Energy/Heat Debate Geos 130 / English 130
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This 8 page Study Guide was uploaded by Jacqueline Morales on Thursday January 21, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Geos 130 / English 130 at California State University Chico taught by Eric Willard/ Brenton Farrell in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 70 views. For similar materials see Geography/English Ucourse in Foreign Language at California State University Chico.
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Date Created: 01/21/16
Geothermal Debate Outline Pros) Social: Energyinformative.org states that “Small households (usually low class) are able to sustain heat during winter conditions” allows people to live in conditions normally not suitable ”We can predict the power output of a geothermal power plant with remarkable accuracy” Although geothermal activity in a particular area is actually finite, this is likely to be available for anywhere between 5,000 and 1,000,000 years. This huge time scale means geothermal energy is almost infinite and will be able to long live out many fossil fuel alternatives. (conserve energy future) geothermal energy is the cheapest source of energy aside from fossil fuels because it is the easier cleaner and more efficient to create Economic Pros geoenergy.org Growing business, would be a great investment Kickstarts rural economies where it is produced Can cool and heat buildings with heat from the ground568 25% of revenue is allocated to their state. In Nevada in 2008 7.5 million was given to schools for their needs. Projected 30 year economic output is $84,410,046,000 for the U.S. Environmental Pros: ● Creates one eighth of the C02 that coal energy creates ● Always reliable unlike wind and solar energy ● Can be built underground and virtually out of sight ● Virtually endless resource ● Process is being improved with technology ● Almost entirely emission free ● http://www.triplepundit.com/special/energyoptionsprosandcons/geothermalenergypr oscons/ http://energyinformative.org/geothermalenergyprosandcons/ Second Team Cons: Mia’s Part ● High building costs ○ the use of energy will help save money in the long run (as little as 5 years) ○ HVAC unitHeating, ventilating, and air conditioning systems that can be installed into homes and businesses ○ According to energy.gov Even if buying and installing a unit costs higher than that of other heating and cooling systems, it can deliver more energy per unit consumed than other conventional systems. Depending on certain factors, it can take as low as 2 years to repay the initial payment of the heating system. Shallow ground temperatures are almost constant throughout the United States, so geothermal heat pumps can be used almost anywhere. ○ Unlike coal,petroleum, and natural gas, geothermal energy is renewable since the Earth’s core has an unlimited amount of heat ○ It’s also “homegrown”, allowing us to rely less on foreign energy sources ○ emissions are low as well. Only excess steam is released by the geothermal flash plants and no emissions are made with the binary plants ○ ○ http://energy.gov/eere/geothermal/geothermalfaqs ○ http://energy.gov/energysaver/choosingandinstallinggeothermalheatpu mps ● Extreme drilling According to triple pundit ○ even if there is major drilling, it has the smallest land footprint of any of the other major sources. heat pumps areeasily integrate into communities with almost no visual impactYes the equipment can be hazardous but there is no hazardous disposal processes like other energy resources. ■ coal drilling causes healt ■ geothermal heat pumps are by far the most energy efficient, green, environmentally friendly heating and cooling source available. ■ almost unlimited amount of heat generated from the Earth’s core ○ Geothermal energy isavailable 24 hours a day 365 days a year. Geothermal power plants have average availabilities of 90% or higher, compared to about 75% for coal plants ● High maintenance ○ not only source that requires high maintenance ○ ● Sites are very locationspecific (Triple Pundit) ○ Most places are have some level of geothermal. (other sources are locationspecific as well) ○ The ground where it’s bulid always have the temperature of 50 degrees to 60 degrees F. ○ Hot rock is only about 3 mile under the surface. ○ do not need fuel to transport ○ Based on the Environmental Science, for a changing world textbook it’s reliable and efficient because we know the places we build them at has the resources for it to work http://www.triplepundit.com/special/energyoptionsprosandcons/geothermalenergypr oscons/ http://geothermalprosandcons.net Third Group: Rebuttal / Negatives Oil is nonrenewable source which means at some point it will run out. The Burning oil pollutes the environment by releasing CO2 and other toxics. also releases greenhouse gases which increases global warming. Oil companies build huge oil rigs to extract oil from offshore and inshore. Oil leaks may occur which can cause environmental disasters and killing wildlife, disturbing the biodiversity of that area and it also takes years for to it clean up. It takes a large amount of water to Extract oil from sand it takes a lot of time to search for oil because it’s unpredictable. not only is it expensive but also dangerous to transport the oil information from https://www.keyframe5.com/prosandconsofoil/ Cons of Wind Energy 1. Wind Reliability: wind mills can only be set up in certain areas , only collects 30 percent, sand storms may ruin the windmill which are very expensive 2. Threat to Wildlife: the edges of the windmill can be dangerous to wildlife such as birds 3. Noise and Visual Pollution: very noisy would need to be set up in a special area 4. Expensive to Set Up: really hard to find someone to sell parts also expensive to maintain over time 5. Suitable to Certain Locations: Wind mills can only be established in certain areas where speed of wind is high enough to receive energy , usually set up in remote areas 6. Effect on Environment: in need of large open areas may lead to cutting down trees and taking out animals from that area information from http://www.conserveenergyfuture.com/prosandconsofwindenergy.php Cons of Solar Energy 1. Initial Cost: The biggest issues of solar energy is how expensive it cost to install the solar panels at a home. It usually above $1000, some houses require more than one which would make it even more expensive 2. Produce Power During Day: another disadvantage is that Solar energy is only capable of producing power when the sun's out so for around half of the day solar panels are not collecting energy 3. Solar Cells Effectiveness: high pollution in the area may cause a disadvantage which means it would be harder