Theatre Final Study Guide
Theatre Final Study Guide DR 242
Jacksonville State University
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This 7 page Study Guide was uploaded by Kimberly Burke on Friday January 22, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to DR 242 at Jacksonville State University taught by Michael Boynton in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 39 views. For similar materials see Introduction to the Theatre in Theatre at Jacksonville State University.
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Date Created: 01/22/16
Intro to Theatre Final Chapter 7 • Theatre – ephemeral, difficult to study; extant = surviving • Indian Sanskrit Drama – 1 scripted theatre o Gods invented theatre & gave it to humans through Bharata § Transcribed into Natya Shastra (cannon of dance & drama) o Mahabharata - most influential epic poem o Epic – long stories/poems about adventures of legendary or historical hero o Playwrights – big three § Shudraka, Bhasa, Kalidasa (most honored for “perfect” play) • “Perfect” play – The Recognition of Shakuntala • Zaju (Xiqu1) – 1 Chinese Opera o Xiqu = tuneful theatre ; Guanhanquin – founder • Japanese Medieval o Bunraku – puppet theatre, influenced Kabuki o Noh – exploits of warrior heroes; oldest form still performed § Kan’ami Kiyotsugu & Zeami Motokiyo – father/son team; creators o Kabuki – most exciting & spectacular, still performed § Onnagata – male playing female character st • Ancient Greece – 1 scripted Western Theatre – where DEWGs think theatre started ; love theatre o Political structure: Democratic (direct democracy), city states o Religion: polytheistic, yet “human based” o 5 century B.C = “Golden Age” of Greek Theatre o Values: patriarch, warrior, intellectual, balanced, service § Athens – celebrated wisdom & passion o Aristotle – Poetics – analysis of the art of tragic dram a o Old Comedy – satire/sex farce § Aristophanes – 1 surviving comic playwright; master of old comedy • Lysistrata – anti war play; women refuse sex • Phallus – symbolic penis; important Greek costume piece o New Comedy – romantic comedy; introduced by Menander o Aeschylus – 1 great playwright, invented the trilogy, actor, shrank chorus, increased importance of dramatic parts rd th o Sophocles – 3 & 4 actor, 15 member chorus, developed plot & characterization, developed scenes into full acts w/ choral divisions, focused on “hubris” o Euripides – increased # of characters & roles, focus on individual & on social questions, develop interest in abnormal psychology, disconnect chorus from main action , broke traditions & embraced controversy & independence § Wrote about women, rebel, more sensational & violent plots o Competition – each tragic poet/dramatist produced 3 tragedies & satyr play in 1 day § Win at festival – sacrifice goat to gods; tragedy = goat song o What we know about Greek theatre comes from scenes depicted on pottery, surviving plays, business ledgers, & architecture o Theatre Space – Amphitheatre – outdoor thrust stage – view = scenery; raked audience § Theatron – “seeing place” – up to 15000 seats; where we get the word “theatre” § Orchestra – “dancing place” - performance area for the chorus § Skene – scene house – provided entrance/exits & changing room for actors § Parados – entry ways § Thymele – altar – 1 piece of scenery – honor god Dionysus - where sacrifice goat • Ancient Rome – the great “borrowers” of Western History – engineers, politicians, lawyers o Ludi Festivals – big national holidays/carnivals § “Bread & Circus” – make people happy with food & entertainment • Panem et Circuses – Hunger Games § 200 BC – Republic – 11 days of performance § 27 BC – Empire – 43 days of festival § End of empire – 100 days of Ludi – lazy, fat, complacent, apathetic o Art – slaves, beggars, & prostitutes o Violence on stage; more violent society; coliseum – for fights, not plays o Roman Tragedies – “bad copies” of Greece in Latin § Seneca the Younger – Roman o Roman Comedies – like wacky sitcoms; Platus & Terence § Full of cheesy archetypes – beleaguered husband, nagging wife, dumb blonde § Plautus – adapted from