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Chapter 11-15 Test Study Guide

by: Kaley Hicks

Chapter 11-15 Test Study Guide COMM 10123

Kaley Hicks
GPA 3.97

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About this Document

A Study guide/outline of Chapters 11-15 + Examples to help with application problems on the test
Basic Speech Communication
Forsythe, Katherine Elizabeth/Finn, Amber
Study Guide
Basic Speech Communication, communication, communication studies, Basic Speech
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This 5 page Study Guide was uploaded by Kaley Hicks on Friday January 22, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to COMM 10123 at Texas Christian University taught by Forsythe, Katherine Elizabeth/Finn, Amber in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 67 views. For similar materials see Basic Speech Communication in Communication Studies at Texas Christian University.

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Date Created: 01/22/16
Chapter 11-15 Study Outline & Examples: Chapter 11: Choosing, Developing, and Researching a Topic  Goals of Speaking: o Inform o Persuade o Entertain o Introduce o To Give Honor  Euology- honors memory of someone after their death  Speech of recognition- honor someone receiving an award  Speech of dedication- honor important places  Speech of commemoration- honor specific points in history  Identify Potential Topics, Topics that are right for you, topics that are right for your audience, topics that are right for the occasion,  Analyze Your Audience: Consider Who Your Listeners are through audience analysis o Age: 18-30 (Millennial Generation), 31-46 (Generation X), 47 to 65 (Boomer Generation), 65+ (Silver Generation) o Sex and Sexual Orientation o Culture o Economic Status o Physical and Mental Capabilities  Consider Situation of Listeners: Purpose, Size of Audience, Time Available, Competing Demands, Prior Knowledge of Topic  Know Where to Find Information: o General search engine: website that one can search for other websites containing information on a specific topic o Research search engine- website that can be searched for published books, academic journals, and other periodicals o Database- electronic storehouse of specific information that people can search o Interview- structured conversation of questions and answers o Survey- method of collecting data by asking people directly about their experiences o Questionnaire- written instrument containing questions for people to answer Chapter 12: Organizing and Finding Support for Your Speech  State Your Purpose & Thesis Statement o Purpose Statement: declaration of the specific goal of the speech  EX: Demonstrate the process of making ravioli or Teach listeners the differences among five Italian red wines. o Thesis Statement: one-sentence version of the message in a speech  Ex: Although sales of herbal supplements are growing, medical research shows they are no more effective than placebos & Because gold prices rise even in a weak economy, investing in gold is a sound financial decision.  Introduction Techniques: Stories, statistics, quotations, jokes, questions, citing an opinion, startle listeners, note the occasion, identify something familiar, incorporate technology o Introduction Previews Main Points  Body Expresses Your Main Points o Main point- statement expressing a specific idea or theme related to the speech topic. Can be organized in various patterns:  Topic pattern  Time pattern  Space pattern  Cause-and-effect pattern  Problem-solution pattern  Conclusion Summarizes Your Message o A) Reinforces Your Central Message B) Creates a Memorable Moment  Transitions help speech flow smoothly. Types of Transitions: o Preview: EX: Next, I’d like to discuss recent innovations in standardized testing o Summary (Internal Summary): EX: As we’ve seen, military personnel lack adequate training and resources to accomplish their missions. o Restate-Forecast- EX: Now you know what type I diabetes is we can move onto type II diabetes o Signposts: Single words or phrases that distinguish one point from another. Ex: In conclusion, Finally, In Summary, To begin o Some Transitions Are Nonverbal: body movement, vocal inflection, pauses, gestures  Creating an Outline: 3 Rules: o Rule of subordination o Rule of Division o Rule of parallel wording  Outlines include: Title, purpose statement, thesis statement, introduction, main points, sub points, conclusion, bibliography  Identify Where You Need Support o EX: Definitions, examples, statistics, quotations, narratives o Evaluate material for: (1) credibility, (2) objectivity, (3) currency o Use a verbal footnote in speech to identify sources Chapter 13:  Styles of Delivering a Speech o Impromptu Speech o Extemporaneous Speech o Scripted Speech o Memorized Speech  Managing Public Speaking Anxiety o Public speaking anxiety or stage fright is a type of stress (bodys reaction to threat) o Psychological Effects: Public Speaking Anxiety and Anticipatory Anxiety o Physical Effects: Flight or Fight Response o Visualize & desensitize  Visual Elements that Affect Delivery: o Facial expression, eye contact, posture and body position, gestures, personal appearance  Vocal Elements that Affect Delivery: o Rate, volume pitch, articulation, fluency (avoid stuttering) o