Chapter 11-15 Test Study Guide
Chapter 11-15 Test Study Guide COMM 10123
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This 5 page Study Guide was uploaded by Kaley Hicks on Friday January 22, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to COMM 10123 at Texas Christian University taught by Forsythe, Katherine Elizabeth/Finn, Amber in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 67 views. For similar materials see Basic Speech Communication in Communication Studies at Texas Christian University.
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Date Created: 01/22/16
Chapter 11-15 Study Outline & Examples: Chapter 11: Choosing, Developing, and Researching a Topic Goals of Speaking: o Inform o Persuade o Entertain o Introduce o To Give Honor Euology- honors memory of someone after their death Speech of recognition- honor someone receiving an award Speech of dedication- honor important places Speech of commemoration- honor specific points in history Identify Potential Topics, Topics that are right for you, topics that are right for your audience, topics that are right for the occasion, Analyze Your Audience: Consider Who Your Listeners are through audience analysis o Age: 18-30 (Millennial Generation), 31-46 (Generation X), 47 to 65 (Boomer Generation), 65+ (Silver Generation) o Sex and Sexual Orientation o Culture o Economic Status o Physical and Mental Capabilities Consider Situation of Listeners: Purpose, Size of Audience, Time Available, Competing Demands, Prior Knowledge of Topic Know Where to Find Information: o General search engine: website that one can search for other websites containing information on a specific topic o Research search engine- website that can be searched for published books, academic journals, and other periodicals o Database- electronic storehouse of specific information that people can search o Interview- structured conversation of questions and answers o Survey- method of collecting data by asking people directly about their experiences o Questionnaire- written instrument containing questions for people to answer Chapter 12: Organizing and Finding Support for Your Speech State Your Purpose & Thesis Statement o Purpose Statement: declaration of the specific goal of the speech EX: Demonstrate the process of making ravioli or Teach listeners the differences among five Italian red wines. o Thesis Statement: one-sentence version of the message in a speech Ex: Although sales of herbal supplements are growing, medical research shows they are no more effective than placebos & Because gold prices rise even in a weak economy, investing in gold is a sound financial decision. Introduction Techniques: Stories, statistics, quotations, jokes, questions, citing an opinion, startle listeners, note the occasion, identify something familiar, incorporate technology o Introduction Previews Main Points Body Expresses Your Main Points o Main point- statement expressing a specific idea or theme related to the speech topic. Can be organized in various patterns: Topic pattern Time pattern Space pattern Cause-and-effect pattern Problem-solution pattern Conclusion Summarizes Your Message o A) Reinforces Your Central Message B) Creates a Memorable Moment Transitions help speech flow smoothly. Types of Transitions: o Preview: EX: Next, I’d like to discuss recent innovations in standardized testing o Summary (Internal Summary): EX: As we’ve seen, military personnel lack adequate training and resources to accomplish their missions. o Restate-Forecast- EX: Now you know what type I diabetes is we can move onto type II diabetes o Signposts: Single words or phrases that distinguish one point from another. Ex: In conclusion, Finally, In Summary, To begin o Some Transitions Are Nonverbal: body movement, vocal inflection, pauses, gestures Creating an Outline: 3 Rules: o Rule of subordination o Rule of Division o Rule of parallel wording Outlines include: Title, purpose statement, thesis statement, introduction, main points, sub points, conclusion, bibliography Identify Where You Need Support o EX: Definitions, examples, statistics, quotations, narratives o Evaluate material for: (1) credibility, (2) objectivity, (3) currency o Use a verbal footnote in speech to identify sources Chapter 13: Styles of Delivering a Speech o Impromptu Speech o Extemporaneous Speech o Scripted Speech o Memorized Speech Managing Public Speaking Anxiety o Public speaking anxiety or stage fright is a type of stress (bodys reaction to threat) o Psychological Effects: Public Speaking Anxiety and Anticipatory Anxiety o Physical Effects: Flight or Fight Response o Visualize & desensitize Visual Elements that Affect Delivery: o Facial expression, eye contact, posture and body position, gestures, personal appearance Vocal Elements that Affect Delivery: o Rate, volume pitch, articulation, fluency (avoid stuttering) o Five Common Articulation Problems: Addition- adding unnecessary sounds to words. EX: “Bolth” instead of “Both” Deletion- omits part of word. EX: “fridgerator” Transposition- reversing two sounds within a