Greek New Comedy, featured middle & lower class characters, wrote in languag e of common people • Created the stock character types – braggart warrior, old miser o 4 most popular forms of entertainment § Mimes – men & women – unmasked • Low class street performers, clowns, slaves, & prostitutes § Gladiatorial Combats – kill each other; combats (wrestling, football) § Bestiarii – animals vs. humans; tigers, lions, exotic animals were favorites • Import animals for entertainment – testament to Roman power § Naumachia – naval battle – fill coliseum with water, put in ships, blow them up o Fall of Rome – happened over centuries § Constantine – made Rome Christian – Constantinople § 400 CE – fun outlawed – Rise of Christianity; Christians fed to lions o No theatre in the west from 500 CE – 1000 CE • Middle Ages – primary authority was the Catholic church, taug ht biblical ideas o Allegory – use of characters that represent 1 of the 7 vices & virtues o 4 types of plays: Miracle, Morality, Mystery, Liturgical o Mystery Plays –recount episode from the Bible; craft guilds, outdoors, wagons • Commedia dell’arte – built on the use of stock characters o Italian Renaissance – cultural & artistic changes o Scripts = outlines of scenarios where actors insert bits (lazzi) o Stock characters: young lovers (innamorati), elders who block lovers (“Masters”), servants who assi st lovers (zanni) o Introduction of women to the professional stage • Elizabethan Drama – reign of Elizabeth I; English language exploded o Tudor plays – Henry Tudor – evolved in universities & broke from the control of the church o Christopher Marlowe – Elizabethan/Tudor playwright; greater than Shakespeare o Elizabethan plays – Elizabeth I – pinnacle of the era § William Shakespeare – “greatest playwright who ever lived” o Jacobean plays – James I – darker & more cynical, horrific & obscene o Boy companies – special company of young male actors • African theatre – transmitted through oral tradition o Valued family, community, & peaceful consensus o Passed through memory, interpret rather than represent, demand audience participation th • 4 Century – church outlawed theatre Chapter 8 • “The Dark Ages” – The Medieval Era o Early Medieval – The Dark Ages - no theatre o Late Medieval – theatre emerges again § Theatre – sacred & used by church to teach Christian morality § Starts in the Liturgy – Priest included theatrical conventions § Allow the guilds to put on festivals on Holy Day § 4 major types: Liturgical, Miracle, Mystery, Morality § Mystery Plays – sanctioned by the church; illustrate moments in the bible § Medieval Pageants – mainly mystery plays; short bible episodes performed by g uilds • Pageant wagons – heaven (right) & hell (left), hell mouth (demons pop out) • Kunqu (Xiqu2) – Chinese Opera – stately, poetic, aristocratic nd o Qing Dynasty – founded by Manchu (2 ethnic group to rule China) o Depends on a small wind & percussion orchestra; flute – primary accompaniment o Wei Liangfu – new style of singing called “water mill tunes” o 2 styles for the scripts § Arias –complex poems sung & accompanied by orchestra § Prose – chanted • Indian Kathakali - “story play” – connections to classical theatre o Based on stories from Ramayana and Mahabharata – 2 great epics of Sanskrit o Plays – kings & heroes in constant struggle between good & evil , gods & demons § Mood: mysterious, cosmic, frightening • Chinese Jingju/Beijing Opera – restored theatre to the common people o Several regional styles blended together; stories of legendary heroes & military feats o Stock charatcers: male (sheng), female (dan), painted face (jing), clown (chou) o Color coded face painting – indicate character’s age, profession, personality § Red = loyalty, uprightness; black = rough, stern, honest o Costume color – indicates social status § Yellow = imperial family; red = high nobility; white = old officials • Renaissance – 1500s Theatre dies b/c of religious conflicts ; no plays about Christianity o Reformation – dissident groups challenge church ; more focus on education o The Council of Trent – Spanish Inquisition - church maintained power