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OHIO / Engineering / GEOG 1200 / What are the main themes and thematic structure?

What are the main themes and thematic structure?

What are the main themes and thematic structure?

Description

School: Ohio University
Department: Engineering
Course: Human Geography
Professor: Timothy anderson
Term: Fall 2015
Tags:
Cost: 25
Name: Geog.1200 week 1 notes
Description: Week one notes from Human Geography 1200 with Anderson
Uploaded: 01/22/2016
4 Pages 47 Views 3 Unlocks
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Section 1: Intro, main themes and thematic structure


What are the main themes and thematic structure?



∙ The nature of geography

∙ Unifying themes in geography

∙ World-systems analysis

∙ Development and underdevelopment in the World-Economy

A. The nature of geography

∙ Defined by its mode of analysis

∙ United by a “spatial” perspective

∙ Geography as “landscape analysis”

∙ Two major subdivisions:

o Physical geography

o Human geography

B. The Cultural Landscape

∙ “Structural”

o The human “imprint” on the physical landscape

o Shaped by cultural “values” and traditions


What is the nature of geography?



o Focus is on the “built environment”

∙ “Post-Structural”

o A stage upon which societal struggles are played out o The spaces in which multiple discourses are  

materialized Don't forget about the age old question of What is the meaning of trade­ offs?

o Shaped by struggles by struggles involving race,  

class, gender, power, etc.

∙ Landscape as a “Stage”

o Unifying Themes

1. Location

a. Absolute

b. Relative

2. Place and Space

a. Distribution/Density

3. Human/Environment Interaction

a. Three Historical “Models”:

∙ Environmental Determinism (pre

1940)

∙ “Possibilism” (WWII -1980s)


What is the cultural landscape?



∙ Environmental Perception  

(Present)

4. Movement

a. Relocation Diffusion

b. Expanision Diffusion

∙ Hierarchical

∙ Contagious

5. Regions

a. Region: a “bounded segment of earth  space” (Ostergen and Le Bosse’)

b. Historically, a central concept in the  discipline of geography employed to  

delimit and define spatial differentiation c. But the term means different things to  different people; all types of regions are  products of human reasoning, so they are often culturally/socially constructed  Don't forget about the age old question of How to find the temperature in fahrenheit?

6. Types of Regions:

a. Instituted regions

∙ Created by authorities within  

some organization (governments,  

businesses, etc.)

∙ Created mainly for administrative  

purposes (planning; collection  

data or revenue, etc.)

∙ Boundaries of such regions are  

clearly demarcated and are  

usually agreed upon by everyone

∙ Instituted regions often consist of  

nested hierarchies (e.g. federal,  

state, and local political  

boundaries in the USA)

b. Perceptual Regions

∙ Created informally without  

“official” sanction by people  

within a community or outside of  

it

∙ The “boundaries” of such regions  

are socially constructed and  

therefore subject to debate and  Don't forget about the age old question of Expensive income statements refer to what?

continuous reinterpretation

∙ Boundaries are often “imagined”  

or “internally perceived” in the  

minds of inhabitants based on  

real or perceived commonalities  

(e.g. language, religion, ethnicity) If you want to learn more check out What are aristotle’s types of speeches?

c. World-systems analysis

∙ A holistic historical social science  

approach to understanding  

societal change

∙ Developed by political scientist  

Immanuel Wallerstein in the  

1970s

∙ Concerned with the nature,  

development and structure of the  

world capitalist economy  

(“historical capitalism”)

∙ Based on 3 different research  

traditions:

1. French Annales School of  

History

∙ History from the  

“bottom up”

∙ Everyday lives of the  

“common people”

∙ “Big picture” global  

perspective

2. Dependency Theory

∙ Critique of  If you want to learn more check out What is staphylococcus aureus?

Development Theory in

the late 1960s

∙ Wealthy nations  

actively perpetuate a  

state of inequality and  

dependence vis.  

Developing economies

∙ Developing economies  

provide natural  

resources and cheap  

labor needed by the  

core to ensure wealth  

and dominance

3. Marxist theory

∙ Historical materialism  

(social relations of  

production; modes of  

production)

∙ Stages of  

economic/political  

development

Mode of production

Type of System

“Reciprocal lineage”

“minisystems”

(Many in history)

“Redistributive-tributary”

“World-empires”

(A few in history”

“Capitalist”

“World-economy”

(Only one in history)

We also discuss several other topics like What is life in early hunter-gatherer societies?

d. Development and Underdevelopment in  the world-economy

∙ Structural features of the  

Capitalist world-economy:

1. A single world-market  

operating within a capitalist  

logic (ceaseless  

accumulation)

2. A “multiple-state” system  

within which  

political/economic  

competition is structured  

3. A three-tiered international  

economic and spatial  

structure of stratification in  

terms of economic  

development (core,  

semiperiphery, periphery)

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