Basic Speech Communication Final Exam Study Guides
Basic Speech Communication Final Exam Study Guides COMM 10123
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This 5 page Study Guide was uploaded by Kaley Hicks on Friday January 22, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to COMM 10123 at Texas Christian University taught by Forsythe, Katherine Elizabeth/Finn, Amber in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 93 views. For similar materials see Basic Speech Communication in Communication Studies at Texas Christian University.
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Date Created: 01/22/16
Basic Speech Final Exam Study Guide: Chapter 2: Understanding Cultures and Co-Cultures o Culture is not necessarily related to our ethnicity or nationality – culture is learned Cultures Vary in their values: 10 values that are widely shared and similarly interpreted: o Power, Achievement, Hedonism (fun or pleasure), stimulation (novelty, excitement, challenge in life), self-direction, universalism (appreciating & caring about all people and nature), benevolence, tradition, conformity, security. 6 Ways Culture Affects Communication: o 1. Individualistic vs. Collectivistic o 2. Low-context vs. high context o 3, Low power distance vs. high power distance o 4. Masculine vs. feminine o 5. Monochromic vs. polychromic o 6. Uncertainty avoidance Chapter 7: Forming and Maintaining Social Bonds o Attraction theory explains why individuals are drawn to others. o The process of forming most relationships begins with interpersonal attraction – the force that draws people together. Physical Attraction, Social Attraction, and Task Attraction. Four qualities that are powerful in sparking interpersonal attraction: Appearance, proximity, complementary, and similarity Theories About Why We Form Relationships: o 1. Attraction theory o 2. Uncertainty Reduction theory Predicted Outcome value theory- when forming opinions about people we consider the merits of what we have learned about them. If we dislike information we learn, it can cause us to like them less. o 3. Social Exchange Theory We seek to maintain relationships in which their benefits > costs Comparison level: realistic expectation of what one wants & deserves from a relationship. EX: You believe your neighbors should be friendly but should mind their own business. Comparison level for alternatives: measures how much better or worse our relationship is than other options. o 4. Equity Theory – the best relationships are when our costs and benefits are equal to the others costs and benefits. o 5. Relational Maintenance Behaviors Theory- 5 Behaviors are used to maintain relationships: Positivity, Openness, assurances, social networks, and sharing tasks Revealing Ourselves in Relationships: Self-disclosure o Social Penetration Theory Chapter 8: Intimate Relationships spark dialectical tensions: conflicts between two important but opposing relational needs or desires o Autonomy vs. Connection o Openness vs. Closedness o Predictability vs. Novelty Stages of Relational Development: o 1. Initiating o 2. Experimenting o 3. Intensifying Meet each other’s friends, share intimate information (fears, goals, & secrets), increase commitment to relationship (“You’re really important to me”) o 4. Integrating o 5. Bonding Moving in together, getting engaged, having a commitment ceremony. Four Behaviors that influence Satisfaction Within a Relationship o 1. Conflict Validating Couples, Volatile Couples, Conflict-Avoiding Couples,& Hostile Couples o 2. How Privacy is handled Communication Privacy Management (CPM) Theory: explains how people in relationships negotiate the tension between disclosing information and keeping it private. o 3. How Instrumental Communication is handled o 4. How Emotional Communication is handled Mark Knapp’s 5 Stages Relationships Go Through When They’re Ending: o 1. Differentiating o 2. Circumscribing Spend time apart, when together don’t talk about conflict o 3. Stagnating o 4. Avoiding o 5. Terminating Types of Families: o Family of origin, family of procreation o nuclear family (married woman & man & biological children) o blended family (two adult partners raising children who are not biologically theirs) o Single-parent family- one adult raises children Confirming Messages: o Descriptive: “There are a few opportunities for improvement in the yardwork you’ve done.” o Inquiry Orientation: “Why don’t we see if there’s a way we can both go to Stephanie’s soccer match?” o Spontaneity: “I’m planning a birthday party, want to come?” o Empathy: “I’m sorry you didn’t get the promotion you wanted at work; you must be so disappointed? o Equality: “You have a very nice way of responding to solicitors who come to our door; I’ve never