Study Guide for BIOC 462A at UA
Study Guide for BIOC 462A at UA
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Date Created: 02/06/15
CARBOHYDRATES SELF STUDY QUESTIONS 1 V39 10 ll 12 Match the name to its correct description 1 diastereoisomers 2 enantiomers 3 anomers a Stereoisomers that are mirror images of each b Stereoisomers that differ in con guration at the anomeric carbon c Stereoisomers that are not mirror images of each other Which of these compounds is unable to undergo mutarotation a Glucose b Maltose c Lactose d Sucrose Glycogen and cellulose are both homopolymers of glucose What is the difference between them Removing lignin from wood pulp and forming the resulting of cellulose bers into sheets makes paper Most of us have observed that untreated paper losses most of its strength when wet with water but maintains its strength when wet with oil Why should this be the case What functional group distinguishes a reducing sugar from a nonreducing sugar Two conformations of a molecule can be interconverted without breaking any covalent bonds but two configurations can only be interconverted by breaking a covalent bond Which term applies to the chair and boat forms of glucose Which term applies to the 0L and B anomers of glucose What are the structural differences between the reducing and nonreducing ends of cellulose How are the carbohydrate chains attached to Olinked glycoproteins To Nlinked glycoproteins One can determine the anomeric purity of a sugar solution 0L and B by measuring the specific rotation which is the amount a solution of the sugar rotates a beam of plane polarized light Pure 0L Dgalactose has a specific rotation of 15070 while pure 5 D galactose has a specific rotation of 5280 When either pure 0L Dgalactose or pure 5 D galactose are dissolved in water the initial optical rotation changes over time until both solutions have a specific rotation of 8020 What is going on Glucose oxidase catalyzes the oxidation of glucose The enzyme is absolutely specific for B D glucose and will not react with 0L Dglucose Yet this enzyme is routinely used in clinical laboratories to determine blood glucose concentrations in samples that are mixtures ofB Dglucose and 0c Dglucose How is this possible Antifreeze glycoproteins are Olinked glycoproteins found in the blood of Antarctic and Arctic fish These glycoproteins have the structure AlaAlaThrnAlaAla where n can be as large as 50 Each Thr has a disaccharide attached How might these proteins serve as antifreeze If a polysaccharide is treated with methyl iodide then subjected to acid hydrolysis all the OHs in the sugar will be methylated except for the anomeric OH and those OHs involved in glycosidic linkages Ifthis procedure were carried with a sample of glycogen what products would you expect to find ANSWERS l 2 lc 2a 3b Sucrose can t undergo mutarotation because it does not have a free anomeric carbon all the others do E 10 ll 12 Glycogen has 0L l gt 4 and 0c l gt 6 linkages while cellulose has 5 l gt 4 linkages Water disrupts the intrafiber hydrogen bonds that hold the cellulose bers together oil has no effect on hydrogen bonds Saccharides in which the anomeric carbon has not been derivatized are reducing sugars a mild oxidizing agent such as Ag of Cu2 can oxidize the aldehyde The chair and boat forms are conformational isomers the 0L and B anomers are configurational isomers The nonreducing end has a free OH at position 4 while the reducing end has a free 5 OH at position 1 which is a potential aldehyde and therefore reducing Olinked are Via linkage to Thr or Ser Nlinked are Via Asn The anomers are undergoing mutarotation until an equilibrium mixture of 28 0c D galactose and 72 B Dgalactose is achieved As the B Dglucose anomer is oxidized mutarotation converts the OL Dglucose to B D glucose until all the glucose has been oxidized The highly hydrated proteins probably inhibit ice nucleation 2346tetraOmethyl glucose from the reducing end of the polymer 236triO methyl glucose from the OL l gt 4linked residues and 23diOmethyl glucose from the branch points
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