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FCFN 275

by: Danielle Notetaker
Danielle Notetaker
GPA 3.8

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Module 1 Notes
Personal Nutrition
Study Guide
personal nutrition
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This 5 page Study Guide was uploaded by Danielle Notetaker on Thursday January 21, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to FCFN 275 at Ball State University taught by in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 31 views. For similar materials see Personal Nutrition in Nutrition and Food Sciences at Ball State University.

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Date Created: 01/21/16
Chapter 1 Notes What drives our food choices?  Taste  Social reasons and trends  Advertising  Time and convenience (crockpot?)  Habits (Do I wake up every morning and have a pop tart or cook eggs, or different every day?)  Availability (Do you have access to fruits?)  Affordability  Cultural/ethnic factors (holidays/birthdays)  Religious factors  Emotional comfort/psychological  Emotions  Personal preference  Nutritional value (most people do not think about what other nutrients they need) Nutrition is the study of how….  Food nourishes our bodies  Food influences our health  We consume, digest, metabolize, and store nutrients Good nutrition plays a role in reducing the risk of many chronic diseases Nutrition is a young science, started in 1900s NUTRITION IS A SCIENCE! Why is nutrition important?  It contributes to your personal wellness or absence of disease In the olden days we worried about nutrient deficiencies. Today is just the opposition:  Abundant food supply – obesity  Chronic diseases from overabundance or poor choices  Fortification of food to PREVENT deficiencies 4 of the 10 leading causes of death have been linked to diet  Heart disease  Cancer  Stroke  Diabetes Obesity is the reason for this. BMI of 30 or more = obesity Obesity is EXTREMELY increases throughout the U.S.  65% of American adults and 15% of children are overweight  results in increased rate of type 2 diabetes, heart disease, cancer, stroke The average American diet is high in:  Sodium  Saturated fat  Calories And low in:  Iron (women)  Vitamin E  Calcium  Fiber  Increasing evidence for vitamin D How to improve Americans’ diets (Goals) from Healthy People 2020  Eliminate preventable disease, disability, injury, and premature death  Achieve health equity, eliminate disparities  Create social and physical environments that promote good health for all  Promote quality of life, healthy development, and healthy behaviors Healthy People 2020 (Table 2.2) Weight Objectives:  Increase proportion of adults who are at a healthy weight  Reduce proportion of adults who are obese  Reduce the proportion of children who are overweight  Increase the contributions of fruits to diets  Increase variety of vegetables to diets What are nutrients?  Chemicals that are found in foods that are critical or human growth and function  Carbohydrates, protein, & fat provide energy  All classes except carbohydrates provide growth, maintenance, support, or structure  ALL classes regulate body processes Six Nutrient Classes 1. Carbohydrates (fiber is included in this class) 2. Proteins 3. Fats and oils 4. Vitamins 5. Minerals 6. Water Phytochemicals o Flavonoids o Anthocyanins o Carotenes o Isofavones o Phytosterols  Macronutrients – required in relatively amounts o Provide energy in the form of calories to our bodies o Carbohydrates, fats and oils, proteins o Alcohol is also considered a macronutrient  Micronutrient – required in smaller amounts o Vitamins and minerals Energy from Nutrients  Measure energy in kilocalories (kcal)  Kilocalorie is the amount of energy required to raise the temperature of 1g of water by 1 degree C  Food labels use “calorie”  Carbohydrates – primary source of fuel for the body, especially for the brain  Provide 4 kcal per gram  Found in grains (wheat, rice), vegetables, fruits, and legumes  Fats and Oils – composed of lipids, molecules that insoluble in water o Provide 9 kcal per gram o Important energy source during rest or low intensity exercise o Found in butter, vegetable oils  Proteins – chains of amino acides o Supply 4 kcal of energy per gram, but NOT primary energy source o Important source of nitrogen o Sources includes meats, dairy, seeds, nuts, legumes Important for:  Building cells and tissues  Repairing damage  Regulating metabolism  Alcohol – supply 7 kcal for every gram ADMR recommendations (MEMORIZE NUMBERS)  20-35% Fat  45-65% CHO  10-35% Protein Americans spend more than $30 billion annually on nutritional health fraud and quackery What qualifies a person to give valid nutrition information?  Registered/licensed/certified dietitian (RD, LD, or CD)  Watch out for certified nutritionist (not real, you can get the certification online, someone’s cat has it)  Check educational degrees/institution  Check institution’s reputation  Call state’s health-licensing agency Government Sources of Information Centers for Disease Control and Prevention:  National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey  Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (self- reported data, so not always accurate) National Institutes of Health:  National Cancer Institute  National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute  National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine Professional Organizations  ADA  ASCN  Others… Evaluate published things with a critical eye, make sure it’s a consensus What is quackery?  Too good to be true  Suspicions about food supply  Testimonials  Fake credentials  Unpublished studies  Authority not cited  Advertisement  Unreliable publication  Logic without proof -Beware of health quackery & fraud! Can look at to see if product is real. -Sound nutrition research begins with the scientific method  Form hypothesis  Conduct experiment Hypothesis can lead to scientific consensus: 1. Hypothesis supported 2. Publish findings 3. Develop theory 4. Establish consensus  Observational research: involves looking at factors in two or more groups of subjects to see if there is a relationship to certain health outcomes  Epidemiological research: study of population (These types of studies are the first line of research, NOT the final word)  Experimental research: involves at least two groups of subjects o Experimental group- given a specific treatment o Control group- given a placebo (“sugar pill”) o Double-blind placebo-controlled experiment is “gold standard”  Neither scientists not subjects know which group is receiving which treatment  Nutritional Genomics- the study of how specific food components affect gene expression in your cells and thereby your health o In one point in time, we will be able to tell you exactly what you need based on your genes to increase your longevity The federal government plays a role by:  Develop nutrient recommendations  Conduct surveillance  Develop educational programs  Help keep nutrition and physical activity on the national agenda


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