From Rock to Bach Final Exam Study Guide
From Rock to Bach Final Exam Study Guide MUSI 10073
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This 9 page Study Guide was uploaded by Kaley Hicks on Friday January 22, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to MUSI 10073 at Texas Christian University taught by Amy Stewart in Fall 2013. Since its upload, it has received 157 views. For similar materials see From Rock to Bach in Music at Texas Christian University.
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Date Created: 01/22/16
From Rock to Bach Final Exam Study Guide: Chapter 9: Black Pop, Reggae, & Rise of Disco Black Pop in the 70s o Sly and the Family Stone One of the few integrated bands ; San Francisco ; Crossover “psychedelic soul” “Thank You (Fallettinme Be Mice Elf Agin) Repeating bass guitar riff establishes the groove o Earth, Wind, and Fire Los Angeles Catchy pop hooks, sophisticated horn arrangements & vocal harmonies “Shining Star” Motown 1970s o Temptations Stylistic turn – focused on serious social issues // concerned with urban life Funk Oriented “Papa Was a Rolling Stone” o Commodores One of most commercially successful black groups Funk roots “Brick House” Famous ballads sung by Lionel Richie o Jackson Five Traditional Motown formula ; Teen market Motown Matures o Marvin Gaye & Stevie Wonder Broke away from Motown Gaye – focus on serious topics Artistic freedom & control over their productions “What’s Going On” – First concept album in black pop (by Marvin Gaye) Wonder – wrote, produced, played his own music -> original, complex, synthesizers “Living For the City” The Philadelphia Sound o Gamble and Huff – Leaders of Philadelphia International o Lyrical Vocals, elegant string arrangements, driving rhythm section o Artists: O’Jays – “Love Train” MFSB (Mother Father Sister Brother) = House Band – provided soundtrack for Soul Train TV Show James Brown o Influenced Black Pop with his Funk Movement in 60s o Leader of black pride movement o Anti-drug messages o Inspired George Clinton George Clinton & Parliament/Funkadelic o George Clinton Parliament-more commercial Funkadelic – more experimental Mothership Connection – 1974 – elaborate stage show featuring a space ship Concept albums with irony and humor o Bob Marley – Icon for social Justice movements Reggae o Jamaican popular music w/ roots in American R & B o Traveling “sound system men” – led to the development of rap o Ska Off beat rhythm pattern, quick, up-tempo, happy, bouncy, dance movements o Rock Steady Slowed down & more relaxed than Ska but still with off beat rhythm 1970s Reggae o Slowed way down, with emphasis on offbeat o Bob Marley & the Wallers – most popular reggae artist “Get Up Stand Up” o Underground to widespread fame: “The Harder They Come” – film w/ reggae soundtrack that made the music famous in the U.S. (film star & music by Jimmy Cliff) Eric Clapton Cover of “I Shot the Sheriff” Disco o Dance Oriented o KC and the Sunshine Band – “That’s the Way I Like It” o National Phenomenon Because of: Saturday Night Fever (soundtrack by Bee Gees –“Staying Alive) // epitomized Disco o Donna Summer – “Bad Girls” Chapter 10: Mainstream Rock – 1975-1980 – stylistic consolidation o “Corporate Rock” Large selling albums draw corporate interest Peter Frampton = poster boy for corporate rock Album: “Frampton Comes Alive” ; Song “Show Me The Way” – shows corporate rock o New Bands that continued older approaches to rock: Boston – “More than a Feeling” Foreigner – “Feels like the first time” Journey Van Halen (California based metal scene) Legacy of Progressive Rock o Kansas o Stynx (American) o Rush (Canadian) o Queen (British) – glam elements, Freddie Mercury // “Bohemian Rhapsody” Singer/Songwriters o Billy Joel – “Piano Man” -> helped launch his career o Bruce Springsteen U.S. Punk – 1967-1975 o Punk brewing underground in response to corporate rock // roots in America o Early Influential bands: The Velvet Underground --- Andy Warhol Iggy Pop and the Stooges --- perfect model for punk musicians – rebellious o New York: CBGB = home of New York punk scene The Patti Smith Group (first to sign to