Biology 101 Test 1 Study Guide
Biology 101 Test 1 Study Guide BY 101
Jacksonville State University
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This 4 page Study Guide was uploaded by Kimberly Burke on Friday January 22, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to BY 101 at Jacksonville State University taught by Dr. Tolley-Jordan (TJ) in Fall 2014. Since its upload, it has received 47 views. For similar materials see Introductory Biology I in Biology at Jacksonville State University.
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If Kimberly isn't already a tutor, they should be. Haven't had any of this stuff explained to me as clearly as this was. I appreciate the help!
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Date Created: 01/22/16
Bio 101 Exam 1 • Science - a system of acquiring knowledge o “scientia” - knowledge; bio - life, logy - study o Social sciences - study of human behavior & society o Natural science - study of natural world o 2 key parts: detection & measurement • Scientific Method - procedure used to systematically & w/out bias answer a question o Observations, testable hyp, exp design, data, results, conclusion o Hypothesis testing - late1800s/early 1900s - before science was descriptive • Descriptive science = inductive reasoning o Specific observation → generalization o 1st part of the scientific method: observation/generalization • Deductive reasoning = hypothesis testing o Steps 2-6 of method; generalization, deduce from experiment to test o Null Hyp - no difference; write to test against § Simple, suggests a characteristic easily measured, concerns relationship that data can easily be determined o Alternative hyp - difference § Investigative hyp; hyp we’re interested in o Null & Alt are opposites, couplet, find the difference by subtracting data o Experimental Design - GIGO (garbage in, garbage out) § Variables - factors that influence result § Control variables - all variables other than 1 in questions held constant o Data collection - more samples = better results o Data analysis - compiling #s into 1 # or few #s that describe data • 7 requirements to be alive o Cellular organization - all living things have cells o Ordered complexity - all living things are complex & highly ordered § Levels of organization • Single cell, tissue, organ, organ system o Sensitivity - all organisms respond to stimulus § Light, touch, moisture, taste, heat, smell, electromagnetic fields o Growth/development & reproduction § Growth - accumulation of mass § Development - defined stages in the growth process § Reproduction - generation of offspring o Energy utilization - all living things must have an energy source that is used for cellular activity (metabolism) that allows growth § Carbon - energy source that fuels metabolism § Some living things do this in deep sea thermal vents o Homeostasis - all organisms maintain constant internal conditions different from their environment - temperature, fluid levels § Regulate water through kidneys o Evolutionary adaptation - adapt to situations in environment, pass adaptations to offspring § Organisms enter body; immune system recognizes generation & kills it. § New generation comes in & kills you; immune system always changing • Viruses - not living; ball of protein, DNA, & RNA • All living things have DNA; only use 10% • Photosynthesis - make food; metabolism - eat food • First Organisms o 1. Archaea 2. Bacteria 3. Eukarya o 3500 bya - appearance of life (prokaryotes), anaerobic (methane producing) bacteria & anaerobic (hydrogen sulfide forming) photosynthesis o Archaea/bacteria dominated Earth for 22 mil yrs § World was mostly water & atmosphere had very little oxygen § No oxygen until 2.7-2.8 bya when cyanobacteria produced oxygen as a waste product from photosynthesis § Oxygen is far better for metabolism (breaking down food). Those that breathed oxy inste ad of carbon dioxide out competed bacteria that didn’t o Animals (534-490 mya) § Life lived in oceans § Depleting bacteria made oxygen available for metabolic use by eukaryotes - triggered explosion of animals § All major lineages of animals formed during this per iod o Plants (443-417 mya) • Eukarya (1 bya) - multi-cell, oxy, breathing, true nuclei o 1. Cell compartmentalization - many organelles w/ specific duty, less for 1 to do o 2. Multicellularity - grow bigger & stronger (cells, tissues, organs, organ systems) o 3. Sexual reproduction - allows for much greater genetic diversity than asexual § DNA variations make big difference • Evolutionary Relationship o Evolution - change over time o Organisms in the same grouping must have evolved from a common ancestor due to natural selection § Determined by: fossil records, homologous (same), & DNA (genetic seq) • Atom - particles that are the building blocks of all matter; differ in # protons, electr ons, & neutrons; structure dictate fcn in living things o 5 elements needed for all life § Carbon, Hydrogen, Nitrogen, Oxygen, Phosphorous (CHNOP) § Oxy, Carbon, & hydrogen - most important § Oxy, carbon, hydrogen, & nitrogen - essential elements of life § Carbon - backbone of life. Usually joins with H • Elements - pure substances w/ unique # protons (atomic#) o # Of electrons & neutrons = # of protons o Building of elements = molecules • Compound- molecules consisting of 2+ elements who proportions do not vary • Compound always a molecule, molecule not always a compound o CO 2 C H6O12 6oth o O 2 molecule only (1 element) • Ion - atom w/ +/- charge due to loss or gain of electrons in outer shell • Electronegativity - measure of an atom’s ability to pull electrons from another a tom • Mixture- 2+ substances that intermingle but do not bond; proportions of each vary • Molecule- 2+ atoms joined in chemical bonds o 5 Molecules for making life § All have functional groups attached to carbon atoms § Sugars: Glucose-6C12 6 most basic sugar § Fatty Acids/Lipids -fatty, oily, waxy; insoluble; always COOH (glycerol) at the end • Energy storage, structural foundation of cell membranes • Used to separate higher organisms from their environment • Waxes-oily layer, protective against pathogens • Phospholipids- molecule w/ polar head containing phosphate & 2 non -polar fatty acid tails; heads: hydrophilic (water loving), tails: hydrophobic (water fearing) o Wiggly so things move through it. (Like PB sandwich) o Create cell membrane § Nucleic Acids- makes up DNA; C, H, N, O, P; code for amino acid synthesis in genes • Building blocks of DNA § Amino Acids- building blocks of proteins; N, C, H, O, r group (type of acid) • 20 amino acids - different groups • Polypeptide-chain of amino acids bonded by peptide bonds in condensatio n reaction between amine group of 1 amino acid & carboxyl group of another o met-ala-leu-trp (alanine, leucine, tryptophan) o ala & leu for peptide chain, add trp,chains folds as atoms swivel around bonds & attract & repel neighbors § Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP)- turns sugar into energy; C,H,N,O,P • Chemical Bond- attractive force existing between 2 atoms when their electrons interact • True Bonds - opposites attract o Ionic bond- strong attraction between 2 oppositely charged ions w/ large difference in electronegativity - NaCl § tend to form “stable square lattices” o Covalent bond- 2+ atoms w/ similar electronegativity & unpaired electrons sharing a pair of electrons; stronger § Makes up organic (carbon) molecules needed for life, forms water § Nonpolar- atoms sharing electron equally, identical electronegativity § Polar- atoms w/ different electronegativity & don’t share electrons equally • One atom more -, one more + h • O< h instead of H-O-H, polar b/c shape is changed • Atom bonding w/out chemical bonding o Hydrogen bond- weak attraction between a highly electronegative atom & hydrogen atom taking part in separate polar covalent bonds § Do not form molecules & not chemical bonds § Stabilize the structures of large biological molecules § Hydrogen is important for linking mole cules § Occur in DNA (most important molecule); allow cohesion & stability • Water - special case of H-bonding- true covalent (polar), strongest bond, most unique molecule; keeps oxy from breaking up DNA o Life is responsive to changes in the amt of hydrogen io ns & substances dissolved in water o Solvent - liquid substance that dissolves other substances (solutes) o Has temp stabilizing effects, cohesion, & acts as solvent o Collective strength of many h-bonds pulls ions apart & keeps them dissolved o UNIVERSAL SOLVENT o If water wasn’t a solvent we couldn’t have blood o Ice is less dense than water, otherwise life would die o Ph - measure of # hydrogen ions in solution, water dictate ph § more h-ions, lower ph § ph 7 = neutral (pure water), most life occurs • Protein- composed of amino acid chains; carry out jobs of the cell; temp=regulator o Protein synthesis involves formation of amino acids chains (polypeptides) o DNA tells cells to make proteins & amino acids what order to go in o Primary structure- amino acids bond as polypeptide chain (2D) o Secondary structure-polypeptide chain folds to fit in smaller space o Tertiary structure- curl in unique curlicues, amino acid blobs bond when they curl § Curlicues- stable domains (barrels) o Quaternary structure-several chains connect to make big molecule; more blobs, more differences § 2+ chains = 1 molecule o All 4 steps occur in ribosomes & RER o Structure Dictates Function § Mutations cause protein misfolding § Denaturation-complete functioning protein unravels • Heat, changes in ph, salt, detergent disrupt H -bonds forming protein shape • Carbohydrates - organic molecules that consist of C, H, &O in 1:2:1 ratio o Most abundant biological molecules o Cellulose, starch, glycogen § Consist of glucose monomers, different patterns of covalent bonding, & different chemical properties § Cellulose- plant cell; major structural material § Starch- plant cell; energy storage; important in rice,corn,wheat.beans,&potatoes § glycogen-animal cell; energy storage • Cells - cell - membrane bound unit that is separate from its surroundings;smal lest unit o Build complex carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, & nucleic acids o Survive on its own, organized for metabolism, sensitive, reproduce o Cells movement: internal & external; move by cilia, flagella, pseudo o All cells have § Plasma membrane-controls what goes in & out § DNA § Cytoplasm-semifluid mixture containing cell components o Surface to volume ratio- restricts cell size by limiting transport of nutrients & wastes in & out of cell § Why cells are microscopic - lots SA, little volume o Tree of life-domains; both have plasma membrane § Eukaryote- all kingdoms w/ true nucleus, divided into functional compartments • Must have: oxygen, membrane bound organelle. 21% O § Prokaryote- w/out nucleus or other membrane bound organelles; smallest cells • archaea & bacteria - few internal compartments o Nucleus- controls cell activity; nuclear envelope, nucleoplasm, nucleolus, chromatin § Keeps DNA molecules of eukaryotic cells separated from cytoplasm § Makes it easier to organize DNA & copy it before parent cells divide § Nuclear envelope- 2 outer membranes (phospholipid bi-layer) • Has DNA attachment sites, outer surface studded w/ ribosomes § Nucleolus- dense mass w/in nucleus, site of RNA subunit or ribosome fabrication (rRNA) o Chromosomes- 2 copies of DNA molecule in mitosis § Chromatin-single stranded DNA molecule w/ associated proteins • Keeps DNA small to fit in nucleus o Organelle- membrane bound units in cell separate from surroundings w/ specific fcns; all organelles move § Form compartments within the cytoplasm, allows lot of activity , allows proper sequencing of cell activity § Advantage - allows growth, more efficient § Endomembrane system-group of related organelles in which lipids are assembled & new polypeptide chains are modified • Assemble (RER), package (Golgi Bodies), Transport (SE R & Vacuoles) o Endoplasmic Reticulum-collection of interconnected tubes & flattened sacs that originate at the nucleus & winds through cytoplasm § Rough ER- stacked, flattened sacs w/ many ribosomes attached, oligosaccharides attached • Each fold creates more SA for ribosomes • Function: protein synthesis o Protein folding-tertiary & quaternary stage folding of protein. Protein: part of ER & shipped to another part of cell § Smooth ER-no ribosomes; area from which vesicles carrying proteins & lipids are budded; inactivation site for harmful chemicals • Acts like “tunnels” in cytoplasm that allows materials to move through o Golgi Body-cell mailroom, folded membranes, puts finishing touches on proteins & lipids from ER § Finished products: membrane proteins, proteins for secretion, enzymes § Packages finished products for shipment, materials exit w/ vesicles o Vesicles- membranes that move through cytoplasm § Vesicles leaving Golgi bodies • Go to plasma membrane for export to cell membrane • Transport finished product to other org anelles & vice versa • Go to lysosomes- specialized vesicles that carry powerful enzymes that digest the contents of other vesicles (carbs, lipids, proteins, nucleic acids). Digest worn cell parts, bacteria, foreign particles • Go to peroxisomes- specialized vesicles that contain enzymes that use oxy to degrade fatty acids & amino acids. By product is hydrogen peroxide, enzyme action break it down to water & oxy o Ribosomes- NOT MEMBRANE BOUND, smallest organelle, several thousand/mil in cell § Function: protein synthesis & secondary protein structures • After DNA synthesize amino acids, ribosome hook amino acids to form polypeptide chain o Mitochondrion- power factory, moves electrons, transfers energy from carbs to ATP § ATP-producing powerhouses, making machinery embe dded into mitochondria membrane, formed via movement of hydrogen ions & electrons between the 2 compartments § Outer & inner membrane (cristae) o Cytoskeleton-gives cells their internal organization, shape, & capacity to move § Forms interconnected system of bundled fibers, slender threads, & lattices that extend from nucleus to plasma membrane § Main components: microtubules, microfilaments, intermediate filaments • All assembled from proteins; microtubules -look like ropes § Some are transient (spindle fibers used dur ing cell division); others permanent (fibers used in muscle contraction) § Function: basic for cell shape & internal organization, allows organelle movement within cells & cell mobility; present in eukaryotic cells o Phospholipid bilayer - plasma membrane o Cell Movement § Flagella-tails for swimming (sperm, free-living motile cells) § Pseudopods-”false feet” to move or engulf prey (amoebas, eukaryotic cells) § Cilia- stir air or fluid (line airways, move particles away from lungs) o Animal Cells - Communicate through junctions o Plant Cells- Communicate through plasmodesmata; Cell wall (cellulose), central vacuole, chloroplast
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