Exam 1 Study Guide
Exam 1 Study Guide LIFE 102-220
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This 3 page Study Guide was uploaded by Bailey Sniffin on Thursday January 21, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to LIFE 102-220 at Colorado State University taught by Dr. Patricia Bedinger in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 72 views. For similar materials see Attributes of Living Systems (Honors) in Biology at Colorado State University.
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Date Created: 01/21/16
FOR EXAM I For all exams: Know all definitions in all 1page outlines Understand all of the figures shown in lectures For Exam I in particular: Atomic structure (subatomic particles and what they determine) Electrons (), protons (+), neutrons (neutral) Know valences of C, O, N, H and recognize is something is wrong with a molecular structure C – 4 O – 2 N – 3 H 1 Nature of chemical bonds and relative strength of each type Covalent – strongest Ionic – slightly less strong Hydrogen – weak Electronegativity – tendency for a nucleus to pull its own electrons Van der Waal’s – very weak Given a molecular weight, be able to “make” a solution of a specified molarity Know what pH means, acid, base pH of 07: acidic pH of 714: basic Know the characteristics of water that make it the solvent of biology Molecules are polar Cohesion and adhesion Found in all 3 forms in nature Temperature regulator Reference point for important measurements Hydrophobic/hydrophilic Hydration shell encases dissolved macromolecules Know all functional groups and characteristics Hydroxyl: OH alcohols Carbonyl: C=O ketone or aldehyde Carboxyl: COOH carboxylic acid Sulfhydryl: SH thiol Phosphate: PO 4rganic phosphate Methyl: CH 3ethylated compound Be able to balance a simple chemical equation How are polymers made and broken down (the basic type of reaction) Hydrolysis: broken down Dehydration: built up Structures and functions of all of the macromolecules and their monomers (be able to recognize a monomer for a particular polymer) Monosaccharides Polysaccharides carbohydrates Energy storage, structure Nucleotides Nucleic acid Information, structure Hydrocarbons triglycerides lipids Energy, membranes Amino acids proteins So many… Levels of protein structure/organization, what kinds of chemical interactions determine structure Primary – amino acid chains (R group determines chemical behavior) Secondary – alpha and beta sheets (Hydrogen bonds) Tertiary – disulfide bridges (R groups/side chains) Quaternary – disulfide bridges What causes sickle cell disease? A single amino acid is changed in one polypeptide chain Prions; what are they what diseases do they cause Misfolded proteins – cause mad cow disease, CWD, Scrapie, Kuru Viral structure, host range, what occurs in an infection (viral life cycle) Nucleic acid genome Protein coat or capsid Envelope Life cycle: 1. Attachment and entry into host cell 2. Coopting the host metabolism to produce viral genomes and capsids 3. Assembly of new viral particles 4. Exit of new viral particles from host cell Why is HIV called a retrovirus? RNA genome is transcribed to DNA before the virus can replicate What is reverse transcriptase? Enzyme used to generate complementary DNA Scientific theories, including Cell Theory 1. All living organisms are made of cells 2. All cells come from cells Bacterial cell structure No membraneenclosed internal structures Nucleoid: region in the cytoplasm where DNA genome is Archaea— what are they, where are they found? 3 domain: extremophiles (found in extreme conditions) Technically a prokaryote Structure and function of all organelles of eukaryotic cells, differences between animal and plant cells Pathway through the Endomembrane system; three possible end points Synthesis of proteins Transport of proteins into membranes and organelles Metabolism and movement of lipids Detoxification of poisons End points: Nuclear envelope The ER Golgi Lysosomes Vesicles/vacuoles Plasma membrane Three common features of mitochondria and chloroplasts; structure, functions (general and specific), origin Structure: membranes Functions: transform energy Origin: symbiosis The major components and functions of the cytoskeleton Movers, shapers, and highways Microtubules, intermediate filaments, microfilaments The structure of the cell wall of plants Polysaccharide cellulose The major components of a typical animal cell extracellular matrix Glycoproteins and other carbohydratecontaining molecules secreted by the cells Flu questions Structure of flu virus and Ebola virus ssRNA genome with spike glycoproteins What is a pandemic? An epidemic = an outbreak of a disease affecting many individuals, spread across a wide region or internationally What is a segmented genome? 8 different ssRNA molecules The two flu viral (spike) glycoproteins H and N Hemagglutinin and Neuraminidase H: required for entry into cells N: required for release of new viruses that are “tethered” to the host cell Life cycles including how does flu virus enters and exits cells, how does Tamiflu work, why does Ebola cause bleeding Life cycle of flu: HA binds to receptor on the cell surface Virus enters by endocytosis Fuses with a lysosome where low pH causes release into the cell cytoplasm N acts to release new virus from the cell surface Tamiflu inhibits NA so viruses cannot travel to new cells Ebola causes bleeding because it targets white blood cells and endothelial cells that line blood vessels
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