SOP3004 Exam 1 Study Guide- Colin Smith
SOP3004 Exam 1 Study Guide- Colin Smith SOP3004
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This 17 page Study Guide was uploaded by Krinza Notetaker on Friday January 22, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to SOP3004 at University of Florida taught by Colin Smith in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 60 views. For similar materials see Social Psychology in Psychlogy at University of Florida.
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Date Created: 01/22/16
EXAM ONE STUDY GUIDE What is Social Psychology? scientific study of the ways in which peoples thoughts feelings and behaviors are influenced by actual, imagined or implied presence of others. -As a social psychologist step back and think about more than just the behavior u are observing -Fundamental Attribution Error-tendency to explain our own behavior and others entirely in terms of personality traits. -underestimating the power of social influence -calling someone rude because they behaved wrongly with us…well maybe they’re having a bad day. ex. Oscar the grouch is grouchy possibly due to his living situation…in a trashcan Social vs personality psychology social-equal role of social influence on ALL people personality-focused on differences between peoples behavior Construal: the way in which people perceive, comprehend and interpret the social world -how you see things -parents from a cold place want to go swimming in florida when its 66 degrees Basic Social Motives -Self esteem maintenance -Desire to feel goof about ourselves -Social Cognition Approach -desire to be accurate about the social world *both motivations can apply simultaneously and different people can construe the exact same situation differently Social psy. vs “folk Wisdom" -we can submit thus question to empirical study -does absence make the heart grow fonder or forgetful? -do birds of a feather flock together or do opposites attract? Familiarity with the subject matter: we all have familiarity with the social world -but our experience can lead to systemic errors -just bc something rhyme or is a saying doesn’t make it true Hindsight bias: the tendency the exaggerate…….. -1985 Super Bowl 81% said Miami would win and 19% said 49ers would win—> in reality 49ers won -After super bowl 42% said they thought Miami would win but 58% said they thought 49ers would win. CHAPTER 1 1. Science is use of Systematic Observation(testing and observation -these days, people are more likely to want to be able to form their own opinions and debate conclusions. -observe the world in a organized way -scientists are also humans and subject to all of the mental biases of humans e.g memory loss, motivated cognition 2. Testable Hypotheses and theories -if something is not testable its not science 3. Democratic —rather than relying on authority, science relies evidence— your idea is as important as my good idea! 4. Cumulative -Science builds on previous finding so that we are alway learning more Basic Element of the Scientific Method Hypothesize: collections of variable organized into a testable statement of prediction -At least two concepts - some statement of the relationship between the, ex. Texting(concept 1) during class is related to poor exam performance(concept 2) Where do hypotheses come from? • previous research • personal observation Operationalize: turns a general idea into the building blacks of research conceptual definition -movie enjoyement -Did you enjoy the movie? Operation defintion a rating on a scale from1-10 Measure: three methods of hpthoses -Observational Goal: description _Correlational goal: prediction -relate two factors -Experimental goal: sleep causes question -Sleep causes mood change Observational Design behaviorial physical trace archival data analysis Problems with observational Methods Some behaviors are difficult to observe -private -rare -mental Important info might be missing **Psychologists are interested in predicting and explaining behavior Correlational Design Correlational method -technique whereby two or more variable are systematically measures and the relationship between them is assessed correlation coeffieicent- statistical measure of the street and direction of the relationship range: from -1 to +1 Advantages: asses real between two variables as they occur naturally -imp for unethical variables Disadv: reverse-causualty problem third variable problem Evaluate Revise or Replicate Francis Galton -used patches of color to test peoples ability to distinguish between them. -invented the self report questionnaire-people expressed their own judgments or opinions on various matters -fraternal twins and twins-genetic and social factors contributing towards personality Organizational psychology- number of inventions found to produce greater productivity and satisfaction in the workplace Ethics in Psychology -research done on humans -scientific psychologists follow code of ethics 1. informed consent-people should know when they are involved in research 2. confidentiality 3. privacy 4. benefits 5. deception-debrief with the participants to educate them on what was done on them CHAPTER 2 Social Cognition- How people select, interpret, remember and use social information to make judgements and decisions. • Automatic thinking: quick and without control (an immediate first impression—jamming on the brakes) • Controlled thinking: Effortless and deliberate (revision of first impression—slowing down bc of a car accident in the