Western Civ 2 Exam 1 Study Guide
Western Civ 2 Exam 1 Study Guide HY 102
Jacksonville State University
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This 5 page Study Guide was uploaded by Kimberly Burke on Friday January 22, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to HY 102 at Jacksonville State University taught by Dr. Cook in Spring 2015. Since its upload, it has received 30 views. For similar materials see Western Civilization II in History at Jacksonville State University.
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Date Created: 01/22/16
Exam 1 – WW1 (1914-1918) • Called The Great War, “War to End All Wars” • “The Lost Generation” – coined by Ernest Hemingway o Soldiers gone mentally or physically • How the war started o Rivalry: France vs Germany o Emperor of France – Napoleon III – self declared § “The depressed parrot” – goof, sphinx § People afraid b/c Napoleon I was tough § Champion of Nations – join empire or start your own nation § Building French Empire, feared rise of German states o German States – German Confederation = weak § Prussia–leading state; Capitol–Berlin; King–William I; § Prime Minister- Otto von Bismark – plans to seek war against France § German Defensive Treaties – anyone attacks you, we’ll defend you o Throne of Spain – given to a Hohenzollern (William I’s family) § France demanded forfeiture of German from throne § EMS Spa (baths) –PM of France w/ terms on paper to William; William refused • EMS Telegram – King William’s report to Bismark – Bismark edits & releases to press – outrage in Paris & Berstn o 1870 – Franco-Prussian War; 1 round of hatred; France vs Prussia § France declared war; army advanced to the Rhine § German armies capture 2 French armies – surrender b/c of hunger § Siege of Paris – cut off all roads & starve them • Paris creates Revolutionary gov’t - “Paris Commune” = Communism • Bismark made peace w/ outside gov’t; wants indemnity (money)&provinces o Creation of Germany – 1871 – Empire; King of Prussia à Emperor of Germany § Congress – Reichstag (Reich=empire); state of Prussia dominates § State of Prussia dominates; military – follow Prussia o Bismark builds alliances – knows France will want rematch § 1872: 3 Emperor’s League (not on paper) ; mutual consultation • William I (G), Russian Czar, Franz Joseph (A-H) § 1879: Dual Alliance (on paper); Germany & A -H § 1882: Triple Alliance (on paper) ; Germany, A-H, Italy; defense only o End of Bismark; 1888 – New German Emperor = William II “Crazy Kaiser” – jerk § Defensive about dead arm (from birth) = Inferiority Complex § Jealous of Bismark – released 1890 § Racism of Slavs, Hostile to GB, loves ships, $ to build Na vy o Germany’s “Place in the Sun” – William II; grab colonies § Railway: Berlin to Baghdad – built w/ Turks § Fleet: new “Dreadnought” Battleships – faster, lightly armored, big guns o France vs Germany: § Triple Entente – F, R, GB – “Allies” – on paper § Triple Alliance – G, A-H, Italy(defense only) – “Central Powers” o A-H vs R; for the Balkans (peninsula) owned by Ottoman Empire § Ottoman Empire – “sick man of Europe” – declining • Prize – Istanbul = Constantinople o Russians want to turn it back Christian & get control of Black Sea o Guards the Bosporus Strait & the Dardanelles Strait o Series of War Scares st § 1 Moroccan Crisis – 1905 • became independent, leave Ottoman Empire; French declare control • German Kaiser will “defend” the Sultan • European Nations develop congress to resolve fight o French win – followed the rules o Effect: public opinion shifts = France is the good guy § Bosnian Crisis – 1908; A-H vs R • Secret agreement – A-H will annex Bosnia & Herzegovina (B -H) • R will “open” the straits to Black Sea – Turks own the straits o Asking for war/killing the Ottoman Empire • GB defends Ottoman Empire; GB – owns the navy, “police” of the world • R humiliation – don’t go against GB’s response to declaration o Seek revenge against A-H, lead Slavic people to Balkans to unite § 2ndMoroccan Crisis – 1911; riots, police gun people down • German cruiser – battleship into French part • German Kaiser will “defend” the Moroccans • International Congress o Ruling: G demands the Congo; effect: GB generals talk to