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Biology 101 Exam 4 Study Guide

by: Kimberly Burke

Biology 101 Exam 4 Study Guide BY 101

Marketplace > Jacksonville State University > Biology > BY 101 > Biology 101 Exam 4 Study Guide
Kimberly Burke
Jacksonville State University
GPA 4.0

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About this Document

Covers Evolution, Population, Alleles, Mendelian Genetics
Introductory Biology I
Dr. Tolley-Jordan (TJ)
Study Guide
Biology, Bio
50 ?




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This 3 page Study Guide was uploaded by Kimberly Burke on Friday January 22, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to BY 101 at Jacksonville State University taught by Dr. Tolley-Jordan (TJ) in Fall 2014. Since its upload, it has received 44 views. For similar materials see Introductory Biology I in Biology at Jacksonville State University.

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Date Created: 01/22/16
Bio Exam 4 • Evolution-change in alleles through time; change in shape through time; not goal oriented o Darwin-naturalist, noticed shape difference o Most fundamental basis of biology b/c idea of natural selection o Aristotle – everything still here we just haven’t found it yet – fixed view of species o Species change through time due to natural selection of specific heritable traits § Organisms once had same climate, adapt as climate changes o Before Mendel – science was all observation o Animals on the Galapagos Islands found no where else in the world § Different beaks on finches b/c different foods o Alfred Russell Wallace – findings from East Indies – persuaded Darwin to publish o Generalizations from the Origin of Species § Fossil Record should yield intermediate links between great groups of organisms • Archaeopteryx – transitional fossil between reptiles & birds § The age of the Earth has to be much older than a few thousand years • Radioactive dating – find out how old things are o Radioisotopes – form of an element with an unstable nucleus; decays into atoms of another element o Half life – time it takes for half of a radioisotope’s atoms to decay into a daughter element o Africa slammed into Alabama 380 mil years ago § Heredity – he knew that another mechanism besides phenotype blending had to be responsible for his hypothesis of natural selection to work • Evidence from plate tectonics – San Andreas Fault • Ring of Fire – highly volcanic o Acclamation – short period of time o Adaptation – multiple generation s o Viruses (not living) but still evolve • Population – # of individuals in the same species in the same plce at the same time o Individuals acclimate while populations evolve o For population to persist it must adapt to environmental challenges o Adaptation is the long term genetic response of a population to environmental stress that increases the survival & reproductive success of the population o Genetic variation – backbone of natural selection o Abiotic factors – external – volcano, drought o Biotic factors – internal – diseases o Humans: global distribution, no predators, modify landscape, same constraints as other animals § Live in the tropics, warm & wet areas o Measurement on population size requires: sex ratios, generation time, ucture, survivorship, reproductive potential/costs o Density dependent – govern population size; overcrowding leads to intra specific competition § Resource distribution – food not evenly distributed § Behavioral shifts – war, disease, hunger o Allelic frequency - % of Dominant allele & recessive allele in a population § Force that cause changes to a population through time are shown genetically § Processes that lead to drastic shifts in allelic frequencies • Gene flow – immigration/emigration into a population; have to successfully mate • Nonrandom mating – individuals w/ certain genotypes sometimes mate w/ 1 another more commonly than would be expected on a random basis; inbreeding; creates rare traits • Genetic drift – in SMALL populations frequency of alleles change drastically by chance alone o Bottleneck effect – majority of population does not survive o Don’t mate outside of population o Founder effect – individuals from main populations go to a new location • Speciation – accumulated traits will cause individuals to differ from their ancestors o New species will evolve; not equal among groups o MACROEVOLUTION – emergence of evolutionary novelties among diverse lineages § Humans & octopi have similar eyes § Big forces/events in population; caused by isolation; long periods of times o Extinction – total loss; extirpation – loss of patches, movement § 9% of all species are extinct; 5 mass extinctions in the distant past o Speciation is greater than extinction & wil l become more rapid o Cladogenesis – branching evolution – new species arises from parent population § BIOLOGICAL DIVERSITY o Create a mountain – split species o Allopatric speciation –gene flow could not occur; long time barriers § Geographic isolation – makes new species – large scale § Ecological isolation – same area – small scale § Peripheral populations- geographic isolation of a small population on the edge of the range of the main population; natural barrier § Barrier to movement – splits ancestral population into 2 distinct populations w/out gene flow § Founder effect – colonization of remote area by one of a few individuals § Peripheral isolation – population on the periphery of a species range becomes geographically isolated § Colonization – over generations; founder effect –new species adapt & diversify • New habitats / few species allows rapid diversification o Resources are sufficient • New habitat-niche-quick speciation • Adaptive radiation – new species adapting rapidly o Mendelian Genetics preserve genetic variation from 1 generation to the next § Laws of segregation & independent assortment o Population genetics – gene frequencies – sum of all individuals w/ genotype of interest/total population o Traits of a stable population § No mutation, no emigration/immigration, random mating, population size is very large, no selection of specific traits § Populations meeting all requirements are in equilibrium § If the trait of interest adheres to mendelian genetics – determine the allele/gene frequencies § Perfectly stable populations in nature do not exist o Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium – genetics defining stable populations § Based on the fact that a gene has 2 alleles & the frequencies of these alleles in the entire population have 2 2 2 to equal 1 (p+q) =1 / p +2pq+q =1 • P =frequency of population homozygous for the dominant allele • 2pq=frequency of population that is heterozygous 2 • q =frequency of population homozygous for the recessive allele § Populations in equilibrium are not evolving § Allelic frequencies should stay the same through successive generations of a population if they are stable & not changing (not evolving) § Evolving = shifting away from equilibrium • Agents of Evolutionary change o Microevolution – changes in allele frequencies on a population scale o Mutation, gene flow (immigration/emigration), non random mating, genetic drift o Opposite of Hardy-Weinberg o Must have mutations for different alleles to form § Mutations need to be “selected” ; take time to apply § Selection – true agent of evolutionary change • Artificial selection – breeder selects desired characteristics • Natural selection – environmental conditions determine which individuals in a population produce the most offspring o 3 conditions required: variation in traits, differences in # of offspring, variation much be genetically inherited o Selection to avoid predators, to match climatic conditions, for pesticide resistance o Sexual selection o Differential success in reproduction among individuals that vary in their heritable traits (must have genetic variation) o Increases the adaptation of organisms to their environment o Adapt to environmental changes • Works by survival of the fittest phenotype; dominant > alternative; dominalected • Reproductive Barriers o Sympatric speciation – new species evolves fro single ancestor while inhabiting same region § Behavioral isolation – species differ in mating rituals & other behaviors § Temporal isolation – species in same area, same habitat, r eproduce in different seasons or different times o Mechanical isolation – structural differences between species prevent mating § Can have geographical, ecological, & timing overlap o Prezygotic - no gamete function; gametes of one species function poorly wit h gametes of another § Plants wont accept pollen from another plant; gametes don’t fuse o Postzygotic – hybrid invariability or infertility – hybrid embryos do not develop properly – hybrid adults do not survive in nature or are sterile § Plants make hybrids; some caused by humans • Evolving: mutation, small population, nonrandom mating, gene flow • Not Evolving: no mutation, large population, random mating, no gene flow


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