First Exam Review
First Exam Review GEOG102
Popular in Human Geography
Popular in Geography
This 3 page Study Guide was uploaded by Haley Stanko on Friday January 22, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to GEOG102 at University of Delaware taught by Dr. April Veness in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 43 views. For similar materials see Human Geography in Geography at University of Delaware.
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Date Created: 01/22/16
1/22/2016 OneNote Online First Exam Review Monday, October 12, 2015 7:56 PM 1. Map 1/Terms A --establishing a common vocabulary for geographers * Latitude and Longitude (required reading a)--and other ways of naming locations * pay close attention to places discussed in class lectures * look over the tutorials provided for you (on Sakai) 2. Map 2/Terms B—what are/where are major environmental types? * know 4 traditional livelihood types discussed in class—define their key characteristics & locate them. 1. Hunting and Gathering -- extensive subsistence agriculture 1. All environmental types 2. Slash and Burn-- why 1. Trees too large to proved sunlight for things to grow 2. Adds nutrients into soil 3. Rains cause erosion 2. Shifting Cultivation (slash and burn) -- extensive subsistence agriculture 1. Tropical Rainforest-- Altitudinal zonation expands opportunities 2. Slash & burn to clear land, drive away pests; after a few years the field is abandoned and allowed to rejuvenate and a new plot of land is slashed and burned 3. Pastoral Nomadism -- extensive subsistence agriculture 1. Desert and Tundra 2. lots of land needed to graze animals where conditions did not support crops 3. could not be supportive of a large population 1. population density higher near rivers/oases, at periphery of desert where precipitation is higher 4. herded animals that were adapted to the environment 1. Camels in desert, cattle closer to savannah, raindeer in tundra, alpaca in Andes, sheep & goats in tierra fria 5. camels very important; provide milk, transportation 4. Sedentary Agriculture, Mixed Farming (animals and crops)-- intensive subsistence agriculture a. spatial correlation between savannah (Sahel region) & sedentary agriculture 1. Multiple climates in fairly close proximity to one another = environmentally diverse 2. Spatial correlation between cattle production, savannah regions, sedentary agriculture, and population density b. use of smaller amount of land c. Made use of periodic market d. Innovations in soil management, agriculture technologies, transportation systems, and social organization create new possibilities for productivity and development Combining environmental, geographical, and sociocultural assets Savannah historically agriculturally productive = fertile soil Sustainable food supplies + permanent settlement = locational advantage Distinct microenvironments = crop specialization leads to higher production surplus, and ability to trade with nearby tribes Specialized products, short distances to local trading partners, and use of periodic market = locational advantage Located between desert & rainforest = Nomadic herders + shifting cultivators come to savannah to trade = distant trading partners Diverse products, stable markets = locational advantage Periodic Market in West Africa-- the location of the open air market is periodically rotated or moved between different tribal areas Each village may specialize in different things Each village will have benefit to host marketplace almost every week Host villages do not have to travel, can sell all they have * what are some of the environmental and social problems faced by societies still associated with any of these four traditional livelihoods (refer to lectures and required readings from syllabus) Modernization's impact on shifting cultivation in Amazonia: Encroachment, deforestation, land degradation, land ownership and land use competition Impact of environmental change on pastoralists in tropical desert regions: issues of drought and desertification… especially in Sahel region of Africa Created by periods of drought, overgrazing of animals, and overuse of water supplies Colonialism 3. Culture hearths—what/where are they? In what environmental types? (see required reading d) * how did populations in those hearths overcome any constraints in their environment to have a productive food supply? What innovations were used? How did the innovations work? Each civilization able to overcome challenges of environment to build great civilizations Raised fields, drainage ditches stocked with fish (for manure & food)- Mayans (Mesoamerica) Improved drainage, protect crops from flooding, optimize efficiency and output Intense Irrigation-- Egyptians (Nile River Valley) Invented technologies to help use water of Nile in order to cultivate crops in the desert (Shadoof irrigation method) West Africa periodic markets (locational advantages) Incas terrace farming to take advantage of vertical zonation (Andean America) Mesopotamia: wheel, plow, sail, alphabet Ganges River Valley Wei/Huang Rivers 4. Terms C/glossary—pay special attention to terms used in lectures (not all have been used to date) * how do soil fertility, soil conservation/crop production techniques and soil improvement play into food production and population growth? When people can increase crop production and yield through new technologies and techniques, they can spend less time and human capital producing food and that creates opportunities for people to get into other activities like