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This 13 page Study Guide was uploaded by Megan Bestor on Thursday January 21, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to at University of North Carolina - Chapel Hill taught by in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 194 views.
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Date Created: 01/21/16
Which of the following processes occurs in eukaryotic cells, but NOT in prokaryotic cells? Digestion of large organic molecules within lysosomes As we respire, we release CO2. The carbon in this CO2 is obtained from THE FOOD WE EAT. Human proteins, such as insulin, can be produced by bacterial cells. This is possible because ALL ORGANISMS SHARE A COMMON GENETIC CODE A singlecelled eukaryotic organism that is neither a consumer nor a decomposer would most likely be classified in ONE OF THE KINGDOMS OF PROTISTA Which of the following statements relates to Darwin’s theories of evolution by natural selection? ORGANISMS SEEM TO PRODUCE MORE OFFSPRING THAN THE ENVIRONMENT CAN SUPPORT Which 4 elements are the primary component of important biological molecules such as proteins, fats, and carbs? NITROGEN, CARBON, HYDROGEN, AND OXYGEN Which of the following substances is a compound? SUGAR Trace elements ARE REQUIRED IN VERY SMALL AMOUNTS An atom and an ion of the same element differ in the number of ELECTRONS Positronemission tomography is a technique that doctors may use to DETERMINE HOT SPOTS OF METABOLIC ACTIVITY Covalent bonds can occur where atoms share one or more pairs of electrons. Which of the following would form a double covalent bond? CO2 In hydrochloric acid, chlorine has greater electronegativity than hydrogen. Therefore, THE H SIDE OF AN HCI MOLECULE WOULD HAVE A SLIGHT POSITIVE CHARGE How are ionic bonds formed? IN IONIC BONDS, ONE ATOM GIVES UP AN ELECTRON TO A SECOND ATOM Which of the following bonds are arranged from strongest to weakest in biological system? COVALENT, IONIC, HYDROGEN The hydrogen bonds in liquid water are less stable than in ice. Why? THERE IS LESS MOVEMENT OF MOLECULES IN COLDER CONDITIONS CARBON SKELETONS MAY BE ARRANGED IN RINGS AMINO ACIDS CONSISTS OF AN AMINO GROUP AND A CARBOXYL GROUP DEHYDRATION REACTIONS LINK MONOMERS INTO POLYMERS. THEY DO SO BY REMOVING A WATER MOLECULE What can not be represented by this formula? C6H1206? POSSIBLY GLUCOSE OR FRUCTOSE Double bonds are present in the majority of the fats of PEANUTS Anabolic steroids are appropriately prescribed to PEOPLE WHO SUFFER FROM MUSCLE DEBILITATING DISEASES SECONDARY STRUCTURE OF PROTEINS INVOLVES HYDROGEN BONDING BETWEEN ATOMS OF THE POLYPEPTIDE BACKBONE When an RNA strand forms using DNA as a template, URACIL PAIRS WITH ADENINE AND CYTOSINE PAIRS WITH GUANINE A DNA nucleotide is composed of DEOXYRIBOSE SUGAR, WHICH IS BONDED TO A PHOSPHATE GROUP AND A NITROGENOUS BASE Which distinguishes a bacteria cell from an animal cell? PRESENCE OF A CELL WALL Which of the following organelles is found only in animal cells and not in most plants? LYSOSOME What do the Rough ER, Golgi and lysosomes have in common? THEY ARE CONSTRUCTED OF INTERRELATED MEMBRANES Someone suffering from chronic alcoholism in the liver? INCREASED LEVELS OF ER ACTIVITY Relationship between golgi and plasma membrane? THE FINISHED PRODUCTS OF THE GOLGI LEAVE THE CELL THROUGH VESICLES THAT FUSE WITH THE PLASMA MEMBRANE What is a typical function of lysosome? BREAKING DOWN OF DAMAGED ORGANELLES, SUCH AS CHLOROPLASTS Difference between animal and plant cell? THE PLANT CELL WALL PROVIDES A MORE RIGID STRUCTURE Which is essential for the successful operation of the endomembrane system? TRANSPORT VESICLES What mitochondrial feature enhances cellular respiration? CRISTAE CHLOROPHYLL MOLECULES ARE EMBEDDED IN THE THYLAKOID MEMBRANE Which technique allowed scientists to figure out that all cells, contained actin filaments? ELECTRON MICROSCOPY Disease called ciliary dyskenisia LACK OF DYNEIN PROTEINS What component of cell membranes connects signals from the outside of the cell with the inside? INTEGRINS Which tissue would likely contain large amount of anchoring junctions? STOMACH TISSUE Which plant structure is most like a gap junction in animals cells? PLASMODESMATA Which cell structure is responsible for metabolism? MITOCHONDRION EACH PERSON HAS A UNIQUE SET OF CARBOHYDRATE CHAINS ATTACHED TO HIS OR HER PLASMA MEMBRANES What is the primary component of membranes that gives membranes cellspecific properties? PROTEINS THE DIFFERENCE IN WATER CONCENTRATION ACROSS A SELECTIVELY PERMEABLE MEMBRANE BEING IN A HYPOTONIC ENVIRONMENT IS GOOD FOR THE PLANT ACTIVE TRANSPORT MOVES