From Rock to Bach Study Guide Test #3
From Rock to Bach Study Guide Test #3 MUSI 10073
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This 7 page Study Guide was uploaded by Kaley Hicks on Friday January 22, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to MUSI 10073 at Texas Christian University taught by Amy Stewart in Fall 2013. Since its upload, it has received 117 views. For similar materials see From Rock to Bach in Music at Texas Christian University.
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Date Created: 01/22/16
Unit 3 Rock to Bach Study Guide: Medieval (200-1450) o Music centered in Roman Catholic Church o Gregorian Chant Named after Pope Gregory I Monophonic texture Melismatic Flexible Pulse o Alleluia: Vidimus Stellam Renaissance Period (1450-1600) o Period of “humanism”- not concerned about afterlife, just human life o Madrigal Music Secular vocal music set to poetry Polyphonic texture As Vesta Was Descending – Thomas Weelkes o Mass Sacred vocal music -> church still a strong patron of the art Polyphonic texture Still a focus on vocal music Baroque (1600-1750) o “Age of Absolutism” -> rulers exercised total control o Color/contrast elaborated in paintings o Baroque architecture = very elaborate o Music: Passion, emotion, ornate Contrasts – dynamics, change of key Homophonic and polyphonic Instruments equal to voice Patrons: churches & aristocratic courts (music outside church just as important) o New developments: Orchestra & Opera o Composers: Handel Lived in England // associated with his English works Hallelujah Chorus from Messiah, an Oratorio Bach Toccata and Fugue in D Minor for Organ o Very virtuosic and fast Classical Period (1750-1820) o “Age of Enlightenment” – power shifted from aristocracy to middle class – less focus on traditions and customs o Music centered in Austria and Germany o Composers employed by aristocratic courts o Rise in public performances made music available to commoners o Characteristics: Balance, symmetry Clarity, pose, restraint Homophonic texture Focus on form and following it o Composers: Haydn Surprise Symphony 2 ndMovmt o Theme & Variations o Theme outlines the 1 and 5 chords Mozart Eine Kleine Nachtmusik Austrian – Haydn was too so very similar Beethoven Symphony N. 5 in C minor,1 Movement o Sonata Form Formal Plan of a Symphony o Four Movements: I) Fast II) Slow III) Dance IV) Fast Sonata Form (First Movement Form) o Exposition: main theme & second theme presented, then exposition repeated o Development: develops both themes o Recapitulation: first and second themes again o Coda: big finish Beethoven o Bridged classical and romantic eras o Became independent from aristocratic patronage o Sought individual expression without limitations of form and style Romantic Period (1820-1900) o Age of wonder, fantasy, nature huge inspiration for art o Composers: “self employed” and had entrepenurial skills o Nationalism o Characteristics: Strangeness, wonder Free, uninhibited Musical tension to intensify emotion Program music: composers made music based on scenes o Composers: Techaikovsky – Russia – Nutcracker Ballet Brahms, Germany Chopin, Poland Verdi, Italy Liszt, Hungary Berlioz, France Smetana, Czech o The Moldau- Smetana Symphonic Poem Program Music lots of freedom Romantic representation of nature Representation of the scenes: Forest Hunt, Peasant Wedding, Ancient Castle Sections of the Orchestra: o Strings, Woodwinds, brass, percussion o Listed High to Low: soprano, alto, tenor, bass (SATB) The Young Person’s Guide to the Orchestra- 1946, Benjamin Britten o Theme & Variations – 13 Variations o Begins with full orchestra, then woodwinds, then brass, strings, full orchestra o Theme Presented 6 times then variations th 20 Century: o Age of Musical Diversity o Transformation of musical language growth in the vocabulary of sound (esp. percussion) o Characteristics: Exploration of timbre Asymmetrical Rhythm – less traditional Polytonality & atonality o Romantic composers opened the door for this music Impressionism (1890-1920) o Artistic style derived from French painters – Monet & Renwar o Misty atmosphere – less emphasis on strong lines o Claude Debussy – exemplifies this style Evokes moods, misty atmosphere, fluidity Prelude to the Afternoon of a Faun 1894 Experimental Music o Igor Stravinsky The Rite of Spring 1913 Concert piece from ballet // harsh dissonances, unusual melodies, asymmetrical rhythm Caused a riot in Paris – very shocking Avant Guard Movement o Exemplified by Picasso’s paintings o Pushing of boundaries o Atonal Music Organized around pitches from a scale – hierchy of pitches Atonality is where there is not one important resting pitch Arnold Schoenberg Austrian Created a formula to organize/create pieces 12 tone serialism Moondrunk 1912 o Angular, disjunct melody (never feel like there is a resting beat) o Irregular phrases o Complex, fragmentary o Soft, light texture o Depicts moonlight as a sacramental drink Musical styles since 1945 o Electronic Music Poeme electronique- 1958 – Edgard Varese o Chance Music 4’33’’ – 1952 – John Cage Music composed by random choice of pitches – never the same In contrast to the formulas and complete control Sonatas and Interludes for prepared piano, Cage o Minimalist Music Very repetitive, tonal, very melodic Einstein on the Beach – 1976 – Phillip Glass Opera o American Nationalism Charles Ives Putnam’s Camp, Redding Connecticut 1912 o Child’s impression of a fourth of July picnic o