FOS 2001 Man's Food EXAM 1 STUDY GUIDE
FOS 2001 Man's Food EXAM 1 STUDY GUIDE Fos 2001
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This 21 page Study Guide was uploaded by Sarah Sherr on Friday January 22, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Fos 2001 at University of Florida taught by Agata Olga Kowalewska in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 131 views. For similar materials see Man's Food in Nutrition and Food Sciences at University of Florida.
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Date Created: 01/22/16
Nutrition: The Beginning Lesson 1: An Introduction to Man’s Food Healthy People 2010 What is the name of the health improvement program that the U.S. Surgeon General has asked to be implemented? Healthy People 2010 What are the two main goals of Healthy People 2010? 1. To help all Americans increase their life expectancy and improve their quality of life 2. To eliminate health disparities among different segments of the population Leading Causes of Illness and Death in the United States List the three leading causes of death in the United States and the risk factors that are associated with these three ailments. 1. Heart diseases 2. Cancers 3. Strokes The risk factors are diet and exercise. What percentage of all cancers can be attributed to diet and lifestyle? 30% to 40% Habits That Affect Health List the three habits that affect nutrition and health as stated in the U.S. Surgeon General’s report on Nutrition and Health. 1. Tobacco 2. Diet 3. Alcohol What are the two most important things a person can do to have a long healthy life? 1. Good diet 2. Exercise regularly Golden Rice Link Golden Rice is genetically altered to ultimately produce which nutrient? Betacarotene Are genetically modified foods safe? Yes What is Nutrition? What is the difference between qualitative science and quantitative science? Qualitative Science – Describes which chemicals the body needs for optimal health and wellbeing Quantitative Science – Indicates how much of each chemical is needed by the body Define nutrition as it applies to this course. The study of nutrition considers which chemicals, and how much, are needed to support and sustain a healthy body. Qualitative Science of Nutrition – Nutrients List the six categories of nutrients and group them into macronutrients and micronutrients. Macronutrients – Carbohydrates, fats, proteins, water Micronutrients – Vitamins, minerals What is the difference between a macronutrient and a micronutrient? Macronutrients – Make up the largest portion of any food stuff, by weight Micronutrients – Make up a small percentage of our food, by weight Define each of the four macronutrients and the two micronutrients. Carbohydrates – Our body’s most efficient source of energy/essential component in the production of many structural and functional materials Fats – Divided in two categories: o Saturated – Solid at room temperature/found mostly in animal tissues o Unsaturated – Liquid and found mostly in plants Proteins – Building blocks that make up this nutrient are called amino acids (found in all foods derived from animals/plants) Water – Environment in which cells live (~60% of body weight) Vitamins – Organic compounds that are synthesized (for the most part) only by plants and bacteria; our supply comes from plant foods and our own bowel bacteria Minerals – Nutrients come from inorganic matter (primarily the earth; some are important in our structural material, for instance, our bones and teeth) What are the three functions of nutrients? 1. Building blocks: for example, protein is used for muscle, calcium for skeleton etc. 2. Energy: for the body/cells 3. Maintenance/regulation: help maintain homeostasis Define homeostasis. The ability or tendency of an organism or a call to maintain internal equilibrium by adjusting its physiobiological processes. What function do carbohydrates perform? Supply energy for the body. What are the functions of minerals? Supply building blocks (calcium/phosphorus for bones and teeth) and maintenance (zinc, ironhemoglobin) Nutrients in Food About how many chemicals are required by the body for optimal health and wellbeing? Approximately 40 chemicals The Digestive System, Nutrition, and Metabolism Link Quantitative Aspect of Nutrition Define dimension. A physical or chemical parameter that can be measured. (Ex: length/weight/volume) What is the most commonly used unit in nutrition? Mass/weight (gram) – Measure of the quantity of matter that an object contains (not dependent on gravity). Understanding Food Labels Minimum Daily Requirement is the minimal amount required to prevent what? Deficiency Origins of Recommended Dietary Allowance What is the better measurement of nutritional status than MDR? Recommended dietary Allowance (RDA) – Optimal amount for health and wellbeing What are the two major influences in the development of the RDA? 1. 1930s1940s – Government began to ask questions about nutritional status of citizens 2. World War II – National program to ensure health of soldiers Defining the RDA Define essential nutrients. Nutrients that cannot be made by the body and must be obtained from an outside source (i.e.: consuming food) – most of the 40 required chemicals. Who is responsible for the RDA standards? Food and Nutrition Board of the National Research Council (a part of the National Academy of Sciences) What part of the population does the RDA apply to? Normal healthy individuals (does not apply to people with medical issues) How the RDA is Determined What percentage of the population does the RDA cover? 