major label) Ramones Punk Subculture = fashion, DIY, anything not mainstream U.K. Punk – 1974-1977 o Sex Pistols – notorious for scandalous and punk behavior. // “Anarchy in the U.K.” Malcom McLaren – shop owner & producer that launched the Sex Pistols o Clash – New Wave – 1977-1980 o Tamed the more aggressive elements of punk – developed to diminish the aggressive and dangerous image of punk o American New Wave: CBGB groups: Talking Heads Blondie – “Heart of Glass” Mainstream Groups: Cars Tom Petty Devo B-52s o British New Wave: Elvis Castello – legendary performance on SNL Police o New Wave = fascinated with earlier music styles & visual images // iconic references to past // used to critique the present. Chapter 11: I Want My MTV Widely Popular Artists that benefited from MTV exposure: o Michael Jackson – ”Billie Jean” // album “Thriller” MTV audience was mostly white until him o Madonna Dance Background // “Like a Virgin” Cable TV opened door for MTV // first video to air on MTV “Video Killed the Radio Star” Dance Music of the 1980s o Prince Had total control of his music , roots in 70s black pop and funk “Purple rain” = film and album “1999” o Janet Jackson Many hits, emphasis on dancing, strong woman image New Jack swing o British Acts on MTV: Duran Duran – “Rio” Culture Club – Boy George, “Karma Chameleon” Eurythmics – avant guard, sophisticated // vocals by Annie Lennox // “Sweet Dreams” = must see o Girl Groups GoGos first successful girl group // Melinda Carilile “We Got the Beat” Punk and new wave connection Cyndi Lauper “Girls Just Want to Have Fun” Bangles “Manic Mondays” New Traditionalists o Return to the “core aesthetic values” of pre-hippie rock o Tom Petty & the Heartbreakers – “Free Fallin” o Bruce Springsteen E-Street Band Voice of average working-class guy “Born in the U.S.A” // “Dancing in the Dark” New Wave in the 80s o Sting and the Police Poetic, intellectual lyrics & sophisticated arrangements. “Don’t Stand so Close to Me” o U2 Irish // Bono = lead singer Songs tackled serious social issues “Pride In the Name of Love” – layers of guitar o Blue Eyed Soul Hall and Oates Style referred to as “Blue Eyed Soul” ; strong connection to Philadelphia “Private Eyes” George Michael Originally a member of Wham! “Faith” Michael Bolton “When a Man Loves a Woman” Punk Goes Hardcore o Regional hardcore – underground movement that extended punk aesthetic ; loud, fast, aggressive o LA Black Flag Minutemen o D.C. Bad Brains (African American Punk Group) Minor Threat (advocated drug and alcohol free life) o Twin Cities Replacements (more melodic & accessible) – “Color Me Impressed” Older Musicians Adapt in the 1980s o Genesis Phil Collins solo career – “One More Night” Peter Gabriel solo career – “Sledgehammer” o Rolling Stones, Sticks, Paul McCartney Chapter 12: Heavy Metal, Rap, and the Rise of Alternative Rock Heavy Metal o Guitar driven, screaming vocals, heavy drumbeats o Inspired by Black Sabbath, Deep Purple British Heavy Metal o Judas Priest, Iron Maiden, Def Leopard American Heavy Metal o Los Angeles = center of music o Van Halen – showmen, high intensity virtuostic guitar solos o Motley Crue – visual aspects, costumes, inspired by glam rock – “Shout at the Devil” The Rise of Metal o Mega Stars First group to break into mega star status = Bon Jovi (lyrics less defiant and more pop oriented) Guns N Roses – “Sweet Child of Mine” (closer to rock than Bon Jovi) o Hair Bands (glam influenced) Poison – power ballads – “Every Rose Has Its Thorns” Metal Ambition o Speed and Thrash Metal Metallica – “One” Mega Death Metal Virtuosity o Continuation of “hippie ambition”, fast & technical guitar solos Rap o Hip-hop culture From NYC inner city // rap music, graffiti, fashion, break dancing Hip-Hop Djs o Neighborhood parties, carried sound systems around like reggae DJs o DJ Kool Herc: “Father of DJ” o Technological Innovations: breaks, scratching Rap on Record o Sugar Hill Gang = first to put out hip-hop single o “Rappers Delight” 1979 first hip hop single Crossover Rap o Def Jam Records – founded by Simmons and Ruben Popularized rap in the mainstream LL Cool J Run-DMC – “Rock Box” , “Walk