to collect energy 4. Large Area for Setup: another con is if you have a business you may not be able to set enough panels on the roof since you need a large space to set it up. information from http://www.conserveenergyfuture.com/prosandconsofsolarenergy.php Cons of Coal: ● The burning of coal is a major source of ozone (smog), fine particulate, acid rain, air toxics nd greenhouse gases responsible for global warming. ● Links have been made between exposure to pollution from coalburning power plants and serious health impacts such as heart disease, respiratory disease and cancer. ● Coal powers 70 percent of China’s electric grid, and together the US and China are responsible for 33 percent of global greenhouse gas emissions, and Pennsylvania “the coal state” is alone is responsible for 1 percent of the world’s greenhouse gas emissions. ● Burning coal also contaminates drinking water with mercury and other metals. Hazardous coal combustion waste (CCW) remains largely under regulated, often disposed of in unlined pits or old mines where dangerous chemicals like arsenic can leach into drinking water supplies. ● Now clean coal has a number of variations, but all of them involve stripping the CO2 out of the coal, either before or after it is burned and then capturing it and even clean coal is not carbon free. ● http://www.cleanair.org/program/global_warming/coal Cons of Nuclear: ● Nuclear power plants require long construction times, high construction costs, and high subsidies are needed for construction and operation, as well as loan guaranteWhen those subsidies and investments could be spent on other solutions (such as renewable energy systems). ● In a nuclear power station, the fissioninguranium atoms replaces the burning of coal or gas and uranium sources are just as finite as other fuel sources and the majority of known uranium around the world lies under land controlled by tribes or indigenous peoples who don’t support it being mined from the earth. ● The United States is the largest nuclear power generating country in the world, accounting for almost one third of the world’s nuclear electricity generation. As a consequence , the United States produces the most nuclear waste globally; the nation generates around 2,800 tons of nuclear waste per annum and the waste from these nuclear power plants lasts 200 – 500 thousand years. ● There is a lot of unknown risks with nuclear energy which is why there is a legacy of environmental contamination and catastrophic health costs for miners. ● http://www.triplepundit.com/special/energyoptionsprosandcons/nuclearenergyprosa ndcons/ Cons of Natural Gas: 1.Toxic and Flammable :Leaks of natural gas are tremendously dangerous. 2.Damage to Environment: Burning of natural gas also releases carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide and other carbon compounds which are greenhouse gases that causeglobal warming and climate change. 3. Complex Processing: For use as fuel, except for methane, all other constituents of natural gas have to be extracted. Processing results in many byproducts: hydrocarbons (propane, ethane etc.), sulfur, water, helium, nitrogen, and carbon dioxide. 4.NonRenewable: Natural gas though found in abundance is nonrenewabl and hence likely to be exhausted at some point of time. It is not a long term solution to our energy problems. 5. Expensive Installation The infrastructure for natural gas production and distribution is fairly expensive.This includes separate plumbing systems and specialized tanks. 6. Inefficiency in TransportationNatural gas when used as a fuel in vehicles provides less mileage than gasoline. Con of Biofuels 1. High Cost of Production: if demand increases the increasing the supply will be a long term operation which will be quite expensi. 2. Monoculture: Deprives soil nutrients put back into the soil through crop rotation. 3. Use of FertilizerBiofuels are produced from crops and crops need fertilizers to grow better. It can lead ultimately lead to water pollution. 4. Shortage of Food: Biofuels are extracted from plants and crops that have high levels of sugar in them. Biofuels may just mean a raise in food prices. 5. Industrial PollutionLarge scale industries meant for churning out biofuel are known to emit large scale amounts of emissions and cause small scale water pollution. 6. Water Use: Large quantities of water are required to irrigate the biofuel crops and it may impose strain on local and regional water resources, if not managed wi In order to produce corn based ethanol to meet local demand for biofuels, massive quantities of water are used that could put unsustainable pressure on local water resources. 7.Future Rise in Price: Current technology being employed for the production of biofuels is not as efficient as it should be. *Scientists are engaged in developing better means by which we can extract this fuel. However, the cost of research and future installation means that the price of biofuels will see a significant spike. As of now, the prices are comparable with gasoline and are still feasible. *Constantly rising prices may make the use of biofuels as harsh on the economy as the rising gas prices are doing right now. Final Main Points For Geothermal Energy: 1. 100% Renewable 2. CleanBurning and LowEmission 3. High Energy Potential *other fuels are just that finite, there is only so much oil we can extract. *geothermal has astonishing potential an estimate of 2 terawatts globallywhich is about 15000 times more estimated in worldwide oil reserves. 4. Scalable Production *Geothermal lends itself to large and commercialscale plant operations 5. Base Load Stability *Unlike renewables such as solar and wind power, geothermal energy maintains an ideal stability night and day, regardless of lighting and wind conditions. 6. Light on Carbon *A geothermal system is an excellent way to substantially reduce a building’s carbon footprint. *EXAMPLE : Zoe Reich, an environmental specialist with engineering firm Edwards & Zuck, says a correctly installed geothermal pump system can shave a building’s utility costs by up to 60 percent. 7. LowMaintenance Versatility 8. Smart Land Use *Geothermal energy has the smallest land footprint of any major power source. 9. Green Economy *It takes a lot of workers to build and run geothermal power plants. Each phase of development represents valuable jobs for electricians, pipefitters, engineers, recruits from top geology programs , and more. 10. Promising Technologies * emerging technologies could let engineers use lower temperatures and drill deeper, potentially expanding access to geothermal power in more locations. *The longterm outlook for this plentiful source of clean energy is quite bright.
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