education, science, arts, politics * can you describe spatial patterns with terms geographers use, and do spatial analysis? * Vertical zonation/altitudinal zonation (where you'd find this; scheme used in Latin America) Tierra claiente - wet Tierra templada- temperate, farming, cultivation of high yield crops, most people tend to be found here because it supports the best agriculture (Inca) Tierra fria- potatoes, heartier grains, highest zone populated in central america Tierra helada- really cold, barren, sheep and llamas in Himalayas Tierra Nevada-- snow, peak of mountain 5. Colonization--characteristics in general and as applied to Tasmania and India (Reading G) Common Actions undertaken by colonial governments (India examples) 1. Confiscate and acquire land 1. BEIC used divide and rule approach; played rivals off each other 2. Land acquisitions through: outright annexation of Indian States, treaties after warfare, agreements not to enter warfare 2. Require payment in cash 1. Physical environment in India great for agriculture, located in (sub)tropics = year round cultivation 1. These characteristics make the land very taxable 2. Bad for Indians… led to changes in crop production 1. had to cultivate luxury crops to make money instead of food staples to feed the population… made them reliant on the British for food a. Luxury crop world prices fluctuate = economic instability b. Monocultural plantations often degrade soil fertility, increase erosion-- reduce productivity leads to need to convert more fields of food to fields of export items 3. Inhibit the development of indigenous business 1. Tax any business that tried to compete 2. Mercantilism-- take raw materials out, sell them back as processed goods i. Ghandi fights gainst this-- Salt March to Sea, make their own stuff 4. Invest in transportation infrastructure i. Makes it cheaper to get to goods and transport them around ii. Did not benefit the indians in the long run, each company used different gauge, no consistent transportation 5. Exploit natural resources i. natural resources exploited to build infrastructure 6. Introduce new legal and educational system Tasmania Case Study: Situation in Europe: overpopulated, urbanization, criminalization of poverty and displacement Situation in US: end of British colonial rule, British could no longer use US as release valve, no more import of commodities and taxes 1803: First British migrants (criminals) to arrive and settle Tasmania… set out to recreate Tasmania in the image of Britain British contact aboriginal people, do not understand or appreciate the traditional lifestyle of the hunter/gathers.. Disrupt the livelihood, encroachment on their hunting land Natives depicted in paintings as sub-human, dark obscure colors Population reduced, land taken, disease, demoralization https://onedrive.live.com/edit.aspx?cid=7968cf34ea6f44e1&page=view&resid=7968CF34EA6F44E1!246&parId=7968CF34EA6F44E1!105&app=OneNote&wacqt=… 1/3 1/22/2016 OneNote Online Population reduced, land taken, disease, demoralization Black Wars-- campaign to kill/capture aboriginals… Tasmanians exterminated India Case Study British colonial expansion-- 1600s British East India Company owned by stockholders during the period of mercantilism 1857: after India rebellions against BEIC the British government takes over control of affairs in India Annexation of Indian territory, heavy taxes imposed on landholdings, abuse of British power, westernizing influence of missionaries led to the revolt by British trained Indian troops Industrialization in the UK became dependent on importation of raw materials from the colonies (ex. Cotton from India) Drainage of wealth from India to UK Creation of larger middle class in England, increasing poorer class in India Consequences: famines, internal unrest, land loss, disruption of livelihood patterns, focus on primary sector 6. Development models—know 4 approaches discussed in class (Reading H, syllabus & lectures) * geographical approach: Sach et al. (Reading h) Sach's claims that geography plays a role in shaping distribution of world income & economic growth Poorest regions are distanced from sea trade & in a tropical or desert ecology Poverty is explained by where you are located on the earth's surface and the feature of the environment Closer examination: these regions were once under colonial control which drained the wealth and created poverty They were places/regions with key resources needed for industrialization * economic approach: Rostow’s model (Terms G & syllabus links) Rostow's Model - the Stages Of Economic Development Stage 1 Traditional Society -subsistence, barter, agriculture Stage 2 Transitional Stage -specialization, surpluses, infrastructure If the stage 2 has been reached then injections of investment may lead to rapid growth. Stage 3 Take Off -Industrialization, growing investment, regional growth, political change Stage 4 Drive to Maturity -diversification, innovation, less reliance on imports, investment Stage 5 High Mass Consumption -consumer oriented, durable goods flourish, service sector becomes dominant According to Rostow development requires substantial investment in capital. For the economies of LDCs to grow the right conditions for such investment would have to be created. If aid is given or foreign direct investment occurs at stage 3 the economy needs to have reached stage 2. * geopolitical approach: Multiple intersecting factors enable wealth to be accumulated in particular countries/regions North/South model: one way of gaining wealth is to take someone