SOLUTES AGINST THEIR CONCENTRAION GRADIENT; FAVILITATED DIFFUSION MOVES SUBSTANCES DOWN THEIR CONCENTRATION GRADIENT How do the microbes get inside the macrophages? MICROBES ARE ENGULFED INTO THE MACROPHAGE VIA PHAGOCYTOSIS A SUCCESSFUL DRUG WOULD BE ONE THAT INCREASES THE RATE OF LDL RECEPTORMEDIATED ENDOCYTOSIS Cells store energy that they use for work in the ARRANGEMENT OF ATOMS WITHIN MOLECULES Light is KINETIC ENERGY, which is converted by plants into molecules, which possess CHEMICAL ENERGY. energy contributes to the entropy of the system How could you increase the amount of energy that could be stored in a molecule of ATP? INCREASE THE NEGATIVE CHARGE OF EACH PHOSPHATE GROUP Enzymes reduce activation energy, not the difference in energy between reactants and products. Which statement regarding enzyme function is true? EXCESSIVE SALT IONS CAN CAUSE AN ENZYME TO DENATURE Lungs are to breathing as MITOCHONDRIA are to cellular respiration In a moving car, the chemical energy in gasoline is converted to KINETIC ENERGY AND HEAT Most of the energy consumed in food is spent maintaining the body’s functions, so only a fraction of food energy needs to be burned in exercise A molecule that functions as the electron donor in a redox reaction LOSES ELECTRONS AND BECOMES OXIDIZED in cellular respiration glucose LOSES, electrons, whereas OXYGEN GAINS electrons Glycolysis is the only stage of cellular respiration that REQUIRES ATP TO MAKE ATP Carbon dioxide is produced IN THE REACTION THAT CREATES ACETYL FROM PYRUVATE Each turn of the citric acid cycle generates one ATP and FOUR additional energyrich molecules Brown fat is most active in LEAN PEOPLE EXPOSED TO COLD TEMPS/BABIES During fermentation NADH that was produced during glycolysis is converted back to NAD+ Chlorophyll is found in the THYLAKOID MEMBRANES of chloroplasts Electrons are added to CO2 during photosynthesis The light reactions of photosynthesis include REDUCTION OF NADP+ The conversion of NADP+ to NADPH occurs with the assistance of ELECTRONS FROM WATER AND ENERGY FROM SUNLIGHT Which statement regarding light reactions is true? ELECTRONS ARE SUPPLIED TO CHLOROPHYLL P680 AS IT REDUCES THE PRIMARY ELECTRON ACCEPTOR NADP+ IS THE FINAL ELECTRON ACCEPTOR IN THE LIGHT REACTIONS OF PHOTOSYNTHESIS How many turns of the calvin cycle are required to produce one molecule of glucose? SIX What is the potential benefit of photorespiration in plants? IT ALLOWS PLANT CELLS TO RECUDE THE BUILDUP OF OXYGEN GAS WITHOUT OPENING STOMATA Which gas contributes to both global warming and the deterioration of the ozone layer? CFCS TESTING YOUR KNOWLEDGE CHAPTER 2: • Trace elements are common additives to food and water • The distribution of electrons determines an atom’s chemical properties. • Covalent bonds join atoms into molecules through electron sharing. In a non polar covalent bond, electrons are shared equally. in polar covalent bonds, such as those found in water, electrons are pulled close to the more electronegative atom • Electron gain and loss created charged atoms, called ions. • Hydrogen bonds make liquid water cohesive • Changing the number of protons in the nucleus of an atom would change it into an atom of different element • A solution of pH 6 contains 100 times more H+ than the same amount of a solution at pH8. • Most of the unique properties of water result from the fact that water molecules are polar and form hydrogen bonds • A can of cola consists mostly of sugar dissolved in water, with some carbon dioxide gas that makes it fizzy and makes the ph less than 7. in chemical terms, you could say that cola is an aqueous solution where water is Solvent, sugar is solute, and carbon dioxide makes the solution acidic. • Iodine and iron are both trace elements. Calcium and phosphorus are needed by the body in much greater quantities. • In non polar covalent bonds ,electrons are shared equally between two atoms.Polar covalent bonds form when a more electronegative atoms pulls the shared electrons closer to it. In the formation of ions an electron is completely pulled away from one atom and transferred to another, creating negatively and positively charged ions. • Elements in a row all have the same number of electron shells. In a column, all the elements have the same number of electrons in their outer shell. elements in the same column should have similar chemical properties. • When water is heated, much of the heat is absorbed in breaking hydrogen bonds before the water molecules increase their motion and the temperature increases.When water is cooled, many hydrogen bonds are formed, which release a significant amount of heat. TESTING YOUR KNOWLEDGE CHAPTER 