F army § Effects: • Some nations are humiliated • German Kaiser seeking war – Saber Rattling • Diplomats growing tired – Congresses, meetings • Maybe war would be good? – “Quick War” might clear tension o WW1 needs a “spark” § Balkans – “powder keg”; racial tension with Turks pull out § Serbia – gained Independence from Turks alone • Dream: unite Slavic people of Balkans; make a “great Serbia” • Russia = Big Slavic brother; send weapons, $, support o Balkans Wars § 1 Balkan War – Oct 1912 – Serbs vs Ottoman Empire; serbs start • Problem: all nations grab land; fig ht amongst themselves nd § 2 Balkan War – June 1913 – serbs did well in both wars • A-H steps in & create 2 countries: Albania & Montenegro; keep Serbs off coast • Serbia calls R; A-H calls G; G & R talk everything down o 1914 – year started calmly § Military leaders examine possibilities behind the scenes – training & preparing § Austrian Archduke Franz Ferdinand – visits Sarajevo, capital of B-H • Controversial man: cold, politics, not liked o Wanted Slavs to join A -H empire, A-H say no • Heir to the A-H throne, visit was well publicized • Serbian terrorists lined up waiting to kill him o The “Black Hand” – dedicated to Serbian dream o Recruited young Serbs from B -H; trained by Serbian military • Gavrillo Princep – killed Ferdinand § The July Crisis – 4 weeks of threats from A-H – other countries began to mobilize • A-H demands to access to Serbia to find terrorists • Kaiser William II – gives A-H “blank check” • A-H gives Ultimatum to Serbia o Say “yes” = cease to exist as country § 25 July – Serbia Submits; 28 July – A-H invades Serbia, A-H bombards Belgrade • 1914 WW1 begins o German military – planning for war since 1871 § Schlieffan Plan – only plan – fight Triple Entente; fails b/c of Belgium • Invade F, capture Paris, Railroad across G to R, punch through Belgium • Problems: invade F through neutral Belgium, F army is prepared, GB has alliance with Belgium • Kaiser count on GB (Anglo -Saxon “Germans”) • Belgian resistance – fought back – slowed G down • Logistics Fail – food & weapons low; Germans fall apart § Eastern Front - Russian Mobilization on the offensive into East Prussia § Western Front – G troops fall short of Paris b/c they are punching G too o France’s 1 hero – General Josef Joffre – Rally reserves at Paris § Launches offensive at the Marne River; uses taxis to get army to the front st o 1 Battle of the Marne – “Miracle of the Marne” – Paris is saved o Race to the Sea § French dig trenches – power of the defensive § Maxim invented machine guns – defensive weapon – sewing machineà gun § G try to outflank – get behind F; GB & F united; G fail o Italy – has defensive alliance w/ G; take offers from other countries § Accept offer from Entente/Allies (GB & F) to receive Adriatic Coast o Eastern Front – 2 R armies into East Prussia; R attacks, G responds & wins o German Heroes – Eric von Ludendorff & Paul von Hindenburg o Ottoman Empire joins Central Powers (G & A -H) § Close the straits – separate allies (R & F) o United States – Pres Woodrow Wilson – Isolationism = neutrality • 1915 o Poison Gas – Chlorine gas – released with wind o British Naval Blockade – British own the sea § Royal Navy in North Sea -stop neutral ships to look for “contraband” = everything • Only w/ GB & F o German Submarines – U Boat – response to blockade § Sink the RMA Lusitania – Titanic’s Sister – Passenger Liner from NY o Propaganda vs Germany – from Belgium – kill babies, rape nuns § Subs = terror; Germans = Huns • 1916 o German Strategy: Attrition (to grind something down) – start throwing punches § Attack fortresses at Verdun; damage to French morale; French counterattacked o French Hero – Petain; hold at all costs – “They shall not pass”; stopped G at Verdun o Allies counterattacks: GB attacks Belgium along the Somme River st § June to Nov – 1 use of tanks (offensive weapon) o R: Brusilov Offensive – R slaughtered • 1917 – Russia Collapses o Russian Revolutions § March “February Revolution” – provisional gov’t – stay in the war § March – Lenin Returns w/ plan & political party • Bolshevik party – political party; “Peace, Land, Bread” § Nov “October Revolution” – Communist takeover § Leave the war – Lenin takes over, 1 communist party o Lenin’s USSR (no longer Russia) § Sign treaty of Brest – Litovsk § Surrender land to G: Finland, Estonia, Lativia, Lithuania, Poland § Civil War – Red (communists) vs Whites (Tsar) § Wait for world wide communism o Germany – success in East – collapse Russia § West – desperation – commanders from East: Hindenburg & Ludendorff • New tactic: Infiltration, all resources to Western Front • Must break Allies w/ Unrestricted Sub Warfare o United States – Woodrow Wilson 2ndterm – Peace Candidate § Wilson readies for war behind the scene § Declaration of War - 1917 • Sub warfare & Zimmerman Telegram (German Ambassador to Mexico) • John J. “Blackjack” Pershing – commanded black troops o No experience in command – very strict o Introduces open warfare: Rifles & Bayonet s § US Army Slogan: “Lafayette, We are here” § US Troops = doughboys; give F hope o Allied Commanders: Foch – head commander (F); Petain (F), Haig (GB), Pershing (US) o French Mutiny – falling apart, refuse to fight o End of 1917: Bolshevik takeover – Russians out, Caporetto Offensive – Italy done, French Mutiny, US in defenses • 1918 o Germany: Last Chance, must break F w/ manpower, morale, & war material § Last Offensive: aim at Paris, cripple French Army, Convince GB to make peace § Germany Offensives • Ludendorff: Infiltrations – invade F trenches, kill generals, cut phone lines o Send well trained vets w/ best weapons • 32 G Divisions vs the Somme – broke GB & F lines; 40-50 miles to Paris • German Failure – US troops in trenches, F troops shifted to Paris o G had no reserves – 48 hrs travel = collapse o G reaction: need someone to blame • “Peace Offensive” – failed, G army Mutiny, G morale collapsed o Build defenses, defend G o German command - Ludendorff resigns o America Heroes § George Patton – tank is the new horse § Sgt York – most decorated, medal of honor o G Kaiser grants constitution o G contacts Pres Wilson, accepts surrender on “14 points” basis § G accepts, F & GB refuse to allow it § Wilson: unconditional surrender – withdrew “14 points” o Mutiny of G Navy: suicide vs British Blockade § Sailors formed committees = Soviets; discuss communism; refuse to obey orders o Abdication of Kaiser William II, exile to Holland o Nov 11 – Armistice @ 11:00, G general accepts “14 points” o GB maintain blockade on G – winter, flu epidemic, s tarving o End of 4 Empires: G, R, A -H, Ottoman o Chaos after fighting – no gov’t • Treaty of Versailles – 1919; No G participation o League of Nations o New Germany – lose territory § Alsace Lorraine to F, East to Poland & Lithuania, North to Denmark o DMZ between F & G – The Rhineland o Germany loses colonies o German Army limited to 100,000 § Navy to coastal, no U Boats, no air force, no tanks o Article 231 – “War Guilt” § G & Central Powers (A-H & Ottoman) guilty of Aggression o Financial Obligations • Winners: New Countries o Poland (1/2 from G, ½ from R) o Finland, Estonia, Letvia, Lithuania o Czechoslovakia (Czechs & Slovakia joined) o Serbians – got Yugoslavia, run by Serbs w/ Adriatic Coast • Losers: End of Empires o USSR (civil war, no relations w/ other countries) o Turkey (Asia minor) o Austria & Hungary (small, landlocked) o Italy (promised new territory – given to serbs) § On the winning team, collapse after WW1 • League of Nations o Don’t let everyone in – exclude G & communist o US doesn’t join; prefer isolation o Just a meeting hall – no authority o Woodrow Wilson lost credibility in Europe & US § Ran for Pres a 3time, caught cold & died Identifications • EMS Telegram o Before 1914, Ems telegram was sent in response to a debate after the throne of Spain was given to a family member of the King of Prussia and France demanded forfeiture. While in the Ems Spa, King William was approached by the Prime Minister of France with a list of terms, and King William refused to sign. The Ems Telegram was King Williams report to Prime Minister Bismark; however, Bismark edits and releases the telegram to the press and causes and outrage in Paris and Berlin. • Eastern Front o In 1914, the eastern front saw some of the initial Russian Victories, as they rushed forward while the Germans focused in the west. However, German forces