Biol 3080 Exam 1 Study Guide
Biol 3080 Exam 1 Study Guide BIOL 3040
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This 5 page Study Guide was uploaded by Casey Notetaker on Friday January 22, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to BIOL 3040 at Clemson University taught by Christina Wells in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 170 views. For similar materials see Biology of Plants in Biology at Clemson University.
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Date Created: 01/22/16
Biology of Plants Exam 1 Study Guide 1. Plant Evolution A. Major milestones of life on Earth: age of Earth, first fossil evidence for life, etc. 4.6 bya: age of earth 3.5 bya: first fossil evidence for life 2.1 bya: first eukaryotes present 2.22.7 bya :O2 egan to accumulate in atmosphere 700 mya: O 2in atmosphere began rising sharply 650 mya: Multicellular organisms arise 570510 mya: O 2pproached modern levels 450 mya Ozone layer was thick enough to protect life on land B. Heterotrophs vs. Autotrophs Heterotrophs: consume carbon compounds produced by external sources animals, fungi, some bacteria and protists first organisms were likely single celled heterotrophs they got their energy by consuming organic compounds carbon compounds provide two resources: 1.) carbon itself, which is the basic building block of all biological molecules and 2.) energy, which is contained within the chemical bonds that link together individual atoms within the carbon compounds Autotrophs: synthesize their own energyrich carbon compounds the process by which this usually occurs depends on light photosynthesis requires complex pigment system to capture sun’s energy and a way to store this energy in organic molecules plants, some bacteria, some protists C. Prokaryotes vs. Eukaryotes Prokaryotes: no nuclear envelope, don’t have complex chromosomes include the Archaea and the bacteria, can be heterotrophic or autotrophic Eukaryotes: nuclear envelope, complex, chromosomes, membrane bound organelles (mitochondria and chloroplasts) include protists, fungi, animals and plants in general, singlecelled eukarytoes are larger than bacteria; can be heterotrophic or autotrophic D. Miller experiment – what did it demonstrate? showed that conditions similar to those of the early Earth led to formation of amino acids and other organic compounds - found that as much as 10% of the carbon in the system was converted to a relatively small number of identifiable organic compounds, and up to 2% of the carbon went to making amino acids of the kinds that serve as constituents of proteins E. How evolution of photosynthesis altered Earth’s atmosphere 2.22.7 bya: O 2 gan to accumulate in atmosphere 700 mya: O i2 atmosphere began rising sharply 570510 mya: O approached modern levels 2 consequences of the O at2 sphere allowed for formation of ozone O 3 made aerobic respiration possible F. Colonization of land by early plants ** on land, sunlight, CO , 2 , 2nd minerals are relatively abundant—water is scared transitions to land drove changes in plant reproduction it drove the evolution of increasingly sophisticated mechanisms for protecting the reproductive cells from dehydration and damage as plants become more complex, their reproductive mechanisms become less and less dependent on the presence of liquid water 2. Organelles A. Why have organelles? Why have highly folded membranes like cristae and thylakoids? organelles are important because each organelle has their own function, and all organelles in its own way to help the cell function well as a whole reason for having heavily folded, high surface area membranes: a process is occurring on the membrane itself often a directional process in which chemical gradients play a role B. Know the structure and function of each of the following: nucleus: where we store all of the DNA, surrounded by a two part envelope (outer and inner) plastids (different types): chloroplasts: for photosynthesis chromoplasts: for pigment synthesis and storage leucoplasts: for monoterpene synthesis; sometimes differentiate into more specialized plastics amyloplasts: for starch storage******* REMEMBER THIS statoliths: for detecting gravity******* REMEMBER THIS elaioplasts: for storing fat proteinoplasts: for storing and modifying protein mitochondria: site of cell respiration (Krebs cycle and oxidative phosphorylation) process by which energy is released form sugars and stored as ATP peroxisomes: most important role in plants is their participation in photorespiration; often associated with one or two segments of ER; selfreplicating but don’t have their own DNA or ribosomes ribosomes: produces proteins ER: where proteins are synthesized, then sent to the Golgi to be packed Golgi apparatus: packages proteins into membranebound vesicles inside the cell before the vesicles are sent to their destination vacuole (and its role in turgor): “dumping ground”; contains dissolved ions, dissolved toxics, has a lot of salts and dissolved solutes; ** one of the three differences between plant and animal cells plant cells have a wall, plastids, and vacuole(s) ** turgor= positive hypostatic pressure that holds up every plant (that isn’t woody) 3. Cytoskeleton and Cell Wall A. Structure of microtubules and actin filaments; Microtubules: long thing cylinders built up of *tubulin subunits; ** consist of protofilaments built from tublin dimmers (alpha and beta tublin) 13 protofilaments