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CH 104 Final Exam Study Guide

by: Emily Smith

CH 104 Final Exam Study Guide CH 104

Marketplace > University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa > Chemistry > CH 104 > CH 104 Final Exam Study Guide
Emily Smith

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About this Document

Everything that is on the final exam for CH 104
Introductory Chemistry
Zhexi Li
Study Guide
50 ?




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This 8 page Study Guide was uploaded by Emily Smith on Thursday January 21, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to CH 104 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Zhexi Li in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 29 views. For similar materials see Introductory Chemistry in Chemistry at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.


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Date Created: 01/21/16
Chemistry  Final  Review     1   Chapter 1 1. 2. 3. An exact number results from counting objects or is part of a definition. Example: A meter is 100 centimeters. An inexact number results from a measurement or observation and contains some uncertainty. Example: The length or measurement of something. 4. Chemistry  Final  Review     2   5. In multiplication and division, the answer has the same number of sig. figs. As the original number with the fewest number of sig. figs. In addition and subtraction, the answer has the same number of decimal places as the original number with the fewest decimal places. 6. 7. 8. Density= mass(g)/volume(mL or cc) Chapter 2 1. Chemistry  Final  Review     3   2. 3. The number of protons=the number of electrons=the atomic number. The mass number is the number of protons+the number of neutrons. Example: Cl-37 has an atomic number of 17 and a mass number of 37, as well as 20 neutrons. 4. Chapter 10 Chemistry  Final  Review     4   1. 2. In radioactive decay, the sum of the mass numbers and the sum of the atomic numbers must be equal on both sides. 3. Chapter 3 Chemistry  Final  Review     5   1. Cations are atoms that lose electrons and become positively charged. Anions are atoms that gain electrons and become negatively charged. 2. Octet Rule: atoms will gain, lose, or share valence electrons to reach an octet of valence electron, which are typical of the electron configurations of noble gases. 3. Study flash cards. Example: Iron(II)=ferrous 4. Study flash cards. Example: Ammonium=NH4 Chapter 4 1.Covalent bonds are a pair of electrons shared to give both atoms an octet (electrons count for both atoms) 2. Lewis structure: each valence electron is represented as a dot. Paired electrons are represented as a pair of dots (lone pair) or line (shared or bonding pair) Exceptions: Hydrogen can only accommodate two electrons Group 3A elements can for only six electrons Sulfur and Phosphorus can only form 10 or 12 3. Chemistry  Final  Review     6   4. Molecule with no polar bond are nonpolar. Molecules with only one polar bond are polar. Molecules with two or more polar bonds may be either polar or nonpolar. Chapter 5 1.     2.   Chemistry  Final  Review     7   3. The limiting reactant is the reactant that is completely used up. 4. Percent yield= (actual yield/theoretical yield)x100% 5. Oxidation results in the gain of oxygen atoms or the loss of hydrogen atoms. Reduction results in the loss of oxygen atoms or the gain of oxygen atoms. Loss of electrons is oxidation (LEO; Fe2+=Fe3+) Gain of electrons is reduction (Ger; Br2=2Br) Chapter 6 1.Endothermic: Heat is absorbed Delta H is positive Bonds in reactants are stronger Products are higher in energy Exothermic: Heat is released Delta H is negative Bonds formed in the products are stronger Products are lower in energy 2.Increased temperature and/or concentrations increase reaction rates. Catalysts increase rates by lowering activation energies. 3. K>1favor products K<1favor reactants Chemistry  Final  Review     8   4.Le Chatelier’s Principle: adding compounds pushes the reaction in the opposite direction Chapter 7 1.PV=nRT Only use when moles are mentioned in the problem 2. The stronger the intermolecular force, the higher the boiling and melting point. 3.Temperature does not change during the changes of state. Heat absorbed to melt a solid and heat removed to freeze a liquid is the heat of fusion. Heat absorbed to vaporize a liquid and heat removed to condense a gas is the heat of vaporizations. 4. Heat=SHxmassxtemperature


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