1. As only some people choose to migrate, migration is a process that involves “self selection”. What does this imply about the difference between migrants and stayers? Why might some people migrate and other people stay?
Migration process and the reason behind depict several factors which if relate with a stayer; depict the difference in personal, social and socioeconomic factors. The major reason behind the migration is the improvement in the socio economics and better opportunities. Such forces which define the difference in economy between migrant country and the targeted country may lead to conclusion why some migrate towards these countries. For better wage, security, career opportunities and education are some reason that distinguishes the reason to migrate between migrants and stayer. We also discuss several other topics like What are the traditional philosophies?
2. Hatton and Williamson write that “the biggest challenge is to explain why emigration rates were often lowest from the poorest countries”
Responding to the statement proposed by Hatton and Williamsons, the fundamental reason behind the low immigration rate among poorest countries is the basic immigration systems and policies. Most under developed countries like in Africa or Asia may not yet have developed effective immigration institutions. This provide with less migration opportunities and along with that, the awareness barrier that describe the less knowledge among the masses regarding the benefits of migration. These are some of the primary reason why poorest countries have lowest migration rate.
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3. Hatton and Williamson write (57) that “real wage gaps do not suffice by themselves to explain emigration.” Why not?
The modern economics have described certain additional factors that contribute towards the process of migration. Real wage gaps are not sufficient to be the reason alone, though it can be a fundamental reason behind the following process. However, we cannot forget the reasons like war, better career, education and other personal reasons to describe the migration in the first place.
4. H&W contend that emigration might be “supply constrained” due to “poverty traps” How might poverty traps constrain potential emigrants from leaving? What factors might release potential migrants from those constraints?
There are many reasons of how poverty acts as the reason of trapping the potential immigrants and among them are the immigration charges. Most poverty stricken countries have huge migration cost which include immigration charges, visa applications and the travelling cost and most potential immigrants cannot bear such charges. This explains why the poverty traps have entangled the people to stay in their own country. However, this poverty traps can be destroyed using
low priced visa and travelling’s, less immigration charges and better migration institution for such class people. We also discuss several other topics like How does demand influence marketing management?
5. H&W discuss the importance of “persistence and path dependence”. What do mean by these concepts and how do these factors affect migration? Don't forget about the age old question of How do psychological theories view treatment?
Persistence and Path dependence are most important decision making factors as they implies on the migrant decision towards migration. These two concepts describe the migration contexts that help in persuading the migration towards the necessary decision. This majorly affect the migration process as it provides with the experience based reasons to base migrant’s perspective against migration.
6. Massey et al write that “a variety of anomalous observations suggest that motivations for migration go beyond such costbenefit calculations” (10). What are those anomalous observations and why do they matter? We also discuss several other topics like Which metabolism process refers to building of chemical compounds from smaller components?
The anomalous observations behind the migration have predicted several other reasons beyond the costbenefited solutions which mainly act as the motivator. Among them is the lifetime maximization of the expected income which led to several reasons that can act as the motivator. This maximization motivation can imply on personal, social, organizational and even educational purposes which led to the step of migration. Massey wanted to explain in a neoclassical theory of how migrant’s psyche gets affected in form of motivation towards migration and that’s why it matter. We also discuss several other topics like What are the 5 basic properties of life?
7. How does the microeconomic model of migration decision making differ from the new economics of migration, with its emphasis on household factors?
As Massey proposed, the household system is a collection of micro economics factor which affect different social systems. However, these systems are dependent on the cultural, social and economic factor which may affect the decision making model of migration from new economics factor. The reason of striving, more savings and desire to earn more affect the house hold economics and greatly reduced the personal expense among the migrants.
8. How do contextual factors (such as globalization) affect migration decision making
Globalization greatly affects the migration decision making as most migrants based their decisions on the experience. This experience varies between relatives, friends or other migrants who have gone for future opportunities. Globalization act as a great motivator towards migration, involves other factors like awareness. Global awareness has impacted the psyche of the stayers to move
towards other countries for reason like education, career opportunities and a better life.
9. What pull factors, produced by developed societies, might trigger migration from developing society? What is the origin of those pull factors?
Developed societies like America and Europe have better career opportunities, better facilities and quality way of life which act as the pull factor for the immigrants. Other than that, educational improvement and good medical facilities pulls the migration towards their own country. The origin of such pull
factors is in fact the stability of the institutions; in factors of economics, integrity and quality service which make such pull factors effective. An economically stable country would have the opportunity to attract migrants towards their respective country.
10. How do migrant networks lead to the persistence of migration?
Migrants networks act as the source of migration experience which may act as an important factor in the decision making process. For the case of persistence of migration, migrants’ networks can provide with the reasons like sharing their experience, mistakes and steps that can ease this harsh process. As a migrant relies on such networks, it may act as the reason that leads to persistence of migration.
11. What is cumulative causation?
Cumulative causations describe multi causal approach to describe the reasons and evaluates on basis of cases, phenomenon and facts that existed previously. In case of migration, cumulative causation depicts the overall implication of the different migration causal on social perspective which may provide with the insights of new movements for the migration. It also alters the decision making process related with the migration, thus changing the whole process of migration. With that, the cumulative causations further explore additional reasons behind the migration and its effects on society or economics.
12. What is the type or category of person on which Zolberg focuses. Why might the analytic categorization not correspond to a person recognized as refugees under international law or the law of particular states? Why does he argue that refugees, as he defines them, can be distinguished from other types of migrants?
Zolberg focuses on the categorical group of people that are the victims of political persecution and with that, he presented several historical cases to describe the refugee’s main reason to seek refuge. Considering analytical categorization of such refugees, Zolberg focused on the fact that they are
distinguished from normal refugees and should be segregated on basis of that. As they have been persecuted by previous state laws, they should be treated like refugees who opted for political asylum as they had no choice. With that reason, we can segregate such categorical people with the migrants and that is why Zolberg focuses to distinguish them from normal migrants.
13. On page 28, Zolberg refers to the philosopher, Hannah Arendt, noting that as the result of the implementation of the nationstate formula in postWorld War I Europe, minorities, which had always existed before, were turned into misfits. What does this mean? Why were they turned into misfits? And with what consequences?
Hannah Arendt describes the nation state formula which led towards the segregation on basis of nationality. Zolberg critically describe the implication of such segregated formula which distinguished national people and these people would enjoy the legal considerations of the nature. The first aftermath of this formula was the alienation as the minorities were turned into ‘misfits’. The primary reason behind this alienation is the nation state minorities and multi cultural nations like Russia, Austria and Hungary lead towards several conflicts with the course of time.
14. Zolberg argues that the victim group phenomena has historical roots in early modern Europe. According to him, why were Huguenots expelled from France and Jews from Spain? What, if at all, are the relevance of these historical cases for the contemporary situation?
Zolberg analysis regarding the victim of political persecution is spot on as he explains how nationality segregated or alienated different minorities group. Based on ethnicity, racial or cultural background, Jews from Spain and Huguenots from France were expulsed as they had conflicts with their nationality. With that fundamental reason, the victims were subjected for migration towards other land. Both Spain and France were based on the principles of nationality and thus they persecuted any minority who had conflicts with their nationality based ideologies, which are seen in contemporary states today.
15. Why were the states that replaced the European colonial empires so susceptible to pressures that produced refugee movements?
The European colonial empires like Great Britain, Spain, Italy, Holland and France had marked decolonization movements among the Asian and African states which lead towards the refugee movements. Most of the decolonization movements happened to resist the colonization and with that, the refugee movement started to form a nation based states. That’s why the states under European colonization became suspected to pressures which created a mass refuge movement.