distance) **We have “autopilots” that monitor our environments, draw conclusions indirect behavior which leads us to the wrong conclusion—but we can mostly override if we are sufficiently motivated. **Our experience is that we are the pilot or the rider, but we may simply be the commentator explaining what is happening to us. Example: “Say the ink color” Green, Blue, Red. Automatic Thinking: Intro • People are very good at sizing up a new situation quickly and accurately—who is there, what is happening, what will happen • What if we took the time to really THINK about everything? we would get so tired! So we need autopilot to conserve cognitive resources. • Automatic thinking can lead us into making a lot of mistakes Schemas • Automatic thinking helps understand new situations by relating them to our prior experiences • Example : You know what to do when you go into a Subway vs. a fancy restaurant. You’re getting food at both places but at a fancy restaurant you’ll worry about what your wearing and you’ll wait for a waitress while at Subway who cares about your clothes. • Mental structures that organize our knowledge about the social world. • “fill in the gaps”, and help us understand confusing situations • They are like mental scripts that tell us how to behave in new situations, around new people, etc • Example: when we see a cat, we rely on our schemas to tell us that it probably meows. * although schemas can be helpful and adaptive sometimes we rely on them so m much that we actually make our schemas come true. Self Fulfilling prophecy 1. People have an expectation about what a person or group is like 2.which influences how they act toward that person 3.which causes the person to behave consistently with that expectation 4.which makes expectation come true 5.which provides proof that the original expectation was correct Limits on Self Fulfilling prophecy -people true nature can win out in social interaction but it takes effort on the part of the perceiver In a given situation which schemas are applied? Accessibility: the extent to which a concepts at the forefront of someone’s mind and thus likely to be used in making judgements about the social worlds Priming: the process by which recent experiences increase the accessibility of a schema, trait or concept Heuristics: mental shortcuts that reduce complex problem- solving to more rule-based decision Ex. your trying to buy new shampoo but can’t decide which one so you decide to look at the one with the highest rating online **Availability heuristic: use it to evaluate the frequency of an event based on easily it comets mind Ex. are there more words that begin with k or more that have k as the third letter? you may think that theres more words that start with k but reality is there are more words that have k as the third letter. This is because words that begin with k are more in our memory Planning Fallacies- underestimating the amount of time it will take us to finish a task Sterotypes • general beliefs about a group of people which may guide our behavior towards a person without us being aware of it Availability heuristic -when people predict the frequency of an event, they use info that comes to mind easily bc it stands out Representative heuristic -a mental shortcut whereby people classify something according to how similar it is to their schema -we ignore how common behaviors actually are in a population (base rate) and base judgements on how similar they seem to the situation ex. susan is very shy and withdrawn. a meek tidy soul she has a need for order and structure and passion for detail. is she a lawyer or librarian? she seems like a librarian.. but is a lawyer Heuristic vs Schema • heuristic is a mental shortcut, generally about one decision • a schema is a mental storyboard for how a situation going to play out Part of the definition of automatic thinking is that it occurs outside of conscious awareness-we really are thinking even when we don’t know it -thinking about something while not attending to it -associating reasoning, weighing, evaluating while consciousness is thinking about something else. (ex. your working on something and then u randomly figure out that persons name you were trying to remember a few hours ago) Cocktail Party Effect: your at a party and your talking to someone and you hear your name you automatically attend to it Understanding other People • We all have a fundamental fascination with explaining other peoples behavior but all we have to go on it whats observable • What do you think you se in explaining someones behavior? (what people do, tone of voice, facial expression) First Impressions • we form initial impressions of others based solely on their facial appearance in less that 1/10th of a second • 70% pf actual congressional elections and we linearly related to the margin of victory Affective Forecasting • Peoples predictions about their emotional reactions to future events (How sad would u be if your boyfriend broke up with you?) • We have difficulty in predicting responses to future emotional and negative events Impact Bias: We tend to overestimate the strength and duration of our emotional reactions. (ex. its the end of the world because she broke up with me. I will be sad forever and ever) But.. we don’t fully appreciate our psychological coping mechanism We only focus on the emotional impact of a single event Jan 27 Attitudes • People are not neutral observers of the world we evaluate what we encounter—We are naturally Judgy • Evaluations of