Basic Speech Communication Test #1 Study Guide
Basic Speech Communication Test #1 Study Guide COMM 10123
Popular in Basic Speech Communication
Popular in Communication Studies
verified elite notetaker
This 5 page Study Guide was uploaded by Kaley Hicks on Friday January 22, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to COMM 10123 at Texas Christian University taught by Forsythe, Katherine Elizabeth/Finn, Amber in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 159 views. For similar materials see Basic Speech Communication in Communication Studies at Texas Christian University.
Reviews for Basic Speech Communication Test #1 Study Guide
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 01/22/16
Communication Study Outline: Chapter 1: communication Communication: o Addresses Physical Needs Frederick II- placed 50 babies alone with no communication – all died Human interaction (**touch) crucial to development o Meets Relational Needs Rich Social Life & degree of happiness in marriage = most powerful predictor of happiness in life o Fills Identity Needs o Meets Spiritual Needs o Serves Instrumental Needs Communication process models: o Action Model- communication is a one way process source->encode->message->channel ; receiver->decode->noise o Interaction Model-more updated, same process as action model but adds: (1) communication is a two way process (2) Feedback & Context (physical/psychological environment of comm) Physical context- where you are interacting Psychological context- factors that influence states of mind o Transaction Model- everyone is simultaneously a sender & receiver Influenced by Physical & Psychological Context but also: gender, social class, history of relationship, & culture Characteristics of Communication: o Relies on many channels o Passes through perceptual filters o People give communication its meaning A word is a symbol o Has literal meanings & relational implications Content dimension (literal meaning) & relational dimension (message sends meaning about relationship) o Sends Intentional & Unintentional Messages o Governed By Rules Explicit rules- clearly articulated Implicit rules- rules not articulated but understood 5 Types of Communication: o Intrapersonal (with oneself) o Interpersonal (two people) o Small Group o Public o Mass Communication Myths: o Everyone is a comm. Expert o Comm. Will solve any problem o Comm. Can break down o Comm. Is inherently good o More Comm. Is always better Being Competent in Communication (Communication competence – effective & appropriate): Competent Communicators Are: o Self Aware – self-monitoring o Adaptable o Empathetic o Cognitively Complex o Ethical Chapter 3: perception 3 stages of perception: o 1) Selection- paying attention to stimuli Reticular formation- part of the brain that helps you focus on a certain stimuli o 2) Organization – categorizing information that has been selected Done by applying perpetual schema (mental framework for organizing info) 4 types of constructs to organize about people: Physical constructs (appearance) Role constructs (job) Interaction constructs (behavior) Psychological constructs (thoughts & feelings) o 3) Interpretation- assigning meaning to info Misperception of Communication Behaviors o Culture influences o Stereotypes o Primacy (emphasis on first impression) and Recency (emphasis on most recent impression) Effects o Perpetual Sets (predisposition to perceive only what you want to) We Explain Our Perceptions through Attributions (3 dimensions of attributions): o 1)Locus- where the cause of the behavior is located (internal vs external loci) o 2) Stability- stable vs. unstable o 3) Controllability – controllable vs. uncontrollable Two Common Attribution Errors: o Self-serving bias o Fundamental Attribution Error Perception of Ourselves: self concept (also known as identity) is: o Multifaceted Johari window- used to show various components of the self that are known and unknown to self & others o Partly Subjective Awareness & Management of Self Concept o Self-monitoring (how you look & sound and how your behavior is affecting others) o Self-fulfilling Prophecy Communication & Face Needs: o 3 Different Face Needs: Fellowship face (acceptance from others) Autonomy face (avoid being imposed on) Competence face (need for respect & viewed as competent and intelligent) o Can be threatened by face-threatening