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CSU - BC 103 - Life 103, week 1 - Class Notes

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CSU - BC 103 - Life 103, week 1 - Class Notes

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background image Week 1: Chapter 26 Starter story: Initial taxonomists put all species into the simple categories of plant or animal. 
Then they decided Plantae and Animalia were only 2 of 5 kingdoms, the others being Monera, 
Portista, and Fungi. Now all 5 of these kingdoms can be classified as either bacteria, archaea, or 
eukarya. 
A major player was Carl Linnaeus, who, in order to organize the diversity of life,  categorized organisms into ‘bins’ based on structural similarities. He made a hierarchical  structure using big bins to include many smaller bins which in turn included even smaller bins. 
Linnaeus started 
binomial classification , which is the use of two names, the genus and species, to refer to an organism. In total, his system used the classifications of kingdom, phylum, class, 
order, family, genus, and species, going from most general to most specific.
*to remember: King Peter Came Over For Ginger Snaps Still, scientists work to sort out the diversity of life, which grows ever more complicated  as they realize that a lot of  horizontal gene transfer  took place through history, leading to the  current “ web of life ”. Vocab: Taxonomy­ the developing study to classify organisms; uses KPCOFGS
o Purpose: show evolutionary relatedness (entities within a certain bin share a common 
ancestor) Phylogeny­ the actual history of species tracing back through evolution Phylogenetic tree­ diagram which displays the branching evolution of organisms
o Can be used to see how closely related two species are; depends on nearest 
branch  point = where they had their most recent common ancestor, but from there the lines  split (NOT based on being side by side) Systematics­ groups organisms according to common ancestry
o Therefore, determined by morphological characteristics (similar physical traits), 
molecular/genetics characteristics (DNA data), and biochemistry Homology­ similarities in physical characteristics and on the molecular level (genetics) 
from having a common ancestor
….vs…. Analogy­ similarities simply because they developed in similar environments that they 
had to adapt to, resulting in analogous characteristics despite different ancestors
o Through process called convergent evolution Molecular systematics­ the study of species’ genome to compare nucleic acid sequences
o DNA from which rRNA derives has few modifications through lineages, therefore 
they are referred to as conserved genes and can then be looked at to relate ancient  ancestry. o On the other hand, DNA for mitochondria changes quickly on the evolutionary scale,  and therefore can relate more recent relations between species. Endosymbiotic Theory­ by Lynn Margulis­ ancestral prokaryotes took in (similar to 
phagocytosis) aerobic bacterium then photosynthetic bacterium, resulting in mitochondria
then chloroplasts as they lived together and formed a more efficient cell (the bacterium 

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School: Colorado State University
Department: Biology
Course: Biology of Organisms-Animals and Plants
Professor: Jennifer Dewey
Term: Fall 2016
Tags: Biology
Name: Life 103, week 1
Description: Notes on ch 26
Uploaded: 01/22/2016
2 Pages 11 Views 8 Unlocks
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