people, object and ideas Valence and Extremity • Think about attitude as a scale • Valence descirbes whether the sale tips to the left, right or neither • Extremity describes how much the scale tips; dependent on the amount of positivity or negativity Measuring Attitudes • Direct: thru Likert scale or Semantic differential • Likert scales use an agree/disagree format (ex. agree or disagree:apple computers are more fun that windows) • Semantic differentials scale use a good/bad format (ex scale of 0-3 old people are most attractive to not attractive) • Indirect/Covert Bogus Pipeline: Told people that this machine knows your real attitude this got people to state their actual attitude. Physiological Measures: sense that you can tell about an attitude, looking at the skin and seeing goosebumps/sweaty Observational Measures: • Implicit Evaluating priming Implicit Association Test Affect misattribution procedure Problems with Direct Measurement of Attitudes 1. Respondent carelessness 2. Impression Management/Reactivity (what do u think of white people “8/10” what about black”ohh snap equality uhh 8/10” Impression Management: (An attempt to respond in a way that seems favorable) Reactivity: Simply asking the question changes the answers 3. People don’t always know their own minds—ex. you don’t know how much you actually like something on a scale Explicit: Aware, Controllable, intentional, direct measures Implicit: less aware, less controllable/intentional, implicit measures, Unendorsed **both attitudes are important in terms of predicting behavior -Explicit attitudes: predict behavior where we have control (what you decide to say) -Implicit: everything you do automatically (How you say it) Chapter 3: Attribution Theory Attribution • Understanding ones intentions makes a difference in how we interpret the meaning of their behavior (Why are they doing this?) • Attribution: The end result in the process of explaining behavior in order to decide the cause for the behavior—why did he/she do what he/she did" • “Father of Attribution: Fritz Heider Attribution Theory: addresses how we infer the causes of peoples behavior When deciding about causes of behavior, we can make one of two attributions • internal, disposition attribution: Infer a perso is behaving a certain way bc of something about the person (personality) • external, situational attribution: infer a persons behaving a certain way because of the situation; assumes most people would respond the same way in that situation Example: Why is Donald Trump rich? • Hard work, intelligent: Internal • Born into money, lucky: External Kellys Covariation Model -To decide whether a behavior was causes by internal factors or by external factors, People use three types of infor • consensus: how other people behave toward the same situation(do other people fall asleep in this psych class?… Yes: high consensus, No: low consenus) • distinctiveness: how this person behaves toward other stimuli (Does this person fall asleep in other psych classes) • consistency: how this person behaves toward this stimuli (does this person fall asleep in this psych class) Are we Good at making attributions? ***Kelley proposed that we go about like scientists, testing hypothesis, and arriving at a rational decision about internal/external attribution • But sometimes we find ourselves relying on heuristics in our judgement • And it easy to conclude that behavior corresponds to disposition • so we end up believing that people do things because of the kind of person they are..not because of their situation Fundamental Attribution Error FAE- the tendency to overestimate the extent to which peoples behavior is due to internal, dispositional facts and to underestimate the role of situational factors Jones and Haris had students read a pro-or anti-Castro essay written by an anonymous student Independent variable: whether the student was assigned to a position or freely chose their position Dependent Variable: How much do u think students support Fidell Castro Two step process of Attribution • When we witness someone something we automatically make an internal attribution about a persons behavior • If we’re tired, unmotivated, distracted, then we strop. The attribution is an internal dispositional o one • If we have the time,energy, and motivation then we may do the mental work to consider other possible explanations (situational factors) we move the attribution away from the original one. Cognitive Dissonance Maintaining Stable , Positive Image -Humans are motivated to keep a positive image Cognitive Dissonance- The feeling of discomfort caused by performing an action that runs counter to ones conception of oneself • We experience this physical and psychological discomfort when we are presented with evidence that we have behaved inconsistely with out concept of ourselves as rational beings THREE WAYS TO REDUCE DISSONANCE 1. by changing our behavior to bring it in line with the dissonant cognition (stop eating meat 2. by attempting to justify our behavior through changing one of the dissonant cognitions (I don’t like meat THAT much) 3. attempting to justify our behaviors by adding new cognitions (most common)(well, i eat grass fed beef) TYPES OF COGNITIVE DISSONANCE Four types • Justifying untruths (to others or self • Justifying decisions • Justifying effort (we just want to be in bed all day and we have a reason to get up to do something • Justifying failure to act Justifying Untruths • Insufficient justification: Theory that states that, when