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Human Growth and Development Test 1 Study Guide

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by: Sarah Parkey

Human Growth and Development Test 1 Study Guide EPY 2513

Marketplace > Mississippi State University > Psychlogy > EPY 2513 > Human Growth and Development Test 1 Study Guide
Sarah Parkey

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These notes cover what is on the first exam.
Human Growth and Development
Ty Abernathy
Study Guide
Human growth and development, Exercise Psychology, Abernathy
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This 5 page Study Guide was uploaded by Sarah Parkey on Friday January 22, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to EPY 2513 at Mississippi State University taught by Ty Abernathy in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 209 views. For similar materials see Human Growth and Development in Psychlogy at Mississippi State University.


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Date Created: 01/22/16
Human Growth and Development Chapter 1: The Science of Human Development Defining Development  Development- to change  Conception to Death  Seek to understand how and why people change everywhere of every age Understanding How and Why: Scientific Method  Begin with curiosity- personal observation poses a question thus curiosity  Develop a hypothesis- shape the question into a hypothesis (a prediction that can be tested)  Test the hypothesis- design and conduct research to gather data  Draw conclusions- use evidence to support or refute the hypothesis  Report the results- share the data and conclusions Hypothesis- just your opinion that eventually can develop into a theory Replication- the repetition of a study, using different participants The Nature-Nurture Debate  Nature- influence of genes which we inherit  Nurture- environmental influences, such as: o Health o Family o School o Community o Society  Nature and Nurture influence each other  How much of any character, behavior, or emotion is the result of genes and how much is the result of experience?  BOTH genes and environment affect every characteristic Critical and Sensitive Periods  A critical period- when certain things must occur for normal development o Arms, legs, hands, feet, fingers, toes  A sensitive period- when a particular development occurs most easily. o Language o Researchers believe that the years before puberty are a sensitive period for learning a second or third language  Domains of Human Development o Biosocial- growth and change that occur in a person’s body and the genetic, nutritional, and health factors that affect that growth and change o Cognitive- includes all the mental processes that a person uses to obtain knowledge or to think about the environment o Psychosocial- includes development of emotions, temperament, and social skills.  Difference-equals-deficit error- to assume otherwise—to conclude that someone who is different from us is inferior—is to commit a mistake is known as this The Life-Span Perspective- an approach to the study of human development that takes into account all phases of life, not just childhood or adulthood Development is multidirectional and multicontextual  HISTORICAL CONTEXT o Cohort (teachers and students are in different “cohorts”)  How we dress, use technology, value system, important of faith and finances  SOCIOECONOMIC CONTEXT o Socioeconomic status (SES)- has more to do with how you live your life  Income  Wealth  Occupation  Education  Residence Development is Multicultural  Culture  Ethnic group  Race is a social construction (meaning we came up with it to classify people ex: black, white, yellow) Development is Multidisciplinary  Epigenetic- the fact that genes alone do not determine development soon led to the realization that all important human characteristics are epigenetic Development is Plastic  Human traits can be modeled (as plastic can be), yet people maintain a certain durability of identity Theories of Human Development A developmental theory is a systematic statement of principles and generalizations that provides a framework for understanding how and why people change as they grow older.  Theories are generalities, while hypotheses are specific  Psychoanalytic Theory o Sigmund Freud (1856-1939)  Unconscious- motivating factor behind everything you do in life  Iceberg analogy with the mind o Erik Erikson (1902-1994)  Trust vs mistrust  Behaviorism- a study of human development that studies human behavior o John B. Watson (1878-1958) o Behaviorism is also called learning theory o Learning = Conditioning  Classical conditioning- Ivan Pavlov (1849-1936) o Connecting a person to a ringtone o Pavlov dogs  Operant conditioning- B.F. Skinner (1904-1990) o Give and take away through punishment and reinforcement  Social Learning Theory- Albert Bandura (b. 1925) o Because humans are social beings, they learn from observing others, even without personally receiving any reinforcement  Modeling- observe and do what they do  Self-efficacy- your believe in your ability to do something  Cognitive Theory- Jean Piaget (1896-1980) o Thoughts and expectations profoundly affect actions o Assimilation and Accommodation  Systems Theory o Ecological systems approach- Urie Brofenfrenner (1917-2005)  The view that in the study of human development, the person should be considered in all the contexts and interactions that constitute a life o Five Components of Bronfenbrenner’s System  Microsystem- living on campus  Exosystems- coming to campus only 2 days a week, campus is this  Macrosystems- living in a macrosystem that influences our life, imbedded in a culture and don’t even realize it: Starkville  Chronosystems- time system  Mesosystem- interface between two systems including various means of communication processes o Dynamic Systems Theory  Stresses fluctuations and transitions  A view of human development as an on-going, ever changing, interaction between the physical and emotional being and between the person and every aspect of his or her environment, including the family and society Using the Scientific Method Scientific Observation  The Experiment o Independent variable- can manipulate of control o Dependent variable- measured or results of study o Experimental group o Control group/Comparison group  The Survey Studying Development over the Life Span  Cross-sectional Research- 2 different age groups compared  Longitudinal Research- one group of people but multiple experiments over time  Cross-sequential Research- combination of both Cautions from Science  Correlation o Positive o Negative o Zero Human Growth and Development Chapter 2 Notes- Genes and Prenatal Development The Beginning of Life  DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid)  Chromosomes  Genes  Gametes- reproductive cell (sperm and egg/ovum)  Zygote- conception of sperm and egg results in zygote Genetic Variations and Similarities and the Human Genome  Genotype- hidden internal genetic potential (inherited)  Phenotype- external observable (what you see in another person) (attractiveness, intelligence)  Genome- full set of genes that are the instructions to make an individual member of a certain species Siblings and Twins  Monozygotic (identical) twins o Have to be the same gender because only 1 sperm and 1 ovum  Dizygotic (fraternal) twins o 2 sperm and 2 eggs fertilized at approx. the same time o Could have 2 males/2 females or 2 of one of each o It is possible for them to have different fathers o Time table for that window: 10 days-2 weeksish rd  Male and Female (23 pair) o Females: XX o Males: XY  Dominant-Recessive Heredity o Blood type B and Rh-positive blood o Brown and blue eyes o Polygenic genes- almost every trait is this; influenced by many genes Advising Prospective Parents and Presenting the Facts (pg. 50-57)  Genetic counseling  Ethical guidelines  Potential genetic counseling issues o False positives and false negatives o True positives may cause additional stress Down Syndrome- 3 copies of chromosome 21 From Zygote to Newborn  Three main periods of prenatal development  Germinal Period (first two weeks after conception)- zygote/blastocyst  Embryonic Period (3 through 8 week)- embryo th  Fetal Period (9 week until birth)- fetus The Fetal Period  Age of Viability  Age at which a preterm newborn may survive (possible, not probable)  22 weeks- survivable is possible Birth- page 63-64 (look at the table) APGAR scale  Color  Heartbeat  Reflex irritability  Muscle tone  Respiratory effort Low Birthweight  Low birthweight (LBW) o Less than 5 ½ pounds at birth  Very low birthweight (VLBW) o Under 3 pounds, 5 ounces at birth  Extremely low birthweight (ELBW) o Under 2 pounds, 3 ounces at birth Page 73- teratogen: produces developmental delay or low birth weight, such as smoking or tobacco


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