else's Core Periphery Model: majority of growth enjoyed by a core region of wealthy countries despite being severely outnumbered in population by those in periphery dependencies rooted in colonialism establish core-periphery relations Core countries benefit from inhibiting the development of periphery, focused on keeping advantage * human development approach: class lectures and syllabus readings Human capabilities and rights approach to development Human Development Index (HDI) composite statistic looks at: literacy, life expectancy, access to knowledge, and decency of living; also looks at human rights issues like social exclusion, gender inequality, and discrimination * know sectors of the economy (primary to quaternary) Primary- direct extraction of resources from environment-- fishing, mining, lumbering, agriculture Secondary- processing of raw materials and their transformation into finished products; manufacturing Tertiary- provision of services; transportation, banking, retailing, education, office jobs Quaternary- service sector industries concerned with the collection, processing, and manipulation or information capital; finance, administration, insurance, legal services 7. Demographic Transition (using a 5 stage model) * can you identify and locate some countries/regions that are in Stages, 2, 3, 4, 5 of the model? Stage 2: Egypt, Kenya, India Stage 3: Brazil, Colombia, India Stage 4: USA, France, UK, Canada Stage 5 : Germany, Italy, Japan * world population growth--when did rapid growth at the global scale begin? And where was that growth most pronounced or clustered at different points in time? (see interactive map from syllabus link) Slow to no increase in population until about 1750 Before 1750, any population gains due to agricultural innovations & better food supplies were negated by disease, warfare, pests, and natural disasters 1800: 65% of world population living in Asia, 21% in Europe * case studies of contemporary population issues and policies--discussed in lectures and readings especially China, India, Japan. Know the basic points. (Reading i) China: one child policy-- statisticians found that even without the policy China's birthrate would have declined on its own, skewed sex ratios Japan-- social change: robots caring for elderly, young people not having sex or relationships, birthrate in decline India-- female infanticide * what are the ethical/environmental issues associated with population growth, especially for vulnerable segments of society? What populations are “exploitable” because of rapid population growth and poverty? (lectures/readings) Fossil fuels made possible the rapid population growth Increasing greenhouse gas emissions that may produce dramatic climate change, destruction of tropospheric ozone Toxification of soil, air, water Environmental degradation such as deforestation Loss of biodiversity Slave trade made possible by the population growth in western Africa 8. Demographic transition in India (Map 6)--general idea of changes from 1900 to today- * what regions in India are "better off" vs. "poorer/behind” in terms of modernization, demographic transition, and equality? 9. Population pyramids (Terms C-glossary. What are they and what do they tell us about a society and the needs of that society? How do they connect to stages in Demographic Transition? Population pyramids are a visual representation of the age and gender composition of a population. Used for descriptive and predictive purposes Easy way to see how many people in a particular society are young, middle-aged and old Can anticipate the needs of those age groupings Gain some sense of overall changes in birth and death rates, gender inequalities Give a clue to which stage of the demographic transition a country might be in Nepal Countries in lower stages will have pyramids with a much bigger base and thin out towards the top Countries in higher stage will have a larger population in the middle than on the top of bottom Bhutan Countries in stage five might have a larger top than bottom, definitely pretty wide in the middle as the birth rate drops below the death rate Brahmaputra Pakistan New Delhi 10. Maps 3 & 4 of S. Asia—focus on * 6 countries and their capital cities: Pakistan, India, Bangladesh, Nepal, Bhutan, Myanmar Ganges * 6 rivers identified on map: Indus, Narmada, Ganges, Brahmaputra, Godavari, Krishna Myanmar * 6 major cities in India: Mumbai, Bangalore, Chennai, Bhopal, Kolkata, New Delhi, * physical features of S. Asia (3 mountain chains—Himalayas W. Ghats and E. Ghats, 2 plateaus--Tibet and Deccan) Indus Narmada Bhopal Kolkata 11. Map 5 of agricultural regions in S. Asia—focus on Godavari Bangladesh * what was the strategy for increasing agricultural production; how successful was it over the decades? Mumbai Chennai Focus on increasing output: Early land reform after Independence put titles of land into hands of workers-- more care put into making sure work was done efficiently and successfully Focus on introducing better seeds and more efficient production = Green Revolution (below) Krishna * Green Revolution --what it is, when did India participate in it, where was it initiated & why there. What impact did it Bangalore have on agricultural productivity in India? (Reading j) Introduction of superior seeds, agricultural infrastructure, investment in education, creation of financing/credit https://onedrive.live.com/edit.aspx?cid=7968cf34ea6f44e1&page=view&resid=7968CF34EA6F44E1!246&parId=7968CF34EA6F44E1!105&app=OneNote&wacqt=… 2/3 1/22/2016 OneNote Online Introduction