3: • Hydrophilic functional groups give organic molecules specific chemical properties • Cells makes large molecules from a limited set of small molecules • Monosaccharides are the simplest carbohydrates. It is a multiple of CH2O and contains hydroxyl groups and a carbonyl group. • Two monosaccharides are linked to form a disaccharide • High fructose corn syrup is HFCS, a mixture of glucose and fructose. • Polysaccharides are long chains of sugar units. Starch and glycogen are storage polysaccharides. Cellulose is structural, found in plant cell walls. Chitin is a component of insect exoskeletons and fungal cell walls • Lipids are diverse, hydrophobic compounds composed of carbon and hydrogen. Triglycerides consist of glycerol link to three fatty acids. Saturated fatty acids are found in animal fats; unsaturated fatty acids are typically of plant oil • Phospholipids are components of cells membranes. steroids include cholesterol and some hormones • Proteins are involved in almost all of a cell’s activities; as enzymes, they regulate chemical reactions • DNA and RNA are the two types of nucleic acid. They serve as the blueprints for proteins and control the life of a cell. • Nucleotides are composed of a sugar, a phosphate group, and a nitrogenous base. DNA is a double helix; RNA is a single polynucleotide chain • Mutations in DNA have led to lactose tolerance in several human groups whose ancestors raised diary cattle • A glucose molecule is to starch as a nucleotide is to a nucleic acid • What makes a fatty acid an acid? It has a carboxyl group that can donate H+ to a solution • Cows can derive nutrients from cellulose because their digestive tract contains prokaryotes that can hydrolyze the bonds of cellulose • Of the following functional group, which is/are polar, tending to make organic compounds hydrophilic? Carbonyl, amino, hydroxyl • Unsaturated fats have double bonds in their fatty acid chains • A shortage of phosphorus in the soil would make it especially difficult for a plant to manufacture…..DNA • Which of the following substances is a major component of the cell membrane of a fungus? Phospholipids • Which structural level of a protein would be least affected by disruption in hydrogen bonding? Primary Structure • Amino acids with hydrophobic R groups are most likely to be found together in the interior of a protein, sheltered from the surrounding water TESTING YOUR KNOWLEDGE CHAPTER 3: • The small size of cells relates to the need to exchange materials across the plasma membrane • Prokaryotic cells are simpler than eukaryotic cells • The nucleus contains the cells genetic information, the smooth ER synthesizes lipids and processes toxins, rough ER produces membranes and ribosomes on the surface • The golgi modifies, sorts, and ships cell products • Lysosomes are digestive compartments within a cell, they breakdown ingested substances and damaged organelles. • Vacuoles store molecules and wasted and facilitates growth • The cells internal skeleton helps organize its structure and activities, muscle contraction, anchorage and movement of organelles and maintenance of cell shape • Cilia and flagella move when microbes bend • plant cell walls are made of cellulose. • Eukaryotic cell structures can be grouped into 4 main functions: 1) genetic control 2)manufacturing, distributing and breakdown 3)energy processing 4)structural support, movement, and communication between cells • The ultrastructure of a chloroplast is best studied using scanning electron microscope • Which of the following clues would tell you wether a cell is prokaryotic or eukaryotic? whether or not the cell is partitioned by internal membranes • Which of the following is one of the major components of the plasma membrane of a plant cell? phospholipids • What 4 cellular components are shared by prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells? DNA as genetic material, ribosomes, plasma membrane, and cytosol • Describe two different ways in which cilia can function in organisms Ciliar may propel a cell through its environment or sweep a fluid environment past the cell • An mRNA molecule is transcribed from the gene for insulin and moves into the cytosol. Ribosomes produce a polypeptide that is threaded into the ER compartment. Packaged and transported into a transport vesicle and then joins with the golgi sac • Individuals with PCD have non functional cilia and flagella due to a lack of dyne motor proteins TESTING YOUR KNOWLEDGE CHAPTER 5: • Membranes are fluid mosaics of lipids and proteins with many functions • Passive transport is diffusion across a membrane with no energy investment • Cells shrink in a hypertonic