in Spain & medieval drama flourished o England – King Henry VII broke from church in 1534; QE banned religious plays § Strong classical influence blended with medieval theatre § Each country develops their own theatre b/c of abandoning religious matter § Theatre lost financial support of church & merchant class • Divided between church & profes sional actors; theatre becomes business o Decline of feudalism; more power for princes; growth of cities & mercantilism o Shift from theology to science; resurgence of antiquity (love for Greek & Roman things) o Rise of Humanism – concern for worth of humanity & early life; improve “self” § Each individual possess agency; education o Galileo – challenged the church o Erasmus – study Bible & Greek & Roman – education o Machiavelli - Realism o Leonardo da Vinci – humanist & Renaissance man o Michelangelo – artist o 4 Major Renaissance Theatres § Italian Renaissance – Italy is major trade route • Geographically placed to absorb ideas from Byzantium, Islam, & others • Trade provided wealth to support the arts (The Medici Family) • Important topics of Italian Theatre o Early Italian Plays – 1 on field o Neoclassical Ideals begin o The Advent of Opera – copy Greek theatre o Scenic Design & Architecture –Italians famous for o Commedia dell’arte – drama/comedy performed by professionals § Developed around mid 1500s – Roman mimes, medieval forces § Irreverent, slapstick, popular; influential all over Europe § Improvised scripts, multilingual, stock characters, simple staging, masks, buffoonery based on burla (rough plot sketch), Lazzi (comic bits), public & professional § 1 paid actors § stock characters – 2D, well recognized; horror movies • damsel, hero, prostitute w/ heart of gold • Pantalone – old man, greedy (money & sex) • Il Capitano – pretentious, bragger, full of crap • Il Dottore – smarty pants, doctor • Harlequin – audience favorite, funny, clever o Most important clown figure in European history § English Renaissance – geography, War of the Roses/ weakening feudal power • Emphasized literature (poetry & theatre); Edmund Spencer & John Milton o The University Wits • More secular, little affected by neo classicism, bare bones in practice & staging, commercial, imagery through words • William Shakespeare – low class, wrote to get paid o Histories (Richard III, Henry V) o Tragedies (Hamlet, Orthello, King Lear) o Comedies (Midsummer Night’s Dream, Much Ado) • Ben Johnson – favored by QE • Performance Practices o All male, commercial theatre, outdoor, minimal scenery, actors wore clothing of their own time o Shareholding – Shakespeare owned stock in theatre o Richard Burbage – owned most of the stock, 1 Hamlet • Tudor/ Stuart Timeline o Public Theatre (Globe), Private Theatre (Blackfriars) o Puritans – hate drinking, gambling, theatre; outlaw theatre in London o Shakespeare & friends built theatre on the other side of Thames § Theatre hosted Bear Baiting – wild dogs vs bear on leash ; Like Roman Bestiarii • French Neoclassicism – renewed interest in Greek & Roman works o Neoclassicism – copy Greeks & Romans § Don’t mix comedy & tragedy § Bienseance – Decorum/Property § Vraisemblance – Verisimilitude o Louis XIII – came to throne at 9 § Cardinal Richelieu – power behind Louis XIII, took power from protestants & nobles • Absolute Monarchy – rule the whole nation – got rid of feudalism o All power under 1 king; France = powerhouse o Academie Francaise – aimed to protect from corruption & foreign influ ences § French Academy – style police, control artists & intellects, Cardinal Richelieu • “The Opinions of the French Academy” – Jean Chapelain o Came down hard on Corneille § Aristotle’s Poetics = rule book; 5 act rule o Corneille – Le Cid – greatest French playwright o Louis XIV – The Sun King – reigned for 72 years – built palace of Versailles § Jean Racine – Phedre – patronage of Louis XIV – “Neoclassical perfection” o Moliere – Jean-Baptiste Poquelin – most produced § Considered the best by French; Social satire – wrote out to Commedia tradition; French humor + Commedia § Tartuffe; acted in his plays, ran his company, & directed • English