thought of taking the approach you do. o Provisional: “What leads you to the opinion that Proposition 40 is unfair to families like ours? Is it possible that the source of your information is wrong? Disconfirming Messages: o Evaluative: “That was the worst cutting job you’ve ever done.” o Control: “You can’t use the laptop right now, I’m using it.” o Neutrality: “Life’s unfair sometimes; better get used to it.” o Strategy: “Are you busy tomorrow?” o Superiority: “I can’t imagine why you organized our family vacation this way; you don’t know what you’re doing.” o Certainty: “You’re wrong.” “Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse”: Warning signs for separation/relational dissolution: o Criticism “You never care about my feelings” ; “You always have to be right” o Contempt “You stupid idiot” o Defensiveness “It’s not fair” ; “It’s not my fault” o Stonewalling Strategies for Managing Dialectical Tensions o Denial – completely ignore one side of the dialectical tension o Disorientation- ending the relationship where the tension exists. o Alternation- going back and forth between the two sides of a tension EX: one day acting to strengthen autonomy, other days acting to strengthen connection o Segmentation- Addressing one side of the tension in some segments and the other side in other segments Rather than going back and forth as in alteration, in segmentation she addresses on side of the tension in some segments of her relationship and the other in other segments. EX: Emphasizing connection by sharing emotional disclosures, emphasizing autonomy by keeping finances separate. o Balance- trying to find compromise between the tensions EX: Disclosing some but not all feelings towards her partner. o Integration- developing behaviors that will satisfy both sides of a tension simultaneously. Unlike balance, which focuses on compromising each desire, integration finds ways to satisfy both without compromising either. EX: Spend time together while one watches TV and the other does crossword o Recalibration- reframing a tension so the contradiction between opposing needs disappears. EX: Moira and Albee realize that autonomy and connection are both desirable. o Reaffirmation- embracing dialectical tensions as a normal part of life. Chapter 9: Small groups are interdependent o Systems Theory: members of small groups are interdependent in the sense that each one affects and is affected by every other member in some way. Small groups are cohesive o Task Cohesion (everyone is working towards the same objectives) o Social Cohesion (level of positive regard members have for one another) Small groups have distinctive communication practices o Problem-solving communication: details of how tasks are accomplished o Role Communication: formal & informal roles each member has o Conscious-raising communication: strengths the group’s identity and the morale of its members. o Encounter Communication: describes the interpersonal interactions among members Functions of small groups o Evaluate & Advice: Focus Group-comprised of 6-10 consumers who may use & provide their feedback on a new product before it is available to the public. o Create Art & Ideas Brainstorming Groups: small groups of people assembled to generate more innovative ways of thinking o Provide Service & Support Support Groups o Promote Social Networking Social networking groups: purpose is to meet new people; allow people to meet, communication, and get to know each other o Help Us Learn Study Groups 5 Phases of Socialization in a small group: o 1) Antecedent Phase o 2) Anticipatory Phase o 3) Encounter Phase Groups use their initial meeting to establish their mission and define their goals. Then, assign roles and tasks. Lastly, remind members of expectations for their behavior. o 4) Assimilation Phase o 5) Exit Phase Chapter 10: Generating Ideas o Brainstorming o Nominal Group Technique o Ideawriting Ways Groups Make Decisions o 1. Unanimous Consensus Stalemate False Consensus o 2. Majority Rule o 3. Minority Rule o 4. Expert Opinion o 5. Authority Rule Leaders Enact Distinct Styles o Autocratic o Democratic o Laissez-Faire Types of Power: o Reward Power: EX: your supervisor has power of you because he pays you o Coercive Power: EX: When you go to court the judge has power over you. o Referent Power: EX: You might work harder for a group leader you like than for one you dislike. o Legitimate Power: EX: The president of the united states has power over the cabinet o Expert Power: EX: In a chamber orchestra, the musicians follow the instructions of the conductor. o Informational Power 5 Major Strategies for Engaging in Conflict: o Competing o Avoiding o Collaborating o Compromising o Accommodating
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