external justification is insufficient, dissonance reduction occurs by internally justifying • ex. giving a speech over something you don’t believe in • If you lied and you were paid a good amount you can say: I did it for the money • If you lied but weren't paid that much u must have had some reason: turns out, I actually DO think that Justifying Untruths to Ourselves Justifying Decisions • Cognitive dissonance is botlimited to situations in which you ay or do something you don’t believe post decisional dissonance: choosing between attractive options leads to cognitive decisions Ex. participants told about two products and rated them each 2. they were told they could keep one product 3. rerating of chosen product IV: Easy choice: one item clearly better,—>DV: little attitude change Hard choice: items similarity attractive—>DV: post decisional rating much more positive than first rating *emphasize the positive and deemphasize the negative February 1 Every time we make a decision, we experience dissonance. Because.. • Chosen alternative has some negative aspects • rejected alternative has some positive aspects And so... 4. We emphasize the positive and de emphasize the negative of the one we chose 5. and we emphasize the negative and deemphasize the positive of the one we didn’t choose 2.Justifying Decisions -Choice of what type of research in which to participate **people see the scientific merit of the one they chose as greater -Choice between jobs in the military **People who believed their decision was not reversible engaged in more dissonance reduction than those who could change their mind **Affective forecasting..we think we want the ability to change our mind but it reduces dissonance reduction processes and leaves us less happy overall -Choice between partners in close relationships **people who are happy with their relationships automatically derogate attractive and available others; more threat=more derogation 3. Justifying Effort Effort justification: -working very hard is inconsistent with getting nothing in return So when this happen people restore consistency by altering perceptions of what was gained (Making it more positive) Example: Hazing..after going thru it you like the members of the group..but why did I go through that awful experience 4. Justifying Failure to Act Common sense might lead us to think that more severe punishment=more motivation to avoid it, but dissonance theory predicts otherwise Cognitive Dissonance summary Cognitive dissonance: feeling of discomfort caused by performing an action that runs counter to ones conception of oneself Four types: Justifying... Dissonance reduces change: 1. by changing our behavior 2. by changing one of the dissonant cognition 3. by adding new cognition Chapter 4: Functions of Emotions Six primary emotions: Anger Fear Disgust Happiness Surprise Sadness Contempt? May also be a universally recognized experession Pride? Also might be a universally recognized expression *All humans encode (Express) and decode(interpret) these emotions mostly in the same way *They are the first to develop in children (6-12months) *the next emotions to develop in children are pride/shame, guilt, embarrasement Three Functions of Emotions *Intrapersonal-role of emotions within ourselves -prepare body for action - influence thoughts -motivate future behavior *interpersonal- role of emotions between individuals -facilitate specific behaviors s thru emotional signals *Social and Cultural- role of emotions in minting social order within societies Culture Provides “Rules” for Emotions -We learn what type of emotion should be displayed when Example: how should you behave at a funeral? When making attributions about people, we actually think about how they behave at funeral of a spouse How would actors behave who do NOT win an award? Ww learn who should display what emotion -Most obvious is men vs . women -sadness? anger? Culture specific display rules dictate what kinds of emotional expression people are supposed show Intrapersonal Role of Emotions emotions are rapid-information-processing systems that help us act with minimal thinking Emotions prepare us to Act Emotions ready for the body for action Fear: • shuts down unneeded digestive functions of saliva production (dry mouth) • sends more blood to the lower body (get ready to run) • expands the visual field (look for danger • pulls in extra air (oxygen please) **We don’t have to act on our emotions but the body is ready! Emotions Influence thoughts and Motive Future Behavior • without emotions our attitudes would simply be statements-i love pizza • emotion help us to continue to approach things our body liked (avoid things we did not enjoy) -disgust-potentially evolved to avoid bodily harm (ex. thru contamination due to spoiled food, waste) Mood: definition vs emotion If you’re in a good mood you’re motivate to keep things going as they are If you’re in a bad mood, you’re motivated to stop look around and figure our whats wrong In a good mood, more likely to reply on instincts, heuristics, schemas, stereotypes etc. Signal Value: Emotions allow us to communicate whither people We use other peoples emotional signals to predict ... Social reinforcing- infants seek out info from their caregiver in situation that are ambiguous and then act on that information Close Others can Help us manage our Emotions -wives subjected to threat of painful electric shocks while in fMRI IV=no hand, stranger holds, or husband
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