Five Common Articulation Problems:  Addition- adding unnecessary sounds to words. EX: “Bolth” instead of “Both”  Deletion- omits part of word. EX: “fridgerator”  Transposition- reversing two sounds within a word. EX: “perfessor” instead “professor”  Substitution- replacing one part of a word with an incorrect sound. EX: “sundee” instead of “Sunday”  Slurring- combines two or more words. EX: “sorta”  Using Presentation Aids: Improve Attention, Learning & Recall o Electronic Presentation Aids:  Text Slide  Graphic Slides (tables, charts, and pictures)  Types of charts: pie chart, line chart, bar chart  Video & Audio o Non-electronic presentation aids:  Objects (models); flavors, textures, & odors; Handouts  Module Notes: o In Introduction you need a motivation step-why the audience should listen Chapter 14: Speaking Informatively  Methods of Informative Speaking o Defining: Methods->  Denotative Meaning  Connotative Meaning  Etymology  Synonyms/Antonyms  Example  Compare-and-contrast definitions o Explaining  Keep it objective – avoid being subjective o Describing  Two Forms of Description: representation (Great China- what it looks like) and narration (what your aunt went through to become a doctor) o Demonstrating  Relate Your Topic To Yourself  Relate Your Topic to Your Audience o Establish vested interest, establish relevance to listeners  Create information hunger Chapter 15: Speaking Persuasively  Persuasion Affects: o Beliefs o Opinions o Actions  3 goals of persuasion: o 1) To persuade to believe a claim is true (beliefs) o 2) To convince to share an opinion on a particular issue (opinions) o 3) To get someone to do something (action)  3 Forms of Rhetorical Proof o Ethos o Pathos o Logos  Listener’s ability to reason-make judgements about the world based on evidence rather than emotion or intuition  Inductive Reasoning- EX: Doctors analyze symptoms to make conclusions about your illness  Deductive Reasoning  Often uses syllogism. Example of a syllogism: Major premise: All fruits contain seeds Minor premise: Tomatoes are fruits Conclusion: Therefore tomatoes contain seeds o Enthymeme-syllogism where one premise is so widely known that it is omitted. EX: “I think, therefore I am” – Major premise: anyone who thinks must exist. Minor premise: I think Conclusion: Therefore, I exist. Major premise so widely known it is left out.  Creating a Persuasive Message: Uses Propositions- that which a persuasive speech attempts to convince an audience to accept. o Propositions of Fact: EX: Barrack Obama was born in Hawaii o Propositions of Value: EX: Animal Cloning is immoral, Fathers are just as important as mothers o Propositions of Policy: EX: The federal government should ban the use of human stem cells in medical research.  Four Ways To Organize A Persuasive Message o Problem-solving pattern  Good for open-minded audiences o Refutational Approach  Audience opposes your opinion o Comparative Advantage Method  Audiences that agree a problem exists but not on a solution o Monroe’s motivated sequence: appeals to attention, need, satisfaction, visualization, and action  Effective at motivating listeners to adopt a specific action such as buying a product or giving money to charity  Avoid Logical Fallacies o Ad Hominem Fallacy- counters an argument by criticizing the person who made it o Slippery Slope Fallacy- (reduction to the absurd) – tries to shoot down an argument by taking it to such an extreme that it appears ludicrous  “If we legalize gay marriage, pretty soon we’ll be legalizing polygamy and allowing people to marry animals” o False-cause fallacy- (post hoc ergo proper hoc) – if an event occurs before some outcome, the event therefore caused that outcome  “I started taking fish oil supplements three years ago, and I haven’t gotten sick once during that time.” o Bandwagon Appeal- listeners should accept an argument because many other people have  Ex: “Over 15 Million people buy Vetris motor oil each month, and you should too!” o Hasty generalization- broad claim based on insufficient evidence  Ex: It is unsafe to travel to Turkey because you had your passport stolen from your hotel room while there o Red Herring Fallacy- responding to an argument by introducing an irrelevant detail to divert attention from the point of the argument  Ex: “We shouldn’t prosecute people for smoking marijuana when there are so many other dangerous drugs out there. o Straw-man fallacy- refuting a claim that was never made  Ex: Bill proposed to lowering the drinking age to 19. Reponse: “Our governor thinks kids should be able to sit in bars drinking martinis! I doubt most parents in this state want to see their children getting hammered with hard liquor after school!” o Begging the Question- supporting an argument using the argument itself as evidence  Ex: “The use of cell phones while driving should be banned because people shouldn’t talk on the phone while driving.” o Appeal to False Authority- using the testimony of someone who is not an expert on a given topic as evidence  Ex: “According to Ellen DeGeneres, a vegan diet is the healthiest way to eat”  Adapt to Your Audience o Types of Audiences: Receptive, neutral, and hostile o Build Rapport with your listeners o Establish Your Credibility (a speakers believability)


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