BMS 251- Chapter 17.1- 17.6 Review
1. Compare and contrast the two control systems of the body.
2. Describe the general functions of the endocrine system.
3. Describe the two organizations of endocrine glands.
4. The location of the five major endocrine glands.
5. Describe the three types of hormone stimulation.
6. Describe the three types of hormones.
7. Describe local hormones (eicosanoids) structure, function and formation. 8. Compare the two stimulations of local hormones.
9. Describe the transport of water-soluble and lipid-soluble hormones in the blood. 10. What two factors influence the amount of circulating hormone levels. 11. Describe half-life of hormones.
Don't forget about the age old question of What does anthropology focus on?
12. The steps lipid-soluble hormones enter into a target cell.
13. The steps water-soluble hormones enter into a target cell.
14. Results of signal transduction pathways
15. Apply signal transduction pathway to a hormones action
16. Explain the importance of amplification in a signal transduction pathway
17. The influence of number of receptors on the degree of cellular response for a target cell.
18. The influence of simultaneous response to other hormones on the degree of cellular response for a target cell.We also discuss several other topics like What does miller's experiment demonstrate?
We also discuss several other topics like For how many years was athens conquered?
ANSWERS: BMS 251- Chapter 17.1- 17.6 17.1
1. Compare and contrast the two control systems of the body.
The Nervous System The Endocrine System • Hormones are
Don't forget about the age old question of In what year did the caslon type of printing emerge?
• Neurotransmitters are released from a We also discuss several other topics like What are the two domains of kingdom monera?
• The neurotransmitters bind to target cells
• Localized response • There is a quicker reaction time and
• Release ligand (chemical
messengers) to bind to target
cells to activate a response
transported through the bloodstream Don't forget about the age old question of What are the two dimensions of communication?
• The hormones
activate target cell with the matching
• Widespread response • There is a longer reaction time and has a long- lasting effect
2. Hormones help regulate…
a. development during embryonic cell division, growth, and metabolism (anabolism/ catabolism)
b. blood concentration and blood volume (cell and platelet numbers)
c. secretory processes and movement in digestive tract
d. development and function of the reproductive system and sexual
3. a. Endocrine organs with only endocrine function
1. ex: pituitary, adrenal, thyroid gland
b. Endocrine “glands”- clusters of cells with multiple functions
2. ex: kidneys,
4. a. parathyroid gland
1. on thyroid
b. pituitary gland
c. pineal gland
d. thyroid gland
4. around trachea
e. adrenal gland
5. on top kidneys
5. a. Hormonal Stimulation
1. hormone ???? hormone
b. Humoral Stimulation
2. change in levels of a nutrient in the blood ???? hormone
c. Nervous Stimulation
3. nerve signal ???? hormone
6. a. Steroids
1. lipid- soluble, made form cholesterol
b. Bio amines
2. water- soluble, modified amino acids
3. water-soluble, chains of amino acids
7. Local hormones- don’t circulate in the blood
a. Eicosanoids are a local hormone
b. Formation: enzyme removes fatty acid => arachidonic acid… ???? eicosanoids (prostaglandins, thromboxanes, leukotrienes)
8. a. autocrine stimulation
1. hormones bind to receptors on the outside of the cell
2. “auto”- self
b. paracrine stimulation
1. hormones bind to neighboring cells receptors
2. “para”- around
9. a. lipid-soluble hormones use carrier molecules
1. carriers are water-soluble and protect hormones
i. why are carriers needed? They don’t dissolve readily in blood
2. bound hormones and unbound hormones
b. water-soluble travel freely
10. a. Hormone synthesis
1. The speed of hormone synthesis will determine the blood concentration levels 2. The higher rate of hormone synthesis ???? high blood hormone concentration levels
b. Hormone elimination
1. Liver cells break down hormones through enzymatic degradation
2. Removed from blood via filtration and excretion of the kidneys
3. The higher rate of hormone elimination ????the lower the rate of blood hormone concentration
11. Half-life: the original level of hormones is reduced by half
1. Water-soluble hormones have a short half life
1. The shorter the life the more frequent is it replaced
2. Steroid (lipid-soluble) hormones have a long half life
12. a. a hormone (steroid) enters from the blood stream through the plasma membrane b. In the cytosol a hormone attaches to a receptor???? hormone receptor complex c. the hormone receptor complex then enters the nucleus
d. the hormone tells the cell to produce mRNA
e. mRNA is translated by ribosomes to make a new protein
13. The steps of a water-soluble proteins use membrane receptors
a. Uses signal transduction pathway- Adenylate cyclase
1. first messenger: hormone binds to receptor
2. G-protein: bind to activated receptor protein
3. GTP ???? GDP = Activated G protein
4. second messenger: activates adenylate cyclast= generates cAMP
5. cAMP ???? activate protein kinase A ???? phosphorylates (activates/inhibits) molecules
14. a. Enzymes can be activated or inhibited
b. Stimulation for cell division
c. Secretions can be released
d. Change in membrane permeability
e. Muscle contractility
15. a. glucagon= blood sugar is low/ insulin= blood sugar is high (antagonistic interactions) b. binds to liver receptor cells
c. cAMP increases ???? activate kinase A
d. Kinase A phosphorylates ???? release of glucose
16. The signal in the pathway gets stronger (amplified) at each enzymatic step a. helps to regulate pathway activities
17. a. up-regulation
1. more receptors= increases hormone sensitivity
1. less receptors= decreases hormone sensitivity
18. a. synergistic interactions
1. a hormone works together to make a stronger response of another hormone 2.
b. permissive interactions
1. hormone A is required for hormone B to work
c. antagonistic interactions
1. a hormone works against another hormone