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Basic Speech Communication Test #1 Study Guide

by: Kaley Hicks

Basic Speech Communication Test #1 Study Guide COMM 10123

Marketplace > Texas Christian University > Communication Studies > COMM 10123 > Basic Speech Communication Test 1 Study Guide
Kaley Hicks
GPA 3.97

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Includes an Outline of the chapters covered in the first test, as well as important terms to known & examples of applying the vocabulary In order to get a good grade on these exams you MUST know h...
Basic Speech Communication
Forsythe, Katherine Elizabeth/Finn, Amber
Study Guide
Basic Speech Communication, communication, communication studies
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This 5 page Study Guide was uploaded by Kaley Hicks on Friday January 22, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to COMM 10123 at Texas Christian University taught by Forsythe, Katherine Elizabeth/Finn, Amber in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 159 views. For similar materials see Basic Speech Communication in Communication Studies at Texas Christian University.

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Date Created: 01/22/16
Communication Study Outline: Chapter 1: communication  Communication: o Addresses Physical Needs  Frederick II- placed 50 babies alone with no communication – all died  Human interaction (**touch) crucial to development o Meets Relational Needs  Rich Social Life & degree of happiness in marriage = most powerful predictor of happiness in life o Fills Identity Needs o Meets Spiritual Needs o Serves Instrumental Needs  Communication process models: o Action Model- communication is a one way process  source->encode->message->channel ; receiver->decode->noise o Interaction Model-more updated, same process as action model but adds:  (1) communication is a two way process  (2) Feedback & Context (physical/psychological environment of comm)  Physical context- where you are interacting  Psychological context- factors that influence states of mind o Transaction Model- everyone is simultaneously a sender & receiver  Influenced by Physical & Psychological Context but also: gender, social class, history of relationship, & culture  Characteristics of Communication: o Relies on many channels o Passes through perceptual filters o People give communication its meaning  A word is a symbol o Has literal meanings & relational implications  Content dimension (literal meaning) & relational dimension (message sends meaning about relationship) o Sends Intentional & Unintentional Messages o Governed By Rules  Explicit rules- clearly articulated  Implicit rules- rules not articulated but understood  5 Types of Communication: o Intrapersonal (with oneself) o Interpersonal (two people) o Small Group o Public o Mass  Communication Myths: o Everyone is a comm. Expert o Comm. Will solve any problem o Comm. Can break down o Comm. Is inherently good o More Comm. Is always better  Being Competent in Communication (Communication competence – effective & appropriate):  Competent Communicators Are: o Self Aware – self-monitoring o Adaptable o Empathetic o Cognitively Complex o Ethical Chapter 3: perception  3 stages of perception: o 1) Selection- paying attention to stimuli  Reticular formation- part of the brain that helps you focus on a certain stimuli o 2) Organization – categorizing information that has been selected  Done by applying perpetual schema (mental framework for organizing info)  4 types of constructs to organize about people:  Physical constructs (appearance)  Role constructs (job)  Interaction constructs (behavior)  Psychological constructs (thoughts & feelings) o 3) Interpretation- assigning meaning to info  Misperception of Communication Behaviors o Culture influences o Stereotypes o Primacy (emphasis on first impression) and Recency (emphasis on most recent impression) Effects o Perpetual Sets (predisposition to perceive only what you want to)  We Explain Our Perceptions through Attributions (3 dimensions of attributions): o 1)Locus- where the cause of the behavior is located (internal vs external loci) o 2) Stability- stable vs. unstable o 3) Controllability – controllable vs. uncontrollable  Two Common Attribution Errors: o Self-serving bias o Fundamental Attribution Error  Perception of Ourselves: self concept (also known as identity) is: o Multifaceted  Johari window- used to show various components of the self that are known and unknown to self & others o Partly Subjective  Awareness & Management of Self Concept o Self-monitoring (how you look & sound and how your behavior is affecting others) o Self-fulfilling Prophecy  