Polytonality, but also very tonal Aaron Copland Hoedown 1942 – From Ballet Rodeo George Gershwin Rhapsody in Blue 1924 Jazz-like rhythms and blues The Jazz Style o The Feel of Swing: long-short, long-short o Syncopation o Improvisation o Composing & Performing Simultaneously o Melodies: used flatted blues notes o Tone Bending & Vibrato o It Don’t Mean a Thing if it Ain’t got that swing- Ella Fitzgerald Ella Fitzgerald (1917-1996) o Career 30s-80s o Pure tone, warm/cheerful presence o “First Lady of Song” = nickname o Made Scat singing popular (voice sounds like an instrument) o A-Tisket-A-Tasket #1 Hit in 1938 Instruments Used in a Jazz Ensemble o Rhythm Section – rhythmic backbone – piano, bass, drums o Brass – Trumpets, Trombones o Saxophone Roots of Jazz o Popular Songs, Blues Songs, rags, brass band marches and dances, gospel songs o Maple Leaf Rag – Scott Joplin Early Jazz o Originated in New Orleans – beginning of 20 century o Storyville – club that closed in 1917 o Style reemerged in Chicago – Dixieland Jazz When the Saints Go Marching In- Louis Armstrong Clarinet very important , as well as trumpet Louis Armstrong (1901-1917) o Trumpet and vocalist – unique sound o Nickname = “Satchmo” o Version on Molly replaced Beatles as #1 in 1964 o Born in New Orleans – Left for Chicago 1922 o What a Wonderful World Swing and Big Band Jazz o Popular with the masses o Many songs on pop charts – great time for jazz o Written arrangements: required a higher amount of skills/coordination o Less improvisation than Dixieland & more cohesive o Sections: Saxophone (predominant instrument), trombone, trumpet, rhythm o Arrangers set out sides for solos Duke Ellington (1899-1974) o Most prolific composer-arranger in Jazz History o Big Band Style o Take the ‘A’-Train ; Satin Doll Bebop-1940s o World War 2 o Reaction to confines of Big Band Jazz o Desire for more improvisation – “jam sessions” o More esoteric than Big Band o Complex, intense, very fast Features musicians virtuosity – never really achieved mainstream success because of complexity. o Charlie Parker, Saxophone, Bird Feathers o Dizzy Gillespie, Trumpet, Salt Peanuts Cool Jazz – 1950s o Reaction to complexities of Bebop o Grew out of desire to make more accessible to public while maintaining complexity o More accessible, softer, relaxed o Summertime –Miles Davis – Trumpet Miles Davis – 1926-1991 o Original Trumpet Style o Innovator- transcends any one label o Pioneered “modal jazz” – songs built around modes rather than chords o Album: “Kind of Blue” – 1959 o Pioneered jazz-rock fusion styles: jazz merged with rock – “Bitches Brew” Free Jazz – 60s and 70s o Avant Garde o Improvisation in its purest form: attempt to remain free of preset conventional practices o Resulted because of feelings of limitation from bebop and modal o Ornette Coleman- Saxophone, trumpet, violin Music for Stage o Opera o Operetta o Minstrel Show o Vaudeville – variety show of unrelated acts (also called music reviews) The Marriage of Figaro (1786) – classical era o Mozart o Comic Opera (opera buffa) o Recitative (narrative) o Aria (commentary on the plot) o Non so piu cosa son – “I don’t know anymore what I am” Operetta th o In 20 century French comic opera became heavy o Jacques Offenbauch of France developed Operetta as result o Operetta = light singing o Gilbert and Sullivan Composer & librettist duo from England Popularized the English language operetta o Modern Major General from the Pirates of Penzance Black Crook – 1866 o First American musical o Prototype for modern American musical o Success = 100 females on stage Musicals: The Golden Era o Musical: a theatrical work that includes singing and acting o 1920-1950 o Composers: Jermone Kern, George Gershwin, Richard Rogers, Cole Porter, Irving Berlin, Leonard Bernstein Show Boat – 1927 o Path breaking musical with a serious plot o Jerome Kern = composer o Oscar Hammerstein = lyrics o Ran for 572 performances on broadway o Seriousness = interracial relationship o Ol’ Man River AABA, 32 bar song form (Tin Pan Alley song form) Porgy and Bess, 1935 o First American Opera o Jazz – Opera o George Gershwin = music composer o Ira Gershwin = lyrics o 124 performances on Broadway o Summertime Rogers and Hammerstein Duo o Richard Rogers = composer o Oscar Hammerstein = lyricist Oklahoma (1943) ; Carousel (1945) ; The South Pacific (1949) ; The King and I (1951) ; The Sound of Music (1959) Oklahoma o First musical to use dance to further the plot // addition of ballet o Agnes de Mille – choreographer – very influential o Oh What a Beautiful Morning o The Farmer and the Cowman – dance sequence West Side Story – 1957 o Leonard Bernstein – music o Stephen Soundhein – lyrics o Culturally rich // dance used as integral part/catalyst for plot o Jerome Robbins – choreography o Tragic story (musicals typically comedy) o Bernstein wanted a tragic musical that didn’t fall into the operetta trap o Gang rivalry vs. youthful love o Tonight Hair – 1967 o First “rock musical” o Internationally famous because of nude scene o Brings together counterculture & Vietnam o Brings together two worlds of counterculture hippies and mainstream America o Let the Sunshine In Other Rock Musicals: o Jesus Christ Superstar (1973) ; Tommy (1975) ; The Rocky Horror Picture Show (1975) ; Grease (1978) Musicals from the 80s o Les Miserables Musicals from the 90s o Rent o Lion King Musicals from the 2000s o The Producers o Wicked
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