of superior seeds, agricultural infrastructure, investment in education, creation of financing/credit Seeds from western scientists.. Westernization of agriculture was met with some cultural resistance The seeds were genetically bred for higher yields, but worked best in the conditions of the countries that developed the seed Farmers in India had to implement modern irrigation systems, tractors and agro-chemicals (pesticides, fertilizers) Lots of health problems resulting from pesticides They needed sources of energy for mechanization, storage, and transport… capital to invest in this sort of modernization Occurred most in Punjab and Haryana region, across Indo-Gangentic plain * social and environmental impact of agricultural modernization in India—benefits/costs—case studies Created more socio-economic inequality Peasant farmers who could not afford the seeds and modern farming tools fell further behind Some displaced (esp. in Narmada region) when hydroelectric projects were developed to provide energy for agricultural modernization and industrialization Displacement led to environmental degradation: more peasant farmers seeking cultivatable land expanded on to lands that were not well suited = too dry, prone to flooding, mountain slopes where erosion is a problem = erosion and flooding increased in areas of deforestation ** names of Indian states specifically talked about in class lectures or important to information from required readings/recent handout given to them about modernization in India: Punjab, Haryana, W. Bengal, Kerala, Bihar, Madhya Pradesh & Gujarat (states associated with either agricultural or industrial modernization; lowest/highest poverty rates & infant mortality rates) 12. Key ingredients/requirements for Industrialization-- in general and as applied to India (Reading j) Raw materials-- iron ore, coal, river water (hydroelectric) Labor supply India had big population… not highly educated Energy Transportation infrastructure Urban Manufacturing infrastructure Favorable environment for investment India after Independence in the 50s = not open to investment… not until 60s and 70s did they make themselves available for investment Bhopal: educated its labor force, worked hard to get Union Carbide not have to pay taxes, provided market 13. Map 7 of resources and industrial regions in S. Asia – * what was the strategy for creating & increasing industrialization; how successful was it over the years? 50-60s: stay small, scatter investments, discourage external/foreign investments 70-80s: slowly open country to foreign investment, remove trade restrictions 90s-Today: liberalization of economy, efforts to expand and speed growth * where are coal, iron ore, petroleum located? (be able to pin point this on a map and, if given specific names of locations, be able to say if it is near x river/mountain/city, or in y agricultural region) Coal located around Ganges River, southeast of Bhopal, a little but to the northeast of Bangladesh Iron ore in similar locations as coal, in a line through the northeast region * where are the major industrial regions? (on a map and if given specific names of locations) Kolkata, Mumbai, Eastern Ghats 14. Readings in syllabus hyperlinks; * focus on titles of articles/the main argument of the reported story * know where the reported story in the article is taking place * know how the information reported in the article is related to the course 15. Terms, concepts, maps and materials used in lectures: * pay attention to terms, maps and materials frequently discussed in class. * be able to locate where a particular feature occurs or example happens 16. The syllabus is an outline: follow the larger arguments and separate the “big points” from the illustrative materials used to support that big point. Try to answer rhetorical questions typed in brown? 14. Family Planning/population control in India * know what types of family planning programs the government instituted, when, and where they worked best Late 50s-60s: persuasion… Indian government sponsors public health campaigns, offers information about contraception, tries to persuade family to have fewer children Late 60s-80s: coercion… government establishes family planning clinics across the country and establishes contraception quotas Clinics use incentives and coercion 1990s-Today: family planning by changing the circumstances of poor families Need circumstances: healthy life and safe living environment, basic education and social equality, employment and access to finance and social supports * know how Indian society reacted to some of the controversial family planning programs that were initiated * know which states or regions in India were able to curb population growth, and improve other development criteria Highest fertility rates in breadbasket region (Indo-Gangatic Region) Bihar = poorest state, big population problems leading to sterilization quotas * know which states/regions in India best/worst in terms of social indicators: infant mortality, literacy, gender equality, income, The Kerala Model: India's success story Literacy levels and life expectancy are higher than the rest of India while infant mortality rates and population growth are lower History of embracing education for boys & girls, providing high level of state investments in social service, encouraging civic participation https://onedrive.live.com/edit.aspx?cid=7968cf34ea6f44e1&page=view&resid=7968CF34EA6F44E1!246&parId=7968CF34EA6F44E1!105&app=OneNote&wacqt=… 3/3
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