Communication & Face Needs: o 3 Different Face Needs:  Fellowship face (acceptance from others)  Autonomy face (avoid being imposed on)  Competence face (need for respect & viewed as competent and intelligent) o Can be threatened by face-threatening acts Chapter 4: how language is used  Nature of Language: Language is: o Symbolic o Usually arbitrary o Governed By Rules  Phonological Rules- pronunciation of a word  Syntactic Rules- order of words within phrases and clauses  Semantic Rules- meaning of individual words  Pragmatic Rules- implications and interpretations of statements o Has Layers of Meaning  Denotative Meaning vs. Connotative Meaning  Semantic Triangle- model that portrays 3 necessary elements for identifying the meaning of language  (1) symbol – word being communicated  (2) reference – word’s connotative meaning  (3)referent- denotative meaning  Loaded Language o Varies in Clarity  Ambiguous Language  Hayawaka’s Ladder of Abstraction – concrete vs. abstract words. More abstract on bottom, more concrete on top o Bound by Context and Culture  Saphir-Whorf Hypothesis- language shapes views of reality  Linguistic determination- structure of language determines how we think  Linguistic Relativity- people see world differently based on what language they speak  Power of Words. Language: o Expresses Who We Are o Enhances or diminishes credibility. Forms of words that do this:  Cliches  Dialects- language variations shared by people of a certain region or social class  Equivocation- language that disguises the speaker’s true intentions  Weasel Words- terms or phrases intended to mislead listeners by implying something they don’t actually say.  Allness Statements- implying a claim is true without exception o Connects Us to Others  Expresses Affection  Provides Comfort  Conveys Social Information o Separates Us From Others – Criticisms & Threats o Motivates Action  Persuasion: Anchor-and-Contrast Approach, norm of reciprocity, social validation  Ways Language is Used & Abused o Humor o Euphemisms o Slang o Defamation (libel & slander) o Profanity o Hate Speech Chapter 5: Nonverbal Communication  Six Characteristics of Nonverbal Communication o Present in most communication contexts o Often Conveys More Important info than verbal comm.  Various non-verbal channels o Nonverbal Comm. Believed over verbal comm.  Deception o Primary Means of Expressing Emotion o It Metacommunications o Serves Multiple Functions  Helps us manage conversations  Helps us maintain relations (through immediacy behaviors)  Helps us form impressions  Helps us influence other people  Helps us conceal information  10 Channels of Nonverbal Communication o 1. Facial Displays  Principle of facial primacy- the face communicate the most info out of any channel  3 Functions of Facial Displays: Identity, Attractiveness, Emotion o 2. Eye Behaviors (eyes communicate most on face) o 3. Movement & Gestures.  Forms of Gestures: (1) emblems, (2) illustrators, (3) affect displays, (4) regulators, (5) adaptors o 4. Touch Behaviors  Affectionate Touch, Caregiving Touch, Power & Control Touch, Aggressive Touch, and Ritualistic Touch o 5. Vocal Behaviors (vocalics/paralanguage) o 6. The Use of Smell o 7. The Use of Space  Intimate, personal, social, and public distances o 8. Physical Appearance o 9. The Use of Time o 10. The Use of Artifacts Chapter 6: Listening Effectively  Misconceptions About Listening o Hearing Is the Same as listening o Listening is Natural & Effortless  Culture Affects Listening Behavior: o Listeners’ Expectations for directness (monochromic culture- direct vs. polychromic cultures o Non-verbal listening responses o Understanding of Language (idioms and comprehension issues)  HURIER Model- stages of effective listening o Hearing o Understanding o Remembering o Interpreting o Evaluating o Responding:  Stonewalling- silence  Backchanneling- facial expression, nods, vocalizations like “uh- huh”  Paraphrasing  Empathizing  Supporting  Analyzing  Advising  Types of Listening: o Informative Listening o Critical Listening o Empathetic Listening- perspective taking & empathetic concern  Barriers for Effective Listening: o Noise o Pseudolistening & Selective Attention o Information Overload o Glazing Over o Rebuttal Tendency o Closed-Mindedness o Competitive Interrupting  Become A Better Informational Listener o Avoid the confirmation bias o Avoid the vividness effect  Become A Better Critical Listener o Be a skeptic – skepticism o Evaluate speaker’s credibility o Understand Probability  Become a better empathetic listener o Listen nonjudgementally o Acknowledge Feelings o Communicate Support Nonverbally


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