  a  quicker   cells  to  activate  a   • Widespread  response   response     • There  is  a  longer   reaction  time  and   reaction  time  and  has   short  effect     a  long-­‐  lasting  effect             2.   Hormones  help  regulate…   a.  development  during  embryonic  cell  division,  growth,  and  metabolism  (anabolism/   catabolism)   b.  blood  concentration  and  blood  volume  (cell  and  platelet  numbers)   c.  secretory  processes  and  movement  in  digestive  tract   d.  development  and  function  of  the  reproductive  system  and  sexual       17.2   3.   a.  Endocrine  organs  with  only  endocrine  function   1.   ex:  pituitary,  adrenal,  thyroid  gland   b.  Endocrine  “glands”-­‐  clusters  of  cells  with  multiple  functions                2.      ex:  kidneys,       4.   a.  parathyroid  gland   1.   on  thyroid   b.  pituitary  gland   2.   brain   c.  pineal  gland   3.   brain   d.  thyroid  gland   4.   around  trachea   e.  adrenal  gland   5.   on  top  kidneys                           5.   a.  Hormonal  Stimulation   1.   hormone  à  hormone   b.  Humoral  Stimulation   2.   change  in  levels  of  a  nutrient  in  the  blood  à  hormone   c.  Nervous  Stimulation   3.   nerve  signal  à  hormone     17.3   6.   a.  Steroids     1.   lipid-­‐  soluble,  made  form  cholesterol   b.  Bio  amines   2.   water-­‐  soluble,  modified  amino  acids   c.  Proteins   3.   water-­‐soluble,  chains  of  amino  acids     7.   Local  hormones-­‐  don’t  circulate  in  the  blood   a.  Eicosanoids  are  a  local  hormone   b.  Formation:  enzyme  removes  fatty  acid  =>  arachidonic  acid…  à  eicosanoids   (prostaglandins,  thromboxanes,  leukotrienes)         8.   a.  autocrine  stimulation   1.   hormones  bind  to  receptors  on  the  outside  of  the  cell   2.   “auto”-­‐  self   b.  paracrine  stimulation            1.  hormones  bind  to  neighboring  cells  receptors            2.  “para”-­‐  around     17.  4   9.   a.  lipid-­‐soluble  hormones  use  carrier  molecules   1.  carriers  are  water-­‐soluble  and  protect  hormones   i.   why  are  carriers  needed?  They  don’t  dissolve  readily  in  blood              2.  bound  hormones  and  unbound  hormones   b.  water-­‐soluble  travel  freely     10.  a.  Hormone  synthesis   1.   The  speed  of  hormone  synthesis  will  determine  the  blood  concentration  levels   2.   The  higher  rate  of  hormone  synthesis  à  high  blood  hormone  concentration   levels   b.  Hormone  elimination   1.   Liver  cells  break  down  hormones  through  enzymatic  degradation   2.   Removed  from  blood  via  filtration  and  excretion  of  the  kidneys   3.   The  higher  rate  of  hormone  elimination  àthe  lower  the  rate  of  blood  hormone   concentration     11.  Half-­‐life:  the  original  level  of  hormones  is  reduced  by  half   1.   Water-­‐soluble  hormones  have  a  short  half  life   1.   The  shorter  the  life  the  more  frequent  is  it  replaced   2.   Steroid  (lipid-­‐soluble)  hormones  have  a  long  half  life     17.  5   12.  a.  a  hormone  (steroid)  enters  from  the  blood  stream  through  the  plasma  membrane   b.  In  the  cytosol  a  hormone  attaches  to  a  receptorà  hormone  receptor  complex   c.  the  hormone  receptor  complex  then  enters  the  nucleus   d.  the  hormone  tells  the  cell  to  produce  mRNA   e.  mRNA  is  translated  by  ribosomes  to  make  a  new  protein     13.  The  steps  of  a  water-­‐soluble  proteins  use  membrane  receptors   a.  Uses  signal  transduction  pathway-­‐  Adenylate  cyclase              1.  first  messenger:  hormone  binds  to  receptor              2.  G-­‐protein:  bind  to  activated  receptor  protein                    3.  GTP  à  GDP  =  Activated  G  protein              4.  second  messenger:  activates  adenylate  cyclast=  generates  cAMP              5.  cAMP  à  activate  protein  kinase  A  à  phosphorylates  (activates/inhibits)   molecules       14.  a.  Enzymes  can  be  activated  or  inhibited   b.  Stimulation  for  cell  division   c.  Secretions  can  be  released   d.  Change  in  membrane  permeability   e.  Muscle  contractility       15.  a.  glucagon=  blood  sugar  is  low/  insulin=  blood  sugar  is  high  (antagonistic  interactions)   b.  binds  to  liver  receptor  cells   c.  cAMP  increases  à  activate  kinase  A   d.  Kinase  A  phosphorylates  à  release  of  glucose     16.  The  signal  in  the  pathway  gets  stronger  (amplified)  at  each  enzymatic  step   a.  helps  to  regulate  pathway  activities     17.  6   17.  a.  up-­‐regulation   1.  more  receptors=  increases  hormone  sensitivity   b.  down-­‐regulation       1.  less  receptors=  decreases  hormone  sensitivity     18.  a.  synergistic  interactions   1.   a  hormone  works  together  to  make  a  stronger  response  of  another  hormone   2.         b.  permissive  interactions              1.  hormone  A  is  required  for  hormone  B  to  work                2.         c.  antagonistic  interactions              1.  a  hormone  works  against  another  hormone              2.            


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