97.5% What two categories does the RDA take into account? Age – Infant, child, adult Gender – Male, female Meeting the RDA What steps can you take to ensure you meet the RDA values for all the nutrients? Eat a variety of food to cover more nutrients Select palatable food RDA = strictly recommendation choice to follow or not Adjustments may be made if you face disorders/diseases (require special dietary needs – consult dietitian) Nutrition Facts on Food Labels What are nutritional values broken down into? Serving size and servings per container Calories per serving and calories from fat are also shown What is the daily value usually based on? A 2000 calorie per day diet; percentages for the macronutrients are again calculated based on reference standards for these nutrients. Food Labels and Portion Size Link What has become the recent problem with people using Nutrition Labels to keep track of their daily consumption? It is based on serving size (causes misreadings for carbs, salt, sugar, etc.) Calculating Your Own Requirements Does the amount of micronutrients change when you adjust your caloric intake? No, only macronutrients change What Drives our Food Choices? Give an example of a hedonic food. Buttered popcorn/ M&M’s What is a comfort food? A comfort food is a food a person eats to obtain a degree of psychological comfort. This may be a bowl of soup on a cold day or a pint of ice cream when we are sad. Overweight and Obesity List three things a person could do to help prevent an overweight lifestyle. Reduce time spent watching and in other sedentary behaviors Build physical activity into regular routines Ensure that the school breakfast/lunch programs meet nutrition standards Increase in Obesity Rates in the United States Link What is BMI and how is it measured (include the formula.)? Body mass index is used as a screening tool to identify possible weight problems for adults. It is a measure of an adult’s weight in relation to height. 2 Kg/m A BMI of 30 indicates what? Obesity Today’s Nutrition Experts What is the difference between a Registered Dietician and a Public Health Nutritionist? Registered Dietician – A person who has completed at least a bachelor’s degree at an accredited university in the U.S., has completed an accredited supervised practice program, and has passed a national exam administered by the American Dietetic Association. Public Health Nutritionist – Has an undergraduate degree in nutrition but is not a Registered Dietician. Gaining Nutrition through Alternate Methods What is the difference between enteral nutrition and parenteral nutrition? Enteral Nutrition – Tube feeding of a specially prepared formula Parenteral Nutrition – Injects nutrients directly into the bloodstream through intravenous feeding Lesson 2: The History of Nutritional Development Doctrine of Signatures What is the Doctrine of Signatures and what did it support? The concept that provided an explanation for the benefits to be gained from certain foods. This doctrine supported the idea that plants and animals were signs from the gods – the nutritional value derived from the plant or animal was directly related to the appearance of the plant or animal. In other words, appearance was related to function. Individual Contributions to Nutritional Sciences Who is commonly referred to as the father of medicine? Hippocrates Define aliment. Supports, sustains, or nourishes, such as food. What is the alimentary canal? The tube of the digestive system through which food passes, is digested, and from which wastes are eliminated. Who is considered the water of the study of metabolic balance? Sanctorius Diet Linked to Health Inadequate amounts of Vitamin C can cause what illness? Scurvy What was discovered to prevent the presence of scurvy? Fresh fruit and vegetables rich in vitamin c. Importance of Nutrients What three things are needed for optimal health and wellbeing? Carbs Fats Proteins Who defined the chemical composition of protein? Gerardus Mulder (Dutch Scientist) Nutriment Nomenclature Who coined the word vitamins and what does it mean? It was coined by Kazimierz (Casimir) Funk and it means vital to life. Benefits of Nutritional Discoveries Who is responsible for listing vitamins and minerals that are essential for optimal health and wellbeing? The Department of Agriculture (USDA), along with its sister agency Department of Health and Human Services, publishes dietary recommendations (Dietary Guidelines for Americans), listing vitamins and minerals that are essential for optimal health and wellbeing. Monitoring The World’s Food Supply What governmental agency is responsible for guarding the public’s health? Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Food Consumption throughout History Lesson 3: The Cell Cells in the Human Body Make a flow diagram of how cell come to make systems such as the nervous system. CellsTissuesOrgans (liver/heart/spleen)Systems (digestive/nervous/circulatory)Human being The Primeval Sea List the five conditions needed for a cell to survive Abundant oxygen Abundant water Constant temperature Constant acidity Constant osmatic pressure More Conditions Necessary for Life to Exist What is bulk for dilution? More size = greater protection against detrimental elements and toxins Define anatomy. The term anatomy (the science of the structure of living organisms) is derived from two Greek terms: “tomy” meaning to cut, and “ana” – meaning apart. Greek anatomists began their study of the human body by “cutting apart” or dissecting preserved animals or organs. Define physiology. The term physiology (the science of the functioning of living organisms) is also derived from two Greek terms: “ology” – meaning the study of, and “physio” – meaning nature. Physiology focuses on how the body and its parts function. What is the most complex structural organization level? Organ System What is the smallest unit of all living things? Cells Define an organ. A structure that is composed of two or more tissue types and performs a special function for the body. List the eleven organ systems. 1. Integumentary 2. Skeletal 3. Muscular 4. Nervous 5. Endocrine 6. Cardiovascular 7. Lymphatic 8. Respiratory 9. Digestive 10. Urinary 11. Reproductive What is the body’s largest organ system? Integumentary List the three categories of muscles. Skeletal (bone) Visceral (organ) Cardiac (heart) What is the function of the cardiovascular system? (Circulatory) Transports nutrients/other substances to the cells Transports waste away from cells The urinary system is known as the excretory and is involved in wasteremoval such as nitrogen containing wastes. Define metabolism. The term that refers to all the chemical processes in the organism. Describe a basic human life cycle. Reproduction occurs at the cellular level in producing the sex cells (sperm and eggs), as well as at the organism level for the production of the offspring. The union of the sperm and egg results in an embryo, which must implant in the uterus of the female. The developing fetus will continue to develop into a baby through the gestational period. What are the three components involved in regulating homeostasis? Receptor: responds to changes in the environment (or stimuli) Control Center: analyzes the information it receives and then determines the appropriate response or course of action Effector: responds by counteracting change or has a effect on the controlled condition Give an example of a “positive” feedback loop in the human body, Blood clotting Childbirth What is considered to be the anatomical position? The body is standing erect, face forward with feet parallel and arms hanging at the side, and with palms facing forward. What is the difference between a sagittal plane and a transverse plane? Sagittal plane – A cut made lengthwise, dividing the body into right and left parts. If the cut is made down the center of the body, it is referred to as a midsagittal plane which produces equal right and left parts. Transverse plane (cross section) – A cut made along a horizontal plane, dividing the body or organ into superior and inferior parts. The two large cavities that house and protect organs are dorsal and ventral. Matter is anything that takes up space and has weight. All matter is composed of a limited number of substances called elements. Which four elements are essential for the building blocks of life? Carbon Oxygen Hydrogen Nitrogen When two or more atoms combine chemically, a molecule is formed. What is the difference between a molecule and a compound? A molecule is composed of the same atoms while a compound is composed of different atoms. Inorganic Compounds, lack carbon and tend to be small, simple molecules. An example is water. Give examples for organic compounds. Carbohydrates Lipids Proteins What are two of the most significant nucleic acids in the body? DNA RNA List the two fundamental roles of DNA. Replicates itself exactly before cell division. Provides instructions for building every protein in the body. Define enzymes. “Functional” proteins in that they act as catalysts for many chemical reactions in the body. Define catalyst. A substance that increases the rate of a chemical reaction without becoming a part of the product of the reaction. What chemical provides the energy for the body to perform its tasks? Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP) How is ATP produced? Digestion of food Oxidation Basic Parts of a Cell List all of the major components of a basic cell. Plasma membrane Organelles Nucleus Lysosomes Mitochondrion Ribosome Rough/Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum Golgi Apparatus Cytosol Parts of the Cell Link Building Blocks List the three building block categories. Carbohydrates Proteins Lipids Nutritional Needs of Infants What is the first solid an infant should receive at six months old? Single Grain Cereal What types of foods should be avoided in infants under a year old? Chocolate Cheese Fish Strawberries Cow milk Egg whites Peanut butter Dietary Challenges of Adolescents When is the last change for the body to maximize peak bone mass? Adolescence Calcium, Vitamin D, and Iron are important because they contribute to bone and muscle growth. Nutritional Challenges for Adults What type of chemicals may help reduce the risk for certain diseases and illnesses? Phytochemicals Fiber may help reduce the risk of diverticulosis, heart