acts Chapter 4: how language is used Nature of Language: Language is: o Symbolic o Usually arbitrary o Governed By Rules Phonological Rules- pronunciation of a word Syntactic Rules- order of words within phrases and clauses Semantic Rules- meaning of individual words Pragmatic Rules- implications and interpretations of statements o Has Layers of Meaning Denotative Meaning vs. Connotative Meaning Semantic Triangle- model that portrays 3 necessary elements for identifying the meaning of language (1) symbol – word being communicated (2) reference – word’s connotative meaning (3)referent- denotative meaning Loaded Language o Varies in Clarity Ambiguous Language Hayawaka’s Ladder of Abstraction – concrete vs. abstract words. More abstract on bottom, more concrete on top o Bound by Context and Culture Saphir-Whorf Hypothesis- language shapes views of reality Linguistic determination- structure of language determines how we think Linguistic Relativity- people see world differently based on what language they speak Power of Words. Language: o Expresses Who We Are o Enhances or diminishes credibility. Forms of words that do this: Cliches Dialects- language variations shared by people of a certain region or social class Equivocation- language that disguises the speaker’s true intentions Weasel Words- terms or phrases intended to mislead listeners by implying something they don’t actually say. Allness Statements- implying a claim is true without exception o Connects Us to Others Expresses Affection Provides Comfort Conveys Social Information o Separates Us From Others – Criticisms & Threats o Motivates Action Persuasion: Anchor-and-Contrast Approach, norm of reciprocity, social validation Ways Language is Used & Abused o Humor o Euphemisms o Slang o Defamation (libel & slander) o Profanity o Hate Speech Chapter 5: Nonverbal Communication Six Characteristics of Nonverbal Communication o Present in most communication contexts o Often Conveys More Important info than verbal comm. Various non-verbal channels o Nonverbal Comm. Believed over verbal comm. Deception o Primary Means of Expressing Emotion o It Metacommunications o Serves Multiple Functions Helps us manage conversations Helps us maintain relations (through immediacy behaviors) Helps us form impressions Helps us influence other people Helps us conceal information 10 Channels of Nonverbal Communication o 1. Facial Displays Principle of facial primacy- the face communicate the most info out of any channel 3 Functions of Facial Displays: Identity, Attractiveness, Emotion o 2. Eye Behaviors (eyes communicate most on face) o 3. Movement & Gestures. Forms of Gestures: (1) emblems, (2) illustrators, (3) affect displays, (4) regulators, (5) adaptors o 4. Touch Behaviors Affectionate Touch, Caregiving Touch, Power & Control Touch, Aggressive Touch, and Ritualistic Touch o 5. Vocal Behaviors (vocalics/paralanguage) o 6. The Use of Smell o 7. The Use of Space Intimate, personal, social, and public distances o 8. Physical Appearance o 9. The Use of Time o 10. The Use of Artifacts Chapter 6: Listening Effectively Misconceptions About Listening o Hearing Is the Same as listening o Listening is Natural & Effortless Culture Affects Listening Behavior: o Listeners’ Expectations for directness (monochromic culture- direct vs. polychromic cultures o Non-verbal listening responses o Understanding of Language (idioms and comprehension issues) HURIER Model- stages of effective listening o Hearing o Understanding o Remembering o Interpreting o Evaluating o Responding: Stonewalling- silence Backchanneling- facial expression, nods, vocalizations like “uh- huh” Paraphrasing Empathizing Supporting Analyzing Advising Types of Listening: o Informative Listening o Critical Listening o Empathetic Listening- perspective taking & empathetic concern Barriers for Effective Listening: o Noise o Pseudolistening & Selective Attention o Information Overload o Glazing Over o Rebuttal Tendency o Closed-Mindedness o Competitive Interrupting Become A Better Informational Listener o Avoid the confirmation bias o Avoid the vividness effect Become A Better Critical Listener o Be a skeptic – skepticism o Evaluate speaker’s credibility o Understand Probability Become a better empathetic listener o Listen nonjudgementally o Acknowledge Feelings o Communicate Support Nonverbally
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'