word. EX: “perfessor” instead “professor” Substitution- replacing one part of a word with an incorrect sound. EX: “sundee” instead of “Sunday” Slurring- combines two or more words. EX: “sorta” Using Presentation Aids: Improve Attention, Learning & Recall o Electronic Presentation Aids: Text Slide Graphic Slides (tables, charts, and pictures) Types of charts: pie chart, line chart, bar chart Video & Audio o Non-electronic presentation aids: Objects (models); flavors, textures, & odors; Handouts Module Notes: o In Introduction you need a motivation step-why the audience should listen Chapter 14: Speaking Informatively Methods of Informative Speaking o Defining: Methods-> Denotative Meaning Connotative Meaning Etymology Synonyms/Antonyms Example Compare-and-contrast definitions o Explaining Keep it objective – avoid being subjective o Describing Two Forms of Description: representation (Great China- what it looks like) and narration (what your aunt went through to become a doctor) o Demonstrating Relate Your Topic To Yourself Relate Your Topic to Your Audience o Establish vested interest, establish relevance to listeners Create information hunger Chapter 15: Speaking Persuasively Persuasion Affects: o Beliefs o Opinions o Actions 3 goals of persuasion: o 1) To persuade to believe a claim is true (beliefs) o 2) To convince to share an opinion on a particular issue (opinions) o 3) To get someone to do something (action) 3 Forms of Rhetorical Proof o Ethos o Pathos o Logos Listener’s ability to reason-make judgements about the world based on evidence rather than emotion or intuition Inductive Reasoning- EX: Doctors analyze symptoms to make conclusions about your illness Deductive Reasoning Often uses syllogism. Example of a syllogism: Major premise: All fruits contain seeds Minor premise: Tomatoes are fruits Conclusion: Therefore tomatoes contain seeds o Enthymeme-syllogism where one premise is so widely known that it is omitted. EX: “I think, therefore I am” – Major premise: anyone who thinks must exist. Minor premise: I think Conclusion: Therefore, I exist. Major premise so widely known it is left out. Creating a Persuasive Message: Uses Propositions- that which a persuasive speech attempts to convince an audience to accept. o Propositions of Fact: EX: Barrack Obama was born in Hawaii o Propositions of Value: EX: Animal Cloning is immoral, Fathers are just as important as mothers o Propositions of Policy: EX: The federal government should ban the use of human stem cells in medical research. Four Ways To Organize A Persuasive Message o Problem-solving pattern Good for open-minded audiences o Refutational Approach Audience opposes your opinion o Comparative Advantage Method Audiences that agree a problem exists but not on a solution o Monroe’s motivated sequence: appeals to attention, need, satisfaction, visualization, and action Effective at motivating listeners to adopt a specific action such as buying a product or giving money to charity Avoid Logical Fallacies o Ad Hominem Fallacy- counters an argument by criticizing the person who made it o Slippery Slope Fallacy- (reduction to the absurd) – tries to shoot down an argument by taking it to such an extreme that it appears ludicrous “If we legalize gay marriage, pretty soon we’ll be legalizing polygamy and allowing people to marry animals” o False-cause fallacy- (post hoc ergo proper hoc) – if an event occurs before some outcome, the event therefore caused that outcome “I started taking fish oil supplements three years ago, and I haven’t gotten sick once during that time.” o Bandwagon Appeal- listeners should accept an argument because many other people have Ex: “Over 15 Million people buy Vetris motor oil each month, and you should too!” o Hasty generalization- broad claim based on insufficient evidence Ex: It is unsafe to travel to Turkey because you had your passport stolen from your hotel room while there o Red Herring Fallacy- responding to an argument by introducing an irrelevant detail to divert attention from the point of the argument Ex: “We shouldn’t prosecute people for smoking marijuana when there are so many other dangerous drugs out there. o Straw-man fallacy- refuting a claim that was never made Ex: Bill proposed to lowering the drinking age to 19. Reponse: “Our governor thinks kids should be able to sit in bars drinking martinis! I doubt most parents in this state want to see their children getting hammered with hard liquor after school!” o Begging the Question- supporting an argument using the argument itself as evidence Ex: “The use of cell phones while driving should be banned because people shouldn’t talk on the phone while driving.” o Appeal to False Authority- using the testimony of someone who is not an expert on a given topic as evidence Ex: “According to Ellen DeGeneres, a vegan diet is the healthiest way to eat” Adapt to Your Audience o Types of Audiences: Receptive, neutral, and hostile o Build Rapport with your listeners o Establish Your Credibility (a speakers believability)
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