solution and swell in a hypotonic solution. In isotonic cells, animals cells are normal, by plant cellar flaccid • Endocytosis and exocytosis transport large molecules across membranes • Kinetic energy is the energy of motion. Potential energy is energy stored in the location or structure of matter and includes chemical energy • Exergonic reactions release energy. Endergonic reactions require energy and yield products rich in potential energy. • Which best describes the structure of a cell membrane? proteins embedded in a bilayer of phospholipids • A plant cell placed in distilled water will Become turgid; an animal cell placed in distilled water will burst • The sodium concentration in a cell is 10 times less than the concentration in the surrounding fluid. how can the cell move sodium out of the cell? Active transport only active transport can move solute against a concentration gradient • The synthesis of ATP from ADP and P stores energy in a form that can drive cellular work • Facilitated diffusion across a membrane requires Transport proteins and moves a solute Down its concentration gradient • What are the main types of cellular work? Chemical, transport and mechanical. ATP provides the energy for cellular work by transferring a phosphate group to a substrate or to a protein • Relate thermodynamics to living organisms? Energy is neither created or destroyed but can be transformed and transferred. Plants transform the energy of sunlight into chemical energy stored in organic molecules. All organisms rely on the products of photosynthesis for the source of their energy. In every energy transfer or transformation, disorder increases as some energy is lost to the random motion of thermal energy and released as heat. TESTING YOUR KNOWLEDGE CHAPTER 6: • Photosynthesis and cellular respiration provide energy for life. Photosynthesis uses solar energy to produce glucose and O2 from CO2 and H2O. In cellular respiration, O2 is consumed during the breakdown of glucose to CO2 and H2O and energy is released • Breathing supplies O2 for use in cellular respiration and removes CO2 • The human body uses energy from ATP for all its activities • Cells capture energy from electrons “falling” from organic fuels to oxygen. NADH passes electrons to an electron transport chain. • Glycolysis harvest chemical energy by oxidizing glucose to pyruvate. ATP is used to prime a glucose molecule which is split in 2. • Pyruvate is oxidized in preparation for the citric acid cycle. The oxidation of pyruvate yields acetyl CoA, CO2, and NADH • The citric acid cycles completed the oxidation of organic molecules, generating many NADH and FAHD2 molecules • Most ATP production occurs by oxidative phosphorylation • Fermentation enables cells to produce ATP without oxygen. • A biochemist wanted to study how various substances were used in cellular respiration. In one experiment, she allowed a mouse to breathe air containing O2 labeled by a particular isotope. In the mouse, the labeled oxygen first showed up in H2) • In glycolysis, glucose is oxidized and NAD+ is reduced • Which of the following is the most immediate source of energy for making the most of the ATP in your cells? the movement of H+ across a membrane down its concentration gradient • Which of the following is a true distinction between cellular respiration and fermentation? NADH is oxidized by passing electrons to the electron transport chain in respiration only • In which of the following is the first molecule becoming reduced to the second molecule? pyruvate———lactate • Which of the three stages of cellular respiration is considered the most ancient? Glycolysis is considered the most ancient because it occurs in all living cells and doens’t require oxygen or membraneenclosed organelles TESTING YOUR KNOWLEDGE CHAPTER 7: • Photosynthesis fuels the biosphere plants algae, and some bacteria are photoautotrophs, the producers of food consumed by virtually all heterotrophic organisms • Photosynthesis occurs in chloroplasts in plant cells CHLOROPLAST is surrounded by a double membrane and contain stacks of thylakoids and a thick fluid called stroma • Photosynthesis is a redox process, as is cellular respiration. IN photosynthesis, H20 is oxidized and CO2 is reduced. • The two stages of photosynthesis are linked by ATP and NADPH. The light reactions occur in the thylakoids, producing ATP and NADPH for the Calvin Cycle, which takes place in the stroma. • Visibile radiation absorbed by pigments drives the light reactions. Certain wave lengths of visible light are absorbed by chlorophyll and other pigments. Carotenoids also function in photo protection from excessive light • Photosystems