this Way” Beastie Boys – “Fight for Your Right” Other approaches to rap o Gangsta Rap N.W.A. – “Straight Out of Compton” – controversial Ice T o Social Criticism Queen Latifah – “Ladies First” Public Enemy – “Don’t Believe the Hype” Indie and Alternative Rock o Roots in hard core and punk’s DIY aesthetic, opposite of MTV artists and hair bands College Rock Underground o R.E.M. – most significant success of indie rock in 80s – “The One I love” Seattle Grunge o Represents the transition of alternative rock to the 90s o Nirvana – “Smells Like Teen Spirit” - launched the alternative rock movement o Appealed to white suburbanites that felt alienated o Pearl Jam – “Jeremy” o Sound Garden, Alice in Chains, Red Hot Chili Peppers Chapter 13: The More Things Change Classic Rock o CD reissues, Classic Rock radio format o Rockumentaries VH1 – “Behind the Music” = history of rock & allowed older musicians to stay popular Jam Bands o Underground Culture Directly from Grateful Dead Focused on live show & didn’t care about records Phish – high grossing tours (no hit singles) Dave Matthews Band – became mainstream – “Crash into Me” Britpop o Radiohead Influenced by progressive rock, Pink Floyd // avant guard “Creep” Rock is Still Pop o “Feel good” Rock Sheryl Crow – “All I Want To Do” Hootie and the Blowfish Counting Crows Wallflowers (Jacob Dylan, son of Bob Dylan, lead singer) Matchbox 20 Third Eye Blind Female Singer/Songwriters o Antithesis to mass produced pop diva o Tori Amos – “Crucify” o Sarah McLachlan o Jewel o Alanis Morissette – “Ironic” Teen Idols o Boyz II Men Very choreographed, album was a crossover hit that revitalized Motown “End of the Road” Harmonized vocal arrangements o Lou Pearlman = manager of boy bands below o Backstreet Boys o N’SYNC Teen Idols: Teen Girls target audience o Brittney Spears o Christina Auguilera Beat Based Pop o 90s Hip-Hip, popular with white teens Hip-Hop o West Coast Dr. Dre Snoop Dog – “Nothing but a G-thang” Tupac o East Coast P Diddy Notorious B.I.G. Eminem – discovered by Dr. Dre // controversial lyrics Metal and Alternative Extensions o Rap and Rock Fushion Rage Against the Machine Korn Used 7 string guitar – added important texture o Industrial Nine Inch Nails Lead singer composed and performed all parts in studio Marilyn Manson Appealed to rebellious teens o Irony and Self-Awareness (comedic angle) Foo Fighters Weezer o Pop Punk Green Day “Dookie” Came out with rock opera album “American Idiot” Blink 182 o Ska Revival Sublime – laid back beach music, hip-hop, reggae – “What I Got” No Doubt – “Don’t Speak” Indie Rock o Considered a style uncorrupted by marketing o DIY and “lo-fi” o Neutral Milk Hotel – “In The Aeroplane” o Noise Pop Yo La Tengo o Female Perspectives UZ Phair Ani DiFranco – released music on her own indie label o Alt Country Started by Uncle Tupelo Ryan Adams Indie Rock o Beck – indie rocker gone mainstream – “Loser” = breakthrough song Chapter 14: A Very Different Industry: The First Decade of a New Millennium Technology and Rock – led to increased exposure to rock o Digital Technology, Internet and Satellite radio, youtube Mainstream Rock in the New Millennium o Female Artists Avril Lavigne – cali pop punk P!nk – R & B and rock Kelly Clarkson – beat based pop and rock o Male Artists Maroon 5 John Mayer – blues based guitar Coldplay – experimental Britpop roots o Heavier Rock Evanescence – piano, metal, and rap o Mainstream Rap Metal Linkin Park Hoobastank Nickleback Country Crossovers o Less traditional artists accepted o Keith Urban – High energy guitar o Carrie Underwood – “Before He Cheats” o Taylor Swift – Melodic hooks Beat Based Styles o Kanye West o The Roots o Cee Loo Green o Outcast Indie Rock o Wilco Alternative country, singer-songwriter, experimental Jeff Sweeny – Uncle Tufalo band originally “Ashes of American Flag” – avant guard sounds – reminiscent of the Beatles’ “A Day in the Life” o Vampire Weekend o Bright Eyes The White Stripes o Aligned with the Indie Rock Movement o Jack White o Drum and guitar Duo Sufjan Stevens Emo o Dashboard Confessional o Jimmy Eat World
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