disease, type 2 diabetes mellitus, obesity, and certain cancers. What preformed vitamin should be limited in adults to reduce the risk of osteoporosis? Vitamin A List the two vitamins that older adults possibly need to supplement in their diet. Vitamin D Vitamin B12 Lesson 4: Digestion and Absorption of Chemicals in the Human Body Digestive System Terminology Define peristalsis and gastrin. Peristalsis – The forward, rhythmic motion that moves food through the digestive system. Gastrin – A digestive hormone produced in the stomach that stimulates digestive activities and increases motility and emptying. What are the four accessory organs in the digestive system? Salivary Glands Liver Gallbladder Pancreas Digestion and Absorption What is digestion? Digestion is the breaking down of macronutrients contained in foods into basic building blocks, or elements, required for the body’s nourishment. Even though fiber is nondigestible it offers what advantage in the digestive tract? Prevents/minimizes the risk of diverticular disease. Digestion and Absorption Link Define absorption. The movement of nutrients, salts, and water across the GI epithelium into blood or lymph. Know each of the components of the three most abundant dietary disaccharides: sucrose, lactose, and maltose. Sucrose = Glucose/Fructose Lactose = Glucose/Galactose Maltose = Glucose Starch is digested to glucose. What are proteins digested into? Peptide fragments and amino acids. What does most dietary fat consist of? Triglycerides Triglycerides are digested to monoglycerides and fatty acids. How are polar and nonpolar substances absorbed in digestion? Polar are absorbed via carriermediated transport. Nonpolar are absorbed across the intestinal epithelium by simple diffusion. Plant starch and Glycogen are the most abundant dietary carbohydrates. Where and how does the digestion of starch occur? It occurs in the mouth with the usage of salivary amylase. Where and how does the digestion of protein occur? It occurs in the stomach with the usage of pepsin. Which enzyme is maximally active at an acidic pH? Pepsin. Define a peptide. A chain of amino acids linked by peptide bonds. What organ provides the enzymes for digestion? Pancreas Where does most of the digestion and absorption occur in the G.I. tract? Small Intestine Humans lack digestive enzymes for what type(s) of carbohydrates? Cellulose (Plant polysaccharide) What does fiber do for humans in the digestive tract? Increases bulk of the stool and promotes its timely movement through the colon. By which two ways can salt and water be absorbed in the small intestine? Transcellular transport (intestinal epithelial cells) Paracellular transport (tight junctions) Describe transcellular transport. Active transport of sodium (ion channels/gradients/transports) – osmostic pressure The bacteria in the large intestine are responsible for synthesizing what vitamins? Some B complex vitamins and vitamin K. What is vitamin K’s function? Essential for liver synthesis of some blood clotting proteins. The Digestive System Know the fourteen components of the digestive system. Salivary Glands Oral Cavity Tongue Esophagus Stomach Liver Gallbladder Bile Duct Pancreas Pancreas Duct Large Intestine (colon) Small Intestine Rectum Anus The Digestive System and Nutrition Link What is the role of saliva? Moisten food and make chewing easier. Begin the chemical breakdown of carbohydrates in the food so that the stomach can continue converting the food into fuel for the body. What are the three glands that produce saliva? Parotid Submandular Sublingual What causes the epiglottis to cover the larynx to prevent your food from going down the wrong pipe? Gag reflexes What is another word for gum? Gingival How does the esophagus move the bolus toward the stomach? Gravity and muscle contractions (peristalsis) The cardiac sphincter connects the esophagus to the stomach and prevents food from backing up into the esophagus. What is the function of fundus? “Holds” the food and doses it with enzymes. Chime is sent through the one way exit of the stomach, Pyloric Sphincter, and into the small intestine. Name the three sections of the small intestine in order. DuodenumJejunumIleum Describe the action/function that occurs in each of the sections of the small intestine. Duodenum – Alkaline solution administered to neutralize stomach acids Jejunum – absorbs nutrients Ileum – Completes digestion, absorption of B12 and salts, and dumps to large intestine. Give a brief description on the functions of the liver, the gallbladder, and the pancreas in digestion. Liver – Produces enzymes for digestion, processes nutrients, removes toxins, and produces bile. Gallbladder – Releases bile Pancreas – Produces amylase for starch, Lipase for fat, Proteinase (protease) for protein The three functions of the large intestines: 1. Bacteria within the colon make and secrete vitamins necessary for your metabolism 2. Stores undigested and dead materials until they can be eliminated 3. Vitamins, minerals, and water are absorbed through walls of large intestine. The three components of the large intestine are Cecum, Colon, and Rectum. What is the cause of aphthous ulcers or canker sores? Faulty immune system or a nutritional defect What does it mean to have a lip or palate that is cleft? There was not enough