capture solar energy. Thylakoid membranes contain photosystems each consisting of lightharvesting complexes and a reactioncenter complex • Two photosystems connected by an electron transport chain generate ATP and NADPH • The light reactions take place within the thyroid membranes • ATP and NADPH power sugar synthesis in the Calvin Cycle. The steps of the carbon cycle in crude carbon fixation, reduction, release of g3P, and regeneration of RuBP. • In photosynthesis, water is oxidized and carbon dioxide is reduced. • Which of the following are produced by reactions that take place in the thylakoids and consumed by reactions in stroma? ATP and NADPH • When light strikes chlorophyll molecules in the reactioncenter complex, they lose electrons, which are ultimately replaced by splitting water • The reactions of the Calvin Cycle are not directly dependent on light, but they usually do not occur at night. Why? The calvin cycle depends on products of the light reactions • Which of the following does not occur during the calvin cycle? consumption of ATP • Why is it difficult for C3 plants to carry out photosynthesis in very hot dry environments such as the desert? The closing of stomata keeps CO2 from entering and O2 from leaving the plant • Compare and describe the roles of CO2 and H2O in cellular respiration and photosynthesis. They are both the products of respiration and the reactants in photosynthesis. In respiration, glucose is oxidized to CO2 as electrons are passed through an electron transfer chain from glucose to O2, procuring H20. H20 is the sources of electrons, which are energized by light, temporarily stored in NADPH and used to reduce CO2 to carbohydrate • What do the plants do with the sugar they produce in photosynthesis? plants can break down the sugar for energy in cellular respiration or use the sugar as a raw material for making other organic molecules. excess sugar is stored as starch. TESTING YOUR KNOWLEDGE Chapter 1: 2. All the organisms on your campus make up a community 3. Singlecelled amoebas and bacteria are grouped into different domains because bacterial cells lack a membraneenclosed nucleus. 4. Which of the following statements best distinguishes hypotheses from theories in science hypothesis are tentative guesses; theories are correct answers to questions about nature 5. Which of the following best demonstrates the unity among all living organisms DNA and a common genetic code 6. A controlled experiments is one that tests experimental and control groups in parallel 7. The core idea that makes sense of all of biology is evolution 8. A biologist studying interactions among the protists in an ecosystem could not be working at which level in life’s hierarchy? The organ level 9. Which of the following best describes the logic of scientific inquiry? If my hypothesis is correct, I can expect certain test results. 10. In an ecosystem, how is the movement of energy similar to that of chemicals, and how is it different? Both energy and chemicals are passed through an ecosystem from producers to consumers to decomposers. Energy enters an ecosystem as sunlight and leaves as heat. Chemicals are recycled from the soil through plants, consumers, and decomposers and returned to the air, soil, and water. 11. Explain the role of heritable variations in Darwin’s theory of natural selection? When natural selection favors the reproduce success of certain individuals in a population more than others, the proportions of heritable variations change over the generations, adapting a population to its environment. 12. Describe the process of scientific inquiry and explain why it is not a rigid method. Scientists use a process involving observations about natural phenomena, questions derived from observations, hypotheses posed as tentative explanations of observations. It is not rigid because a scientist must adapt these processes to the set of conditions particular to each study. 13. Contrast technology with science. The use of solar power to run a calculator or heat a home is an application of our knowledge, derived by the scientific process. 14. Biology can be described as having both a vertical scale and a horizontal scale. Explain what that means. Vertical scale of biology refers to the hierarchy of biological organization; from molecules to organelles, cells, tissues, organs, organ systems, organisms, populations communities, ecosystems, and the biosphere. The horizontal scale of biology refers to the incredible diversity of living organisms, past and present. Scientists divide these species into three domains bacteria, archaea, and eukarya.
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