NTDT200 Final Exam Review
NTDT200 Final Exam Review NTDT200
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This 5 page Study Guide was uploaded by Rebekah Schrier on Friday January 22, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to NTDT200 at University of Delaware taught by Diane Oliver in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 103 views. For similar materials see Nutrition Concepts in Nutrition and Food Sciences at University of Delaware.
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Date Created: 01/22/16
NTDT200 Final Review Final Review: Ch. 13-14 Define the following: Bioavailability: the rate and extent to which a nutrient is absorbed and used in the body Hyponatremia: low sodium in blood due to excess fluid intake Ferritin: iron-storage protein that captures iron from food in small intestine Hemoglobin: the globular protein of the red blood cells that transports oxygen from the lungs to tissues throughout the body; hemoglobin accounts for 80% of the body’s iron Pica: craving and consumption of nonfood substances; caused by iron deficiency Goiter: enlargement of thyroid gland (lump in throat) caused by iodine deficiency Iron Overload & what it may lead to: hereditary hemochromatosis—unneeded iron is absorbed; hepcidin (hormone produced by liver that regulates iron balance) deficiency? Most common genetic disorder in US; free radicals damage liver and increase in infections; if untreated may lead to liver cancer, diabetes, arthritis, heart disease; treatment—chelation (IV or pill—iron binds to substance and is excreted) Atrophy: muscles become smaller and lose mass Be familiar with: Iron Deficiency, in children: depleted iron stores without regard to degree of depletion; most common nutrient deficiency worldwide (mostly preschool children and pregnant women); anemia—severe depletion of iron stores; low hemoglobin concentrations; hypochromic (“too little color”) and microcytic (“small cell”); fatigue, weakness, headaches, pale; blood losses o Children: high milk intake leads to iron deficiency Iron supplement side effects: GI distress, constipation; UL 45 mg/day; accidental poisoning in children—200 mg can cause death Causes of Copper deficiency: excess Zinc Rest Pulse Rate: normal 70 bpm; physical activity slows resting pulse rate Examples of resistance training: push-ups, pull-ups, sit-ups, weight lifting Benefits of regular physical activity: optimal bone density, fall in resting pulse rate, low risk of cardiovascular disease, etc. Signs of dehydrations: first symptom is fatigue; thirst, dry skin, rapid heart beat, low blood pressure, weakness Benefits of glucose polymer drinks: attract less water in GI and allows water to stay in circulation; compounds that supply glucose, not as single molecules, but linked in chains somewhat like starch Cumulative Review Define: Essential Nutrient: nutrient that isn’t made in the body and must be consumed from diet Insulin: hormone secreted by pancreas in response to elevated blood glucose concentration; regulates glucose transport from blood to fat and muscle cells Glycogen: glucose storage in liver (1/3) and muscles (2/3) Gluconeogenesis: making glucose from fat or protein; creation of new glucose if you need it Glycolysis: breakdown (splitting) of glucose; 6 C glucose becomes 2 3 C pyruvate; hydrogen atoms carried to electron transport chain; uses 2 ATP but gets 4 (50% efficiency) Complementary Proteins: eating foods with different proteins to get full proteins; low quality proteins combined to provide adequate levels of essential amino acids (legumes + grains) o Animal protein is more easily digested o Soy & Legumes—90% o Plants & Grains—70-90% o Complete Proteins—animal o Incomplete Proteins—plants Satiety: feeling full after eating; foods higher in fiber or protein sustain satiety longer than foods higher in fat, white flour, or sugar; foods with lower glycemic index have been shown to increase satiety (hi protein and fiber); “not to start eating again” BMI: body mass index; weight (kg)/height (m)^2; underweight: <18.5, healthy weight: 18.5-24.9, overweight: 25-29.9, obese: 30-39.5; morbidly obese: >40 Digestion: breaking down food Absorption: uptake of nutrients by the cells of the small intestine for transport into either the blood or lymph system o Villi o Blood transports carbs, proteins, vitamins, and minerals to liver o Lymph transports fat and few vitamins to cells Fat travels to thoracic duct behind heart Enters back into vascular system (blood) by subclavian vein Metabolism: how body obtains and uses energy from food; sum of all chemical reactions; release of energy, water, and carbon dioxide ATP: energy; Adenosine Triphosphate; released during breakdown of glucose, fatty acids, and amino acids Empty Calorie: food with calories but no nutrients Be familiar with: Six classes of nutrients: carbohydrates, fats, proteins, vitamins, minerals, water Micronutrient vs Macronutrient o Micro: no energy; vitamins, minerals, water o Macro: provide energy; carbs, fats, proteins; organic—contain carbon Carbs and protein: 4kcal/g; Fat: 9kcal/g Mineral vs Vitamins; similarities and differences o Mineral: can’t be destroyed, inorganic, 16 are essential o Vitamins: can be destroyed, organic (contains carbon); essential (needed from diet) o Both: micronutrients, no energy Fat soluble vs water soluble vitamins o Fat: A,D,E,K; lymphatic system; not easily excreted o Water: B,C: circulate throughout blood; excreted through urine DRIs: Dietary Reference Intake; standards defined for energy, nutrients, other dietary components, physical activity; recommendations apply to healthy people o Estimated Average Requirements (EAR): Average amount sufficient for half of population; determined by reviewing research articles; helps determine RDA o Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDA): Recommendations to meet needs of most healthy people; 98% of population o Adeequate Intake (AI): insufficient scientific evidence; AI value set when RDA cannot be determined o Tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL): point where nutrient is likely to be toxic; helps protect against overconsumption o Estimated Energy Requirement (EER): average dietary energy intake to maintain energy balance; healthy body weight, physical activity; kcalories/day o Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Ranges (AMDR) 45-65% of energy intake from carbs 10-35% of energy intake from protein 20-35% of energy intake from fats Anthropometric measurements: weight and height—track to identify trends High fiber foods: beans* (legumes 6-8 grams of fiber per serving) ex. ½ cup cooked baked beans, whole grains, veggies, fruit Nutrients listed on the food label: calories, carbs, fat (sat and trans), protein, sodium, fiber, cholesterol, sugars, vit A, vit C, Calcium, Iron Route of the GI tract including valves and sphincters: ch 3 diagram 1. Mouth: digestion begins—carb digestion begins 2. Pharynx: Directs food from mouth to esophagus 3. Salivary glands: secrete saliva 4. Epiglottis: Protects airways during swallowing 5. Trachea: Allows air to pass to and from lungs 6. Esophagus: Passes food from the mouth to the stomach 7. Esophageal sphincters: Allow passage from mouth to esophagus and from esophagus to stomach; prevent backflow from stomach to esophagus and from esophagus to mouth 8. Diaphragm: Separates the abdomen from the thoracic cavity 9. Stomach: Churns, mixes, and grinds food (bolus) to a liquid mass (chyme —partially digested food); adds acid (hydrochloric acid), enzymes, and fluid a. Protein digestion begins in stomach 10.Pyloric sphincter: Allow passage from stomach to small intestine; prevents backflow from small intestine 11.Liver: Manufactures bile (emulsifier) to help digest fats—bile stored in gallbladder 12.Appendix: Houses bacteria and lymph cells 13.Small intestine: Secretes enzymes that digest all energy-yielding nutrients to smaller nutrient particles; cells of wall absorb nutrients into blood and lymph—fat digestion begins (bile breaks down fat) a. Chyme receives fluids from the common bile duct b. Fluids come from the gallbladder and pancreas c. Chyme travels through 3 parts of the small intestine: duodenum, jejunum, illeum 14.Illeocecal valve (sphincter): Allows passage from small to large intestine; prevents backflow from large intestine 15.Pancreas: Manufactures enzymes to digest all energy-yielding nutrients and releases bicarbonate to neutralize acid chyme that enters the small intestine 16.Pancreatic duct: Conducts pancreatic juice from the pancreas to the small intestine 17.Large intestine (colon): Absorbs water and minerals; passes waste (fiber, bacteria, and unabsorbed nutrients) along with water to the rectum 18.Rectum: Stores waste prior to elimination 19.Anus Simple vs complex carbohydrate o Simple: sugar; monosaccharides: glucose, fructose, galactose; disaccharides: maltose (glucose + glucose), sucrose (glucose + fructose), lactose (glucose + galactose) o Complex: whole grains; polysaccharides: starches and fibers Names of simple sugars: glucose, fructose, galactose Risk factors for heart disease: #1 killer in the US; high blood pressure (hypertension), overweight/obese; high LDL carries cholesterol to tissues; low HDL cholesterol; high saturated and trans fat (atherogenic diet) ; Coronary heart disease (CHD) is most common form); usually caused by atherosclerosis (plaque in arteries); increasing age; male gender; family history of premature heart disease; diabetes; physical inactivity; smoking o Atherosclerosis development: plaque in arteries, inflammation, LDL cholesterol becomes trapped and engulfed by macrophages; macrophages swell—eventually become cells of plaque Factors that increase and decrease BMR (basal metabolic rate): BMR— 2/3 calories burned o Increase: height (tall, thin people have higher BMRs); growth (children, adolescents, and pregnant women have higher BMRs), more lean tissue (why males usually have a higher BMR than females), fever; stresses (including diseases and certain drugs); heat and cold; smoking; caffeine o Decrease: Fasting/starvation, older age (lean body mass diminishes with age), more fat tissue; malnutrition; sleep (BMR is lowest when sleeping) Sources of Potassium, Folate and Cholesterol o Potassium: natural foods; bananas o Folate: supplements more absorbable than food o Cholesterol Endogenous: made in the body; liver makes 1500 mg/day Exogenous: from food; DV of <300 mg/day; animal products where there are lots of saturated fats Causes of death related to diet: 4 of top 7 causes of death diet related o 1. Heart disease 2. Cancers 4. Strokes 7. Diabetes Protein sparing: eating enough carbs so protein can be used for its many important roles rather than providing energy (enzymes, hormones, antibodies, oxygen carriers, transport vehicles, tendons, ligaments, scars, cores of bone and teeth, filaments of hair, material of nails)
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