around a hollow core make up a tubule Microfilaments: made of actin monomers; smaller than microtubules but also polar B. role of microtubules in cell division, cellulose synthase, movement of cargo within cell (dynein and kinesin) and flagellar movement; Function: serve as longdistance “superhighways” for motorbased intracellular transport; role in cell division: they’re constantly breaking down, reforming and rearranging as the cell differentiates and divides a property known as dynamic instability; pull chromosomes apart during cell division cellulose synthase: cellulose synthase rosettes move along the cortical microtubules, depositing newlyformed cellulose microfibrils in parallel to the cortical microtubule array movement of cargo within cell and flagellar movement: microtubules serve to direct secretory Golgi vesicles containing noncellulose cell wall substances to the cell membrane and developing a cell wall ** motor proteins kinesin and dynein use the energy from ATP hydrolysis to move larger molecules and organelles around the cytoskeleton framework ** kinesis moves toward the + end of the microtuble, dynein toward the – end C. role of actin in cytoplasmic streaming: actin filaments are constantly polymerizing and depolymerizing, changing shape and causing movement actin networks are distributed throughout the cytoplasm myosin acts as a motor that walks along actin filaments (like kinesis and dynein in microtubules) myosin uses ATP as an energy source to move along the actin filament myosin and actin filaments are used to power cytoplasmic streaming in Nitella cells D. components of primary and secondary cell wall, function of bordered pits in secondary wall Primary: composed of cellulose, hemicelluloses, pectins, proteins (both glycoproteins and enzymes) and water; may also contain lignin Secondary: important in specialized cells that have a strengthening function and in those involved in the conduction of water; cellulose is more abundant in secondary than primary; it is rigid and not readily stretched; structural proteins and enzymes (which are in primary) are absent Bordered pits: (2 types: bordered vs. simple) in bordered, the secondary wall arches over the pit cavity 4. Botanical nomenclature and taxonomy A. Be able to write botanical names correctly Capitalize the species name, italicize the latin part of the name Genus species B. Be able to list the taxonomic categories from domain > species Domain: Eukarya has eukaryotic cells Kingdom: Plantae it’s a land plant Phylum: Anthophyta it’s a flowering plant Class: Monocots it has one seed leaf Order: Liliales belong to the order that includes lilies Family: Liliacae belongs to the family that includes lilies Genus: Tulipa it’s a tulip Species: agenensis it’s the “eyed tulip” C. Phylogenetic trees, cladograms and synaptomorphies Phylogenic tree: / - Cladogram: - / - Synaptomorphies: the red lines; characters that arose in the common ancestor of the group and are present in all members common traits / 5. Botany Intro A. Domains of life and their distinguishing features; What is a protist? What is an algae? Protists: diverse array of descendents of the early eukaryotes; almost all live in water; those that are photosynthetic are called algae Algae: VERY diverse; photosynthetic protists unicellular and multicellular different chloroplast origins different storage polysaccharides different cell wall materials sexual and asexual reproduction zygotic, sporic, and gametic meiosis B. Know traits that are shared by land plants and charophyte algae based on the cladogram the charophyte algae is the most closely related to land plants traits that they share: multicellular sporophyte, embryo, gametangia, sporangium, and cuticle C. Zygotic, sporic and gametic meosis Zygotic meiosis: when the zygote divides immediately by meiosis, thus restoring the haploid condition sporic meiosis: results in the production of spores, not gametes gametic meiosis: results in the production of gametes and is a characteristic of most animals and some protists 8. Bryophytes A. Know traits that distinguish them from charophyte algae – as well as the higher plant characters they don’t possess (roots, leaves, xylem, phloem, seeds, etc.) B. Understand their basic life cycle (see video link on powerpoint)** C. How would you distinguish moss “leaves” from liverwort “leaves” moss leaves are spirally arranged and project out from the stem in 3 dimensions; liverwort leaves are arranged in 23 ranks ad are flattened into one plane; has the presence of lobes look like they have an extra flap of tissue at the base D. Identify the cell layers in a complex thalloid liverwort / epidermis: has pores that serve as an opening got he photosynthetic cells in the air chambers beneath; have no or little chlorophyll chloroplasts: photosynthetic; contains air spaces to allow for diffusion of carbon dioxide and oxygen rhizoids: unicellular that are located at the bottom; don’t absorb water or nutrients; attach the plant to its substrate E. Liverwort asexual reproduction by gemmae cups produces genetically IDENTICAL daughter plants the gemma cups are scattered on the upper surface they’re small discs of haploid tissue that directly give rise to new gametophytes F. Sexual reproduction in liverworts, hornworts and mosses F. Basic morphology of the gametophyte and sporophyte in liverworts, hornworts and mosses
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