tissue for the upper lip/jaw bone to fuse or for the root of the mouth to fully close. What are the symptoms of GERD? Inflammation Large production of stomach acid Cardiac Sphincter not working correctly Define hiatal hernia. A protrusion of the stomach through the diaphragm and up into the thoracic cavity. Where is peptic ulcer disease located? Lower esophagus Stomach Duodenum How can hepatitis be transmitted? Sexually Contaminated food Exposure to contaminated blood Define Crohn’s disease and list the symptoms. It is an inflammatory bowel disease that affects the colon and ileum by making them swell, causing severe pains, and diarrhea. Symptoms o Abdominal pain o Rectal bleeding o Arthritis When is TPN used? When a patient is unable to eat. Known all five of the common pathologies. Pathology Definition of Condition Treatment Explanation of Treatment Choledocholithiasis Presence of gallstones Choledocholithotripsy Crushing a gallstone in the common bile duct Diverticulitis Inflammation of the Diverticulectomy Surgical removal of a diverticula, caused when diverticulum food is trapped within the diverticula Anal fistula An abnormal tubelike Fistulectomy Removal of a fistula opening from the anus to the rectum; most begin as anal abscesses Hemorrhoids Varicose veins in the Hemorrhoidectomy Removal of a hemorrhoid rectum from the anorectal area Cholecystitis Inflammation of the Laparoscopic Surgical removal of the gallbladder; may be Cholecystectomy gallbladder with a caused by gallstones laparoscope Chemical Process of Digestion – The Beginning How is digestion stimulated by the brain? Sight, smell, and thought triggers secretion of various juices and hormones. What is the primary area of the brain responsible for regulating the cephalic phase of digestion? Medula Oblongata Which enzyme is responsible for the breakdown of starch in the mouth? Salivary Amylase Define bolus. A soft mass made up of a mixture of chewed food and saliva. The Esophagus and Beyond What are the two types of muscles that make up the esophagus and how do these muscles assist in the movement of the bolus to the abdominal cavity? Inner Circular Muscles – Constrict to make sure the bolus does not move backwards. Outer Longitudinal Muscles – Push forward and help break down the bolus. The Stomach What action gave rise to the term acid reflux? The cardiac sphincter allows the food to enter the stomach. If this valve does not shut completely, you get acid from the stomach moving back into the esophagus or gastric gases moving back into the esophagus; this is called “reflux.” Because the stomach is very low in pH, reflux causes irritation, burning, and inflammation of the esophagus, and that is where we get the term acid reflux, or heartburn. What is the major purpose of the stomach? A grinding organ that reduces the bolus into a very fine, liquefied material to increase its surface area. How is the stomach unique? Made of three types of muscular structure: Inner structure has a diagonal type of muscle Intermediate (middle) muscle layer is a circular type of muscle Outer layer is a longitudinal type of muscle Stomach Processes List and explain the function of the three substances present in the gastric juices. Pepsin – A protease which helps break down the protein component within the food or chime into smaller fragments called peptides. Pepsin works pretty well under the extreme acid conditions present in the stomach. Lipases – Start to digest smaller fats, especially dairy type fats which have smaller fatty acids. Glycoprotein – An important molecule because it bonds to the vitamin B12, and protects it from being broken down by the gastric juices. Without glycoprotein, you would not have active vitamin B12 in your system. Moving Through the Small Intestine Compare the pHs of the stomach to the small intestine. Goes from 2 in the stomach to above a level of 7 in the small intestine. Sodium Bicarbonate is also present to help neutralize the acidic chime coming from the stomach. Digesting Carbohydrates What are the simplest units that carbohydrates are broken into? Monosaccharides What makes enzymes so efficient? Body does not have to keep making new molecules for each enzyme. Digesting Fats What is the problem that we face with fat digestion in the small intestine and how is it solved? Fat is not soluble in water/small intestine is an aqueous environment. It is solved due to the fact that bile emulsifies the fat which allows it to be digested in the aqueous environment. How does fat travel? Travel in threes (triglycerides which are composed of fatty acids and glycerol) It is eventually broken up by lipase. Digesting Proteins What three protease enzymes help break down the molecules into amino acid fragments? Trypsin, Chymotrypsin, Carboxypeptidase Large Intestine Absorbing Nutrients How do the folds in the small intestine aid in absorption? They increase the surface area of the intestinal lining (increases the efficiency of the intestine). Define villi. They are fingerlike projections that increase the surface area of the intestine even further (help entrap small particles of food to help further digest it). Regulating Digestion Which hormone is secreted by the intestine that signals the pancreas to secrete sodium bicarbonate? Secretin
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