Restoration – politics replaced art; o Drama – instrument of social class distinction; “country club thea tre” § Restoration comedies repeated the same essential plot o Oliver Cromwell & Puritans took control & established the Commonwealth o Theatre deemed corrupt & outlawed in 1642 o Aphra Behn – 1 professional woman playwright in England – The Rover § Features strong central female characters o Apron invented o Prynne’s Histriomastix – 1000 pg anti theatrical treatise – punished by Charles I o English Civil Wars – Charles I beheaded o Puritans came into power – no theatre § English Interregnum – parliament & military rule – Puritans § Globe torn down & actors arrested o Charles II came back from France & took crown – “Merrie Monarch” – loved by people § Restored to throne = Restoration § Puritans fled to America –why we hate theatre § Reopened theatre; brought back French theatre; wo men allowed on stage • Breeches – leading lady in male disguise o Restoration Comedy – lively, lewd, most revived plays o Decline of Restoration – growth of mercantile class, too raunchy § Jeremy Collier – A Short View of the Immorality & Profaness of the English Stage – anti theatrical prejudice • European Theatre – rise of powerful European nations, rise of aristocrats o The Age of Enlightenment – use reason to make people & society better o Colonialization – forcing European ideas on everyone else o Italian scenery, French Neoclassicism, dominant style: Sentimentalism o Rise of Sentimentalism – cheesy, boring & moralizing § David Garrick – made Shakespeare cool o Germany – hot mess; professional theatre hadn’t reached b/c unsettled religious & political pro blems, The Thirty Years War § Gotthold Vessing – German playwright; invented Dramaturg; Hamburg Dramaturgy § Sturm and Drang – “Storm & Stress” - Schiller & Goethe • 1 explosive reaction against French Neoclassicism; Beginning of Romanticism • Goethe – Faust • Romanticism – feelings more important than thoughts, emotional truth, natural; emotions & passions will lead to good morals o Break away from Neoclassicism; focus on individual, philosophy of democracy, personal liberation o More complex protagonists from more humble beginnings; poetic, for the elite o French Romanticism § Victor Hugo’s Hernani causes riot; Romanticism replaces Neoclassicism o French Revolution & American Revolution • Melodrama – Victorian Era – soothe & reassure middle class; appeal to emotions, not intellect; began in Germany & France o Thrives as soap opera; develops alongside Romanticism; for the masses ; lots of gesture o Simple morals – good guy wins – American ending; simplistic stock character o Emphasis on spectacle – damsel on train tracks; music underscore to manipulate emotions o Temperance Melodrama – get people to stop drinking o #1 play in American in 1800s – Uncle Tom’s Cabin; melodrama § Used black face; Mulatto – child of interracial couple o Sarah Bernhardt – famous French actress • America: 1492-1776 didn’t like theatre; British import – only theatre; Puritan colonists; theatre = elitist o Strong class divide; upper class European or cheesy popular entertainment o The Astor Place Riot – New York 1849 o Minstrel Show – 1 American – white performers wearing burnt cork on their faces – black face o 4 popular forms: Melodrama, Minstrelsy, Burlesque, Vaudeville; Musicals evolve out of the 4 • Diaspora – Africa – “the scattering” – hunger for free labor in the New World Chapter 9 • 19 Century Changes o Charles Darwin – The Origin of Species – biology o Sigmund Freud – psychology o Karl Marx - economics o August Comte – founder of sociology § Empiricism – knowledge comes from evidence § Theatre as science: theatre – lab, stage – petri dish, 4 wall – slide cover = Realism o 4 major theatrical styles: Romanticism, Realism, Naturalism, Magic Realism § Classical – before Realism, active audience; Contemporary – after Realism, passive audience • Realism – call to change the status quo; how everyday peo ple react to their environments; loved by the masses; mindless o Rebellion against Romanticism; influential & inspired new forms ; more stage directions o