soon pushed the Russians back , and by the end of 1915 the Russians were driven out of Poland. Russians continued t o suffer as the Russian Revolution began and the tsar fell from power. • Lawrence of Arabia o In 1916, Lieutenant Colonel T. E. Lawrence, a British officer popularly known as Lawrence of Arabia, played a pivotal role in the Arab Revolt. The Middle Eastern Arab tribes began an uprising against Turkish Rule, and Lawrence was sent by the British government to work with the Arabs . Lawrence’s major contributions to the revolt were convincing Arab leaders to co-ordinate their action in support of British strategy and not make a frontal assault on the Ottoman stronghold in Medina. Thus, the Arabs were able to direct their attention to the Turks’ weak point. • Bolsheviks o In 1917 Russia, Lenin’s Bolsheviks were one of the factions within the Communist movement behind riva l leaders. The Bolsheviks how the peasant farmers wanted Russia’s farmland distributed. They won Russia’s Revolution because they believed in use of violence and terrorism to achieve their goals. • Zimmerman Telegram o In early 1917, the Zimmerman Telegram was sent to Mexico from Germany. Germany was offering military aid if Mexico wanted to declare war against America to regain territories. Americans intercepted the telegram and finally stirred to action as the Germans were putting all their forces on the west ern front. • “Tanks” o In 1916, the war sees the first use of tanks, large vehicles used to make machine guns mobile. They were first used when the Allies counterattack and Great Britain attacks Belgium along the Somme River. George Patton refers to the tank a s the new horse, and the tanks made the machine guns offensive. • Schlieffen Plan o After 9 years of secrecy, Germany put the Schlieffen Plan into action in 1914. The plan called for a rapid strike at Paris, France through neutral Belgium before Russia could react. However, the Austrian Archduke was assassinated and the Serbs called Russia for help. With the Russians aware of war, the Schlieffen Plan was put into action quickly, but Belgium retaliated and the German troops began to run out of supplies. The arm y missed Paris, and the Schlieffen Plan failed. • “Sick Man of Europe” o Since before 1914 the Ottoman Empire had been referred to as “the sick man of Europe,” and other countries had been arguing over who would gain the territory when the empire collapsed. Ho wever, Ottoman forces surprised the Allies with their resilience and held off a major Allied invasion. The Turks crushed the other countries dream of easily capturing Istanbul and control of the Black Sea, Bosporus Strait, and Dardanelles Strait. • “Creeping Barrage” o By 1917, thousands of French soldiers had mutinied against the orders for frontal assault on the German Trenches, and they also objected to a new tactic called “creeping barrage.” This new tactic would require them to charge forward a few feet behind successive artillery shells to give them cover. However, the troops who were supposed to be helping were killed. • U-Boats o In 1916, Germany began using submarines, better known as U -Boats, in a tactic referred to as unrestricted submarine warfare. The U-Boats were used to cut off the resupply of Britain, as retaliation for Britain cutting off all trade to Germany. This included sinking all American ships, including the passenger liner Lusitania with Americans on board. • Articles 231 & 232 o In 1919, the Axis Powers drew up the Treaty of Versailles, which included Articles 231 and 232 that recognized Germany as the sole ca use of the war. Article 231 states that Germany and the Central Powers were guilty of aggression and responsible for the consequences. Article 232 states that Germany is responsible for the financial obligations to make reparations for all civilian losses to the Allied Powers, and it was impossible for Germany to pay. • Maxim Gun o During 1914, a man named Hiram Maxim invented an automati c machine gun called the Maxim gun. The gun was developed from a sewing machine and was the first portable automatic machine gun. This new invention increased the power of the defensive.
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