Offshoot of Scientific Empiricism o Stories of middle class, contemporary life & manners, detailed set design ; modern director o Henrik Ibsen – father of Modern Realism; revealed middle class suffering; “pure” realism § A Doll’s House – “door slam heard around the world” o Anton Chekov – modern realism; privilege does not mean happiness ; The Cherry Orchard o George Bernard Shaw – wrote to criticize society & inspire change o Important change in the social context § The Industrial Revolution, urban poor & slums,wave of feminism, rise of photography § Louis Daguerre – “Daguerreotypes” o Realism = genre. Realism = description, realistic o DEWGS in charge until Rise of Realism; Realism splits into different forms o Offshoots of Realism – Realism + Something else; magic realism, naturalism o Avant Garde – hate realism – something that pisses people off o Konstantin Stanislavski – ushered in “Golden Age” of American Theatre; Founded Moscow Art’s Theatre § The System st • Most taught in US; Didn’t arrive until 1930s; Why silent moviestalkies were melodramatic § Stanislavsky’s Catch phrases • Relaxation-nerves & tensions mess you up, learn to control • Concentration & observation; focused & in control of concentration, block out the audience • Specificity - Play concrete action & let emotion happen incidentally • Imagination & Creativity- Imaginary circumstances-beyond given circumstances o “Magic if”-make it feel real/important; Inspire actor’s imagination • Naturalism – stark reality with no compromise; set detail, real clot hes, real life on stage o “Scratch & itch & belch & fart” part o Emile Zola – “Slice of life” – Therese Raquin = 1 naturalistic drama o August Strindberg – rejected naturalism – dark, disturbing, real th o Andre Antoine - developed 4 wall, realism, naturalism • 20 Century Masters/ “Golden Age” o Eugene O’Neill – depict lives of the down & out – 1 American playwright o Tennessee Williams – Thomas Lanier Williams – lyrically poetic – great SOUTHERN playwright § The Glass Menagerie, A Streetcar Named Desire o Lillian Hellman – explore psychological weakness o Arthur Miller – struggles of the common man – Death of a Salesman Chapter 10 • Stylization – process of taking a play beyond reality through distortion, exaggeration, etc • Western & Eastern styles – blur b/c new styles mix • The “Isms” – Historical Avant Garde – against Realism – Forward Guard o Romanticism – epic, poetic, nature o Realism – truth prosaically, scientific o Naturalism –real life on stage o Impressionism – capture the moment; artificial, emotional o Symbolism – poetic, dreamlike o Futurism – reject past § Big in Italy; Marinetti – 1 of the founders, wrote Feet; serate (serata) – plays, 3 minute performances § Nationalistic, opposed to museums & institutions, glorified war, antagonistic, anti -feminism, hated colleges o Dadaism – contradict expectations; Anti war, explored meaninglessness of modern art, primitivism (child like, fun) § Post WWI – stems from the horror, represents the insanity, anti -logic § Major Figures: • Hugo Ball – Father of dada • Tristan Tzara – “Dada Manifesto” § Marcel Duchamps – artist (urinal, Mona Lisa w/ Mustache) § Started in Zurich at the Cabaret Voltaire o Expressionism – pessimistic; dark, nightmarish § Nightmare, subjective/visions of protagonist, critical of dehumanization & industrialization o Constructivism – build story, don’t tell story, bare bones o Surrealism – spontaneous creation without reason o Didacticism – Brecht & Epic theatre; intellect > emotions; wants more active audience § Bertolt Brecht – German anti Nazi/Hitler/ Fascism; wants people to think § Alienation Effect – create distance between audience & stage, juxtapose odd elements, placards,wall,k 4 keep lights on in theatre, encourage smoking & eating & discussion, historicized • Verfremdung - Alienation o Absurdism – philosophy, truth unknowable § Post WWII; Existentialism – using will instead of reason to deal w/ problems § Samuel Beckett – Waiting for Godot § Plays are disjointed, limited cause & effect, devalued language, Aesthetic o Feminism - women o Postmodernism – juxtapose new & old • 3 enduring forms: abstract expressionism, jazz, musicals • Musical Theatre – similar to isms o Combo of operetta, variety shows, burlesque, vaudeville, minstrel o Male dominant, sexist, patriarchicist; started w/ Greeks, everything had music before Realism o Sabilla – metal chips added to shoes to make dance more audible o Book – story of the show, refers to spoken dialogue – Bookwriter has no power, plot is an after thought o Composer – writes music –most powerful & important o Lyricist – writes lyrics o Full Script includes § Libretto –book & lyrics combined § Score – Lyrics & music combined o Medieval Times – traveling Minstrels & roving troupes; religious – liturgical drama; prepare for after life o Renaissance – minstrels reached peak w/ Commedia dell’arte; opera created; Moliere change plays to musical for L XIV o Richard Rogers & Oscar Hammerstein – Oklahoma o Stephen Sondheim- West Side Story Chapter 11 • Ethnic Theatre in America o Form for 5 purposes: Coping, Memory, Protest, Sharing, Assimilation vs. Identity o Native American Theatre – no specific beginning, middle, or end ; Dance, rites, celebrations, spiritual beliefs § Spiderwoman Theatre – “story weaving”; named after Spider Grandmother Woman – taught people to weave • Lisa Mayo, Gloria Miguel, Murial Miguel – theatre free of “grandmother & medicine women” o African American Theatre – began on slave ships § Harlem Renaissance – resulted in numerous theatre companies exploring Af Am life § Lorraine Hansberry’s A Raisin in the Sun – landmark of African American productions § George C. Wolfe – satirizes black stereotypes & those who fall into them § August Wilson - Fences o Asian American Theatre § Rogers & Hammerstein – Flower Drum Song – 1 Asian Actors § David Henry Hwang – M. Butterfly • Women’s Theatre o Feminist Theatre – clear social/political agenda meant to challenge & cha nge existing gender dynamics o Hroswitha – 1 known female playwright § German nun, modeled plays on Roman Comedy, Christian themes (especially virtue of chasity) o 1660 England – Restoration - women allowed on stage o Most influential dramas: only 1 in top 10 written by a woman – A Raisin in the Sun o 1980s – women become “dirty” o Paula Vogel How I Learned to Drive ; Feminism – looked at things that disturb & hurt me as a woman • Feminist Movements o Liberal Feminism (1960-now)/2ndwave of Feminism § WWII sparked feminism § Philosophy: women & men have equal rights, equal pay for equal work § National Organization of Women § More women characters/roles for actresses, improved work ethic § Wendy Wasserstein – The Heidi Chronicles o Cultural or Radical Feminism § Philosophy: women & men are different, women are better than men, matriarchal cultures & images § Reject traditional form & prefer cyclical structures, content about experiences unique to women, conciseness raising – collective § WOW Café – women’s space, lesbian theatre § Spiderwoman Theatre – African American rd o Post Modern/3 Wave Feminism (1980s – today) § Philosophy: interested in the interplay between sex (head) & gender (genitals) § Shows how gender is constructed ; Cross dressing, cross gender casting, performance art o Material Feminism • Gay & Lesbian Theatre o Lilliam Hellman – The Children’s Hour – 1 commercial play to explore the possibility of lesbian relationships § LGBT, gender, feminism, golden age, realism o Tony Kushner – Angels in America o Our idea of homosexual did not exist until 1800s; “gay” – 1970s o Charlotte Cushman – American Actress – played Romeo § “Boston Marriages” - 2 lovers lived together • Theatre For Justice o Augusto Boal – Brazilian Director - brought theatre & improve into the society as tools for change § Observers = active spectators (“spect -actors”) • Nonprofit – money from other sources Chapter 12 • Critic –push standards, celebrate the good, degenerate the bad ; influence attendance o Knowledgeable, Demanding, Compassionate • Reviewer – plot summary & opinion, sell newspapers • The Audience – A performs B for C o Audience Reception: Overall production, background, expectations
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