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Western Civ 2 Exam 2 Study Guide

by: Kimberly Burke

Western Civ 2 Exam 2 Study Guide HY 102

Marketplace > Jacksonville State University > History > HY 102 > Western Civ 2 Exam 2 Study Guide
Kimberly Burke
Jacksonville State University
GPA 4.0

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About this Document

Covers Communism, Russian Revolution, The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR), & the Rise of Hitler
Western Civilization II
Dr. Cook
Study Guide
Western Civilization, history
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This 6 page Study Guide was uploaded by Kimberly Burke on Friday January 22, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to HY 102 at Jacksonville State University taught by Dr. Cook in Spring 2015. Since its upload, it has received 49 views. For similar materials see Western Civilization II in History at Jacksonville State University.

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Date Created: 01/22/16
Exam 2 Communism • Start in German States o 1813 – Freedom from Napoleon’s Empire o Prof Hegel – Chair of Philosophy dept at University of Berlin – greatest philosopher of the 1800s § Ideas: mankind up from Barbarism § Process: refinement of “spirit” – light that drives you § Thesis vs Anti-Thesis – Status Quo vs Challenger § Result: Synthesis – not A nor B, something new § Hegelian Dialectic – synthesis = new thesis (status quo) • Something challenges & becomes something new § Hegel’s state • STATE = highest level of reason o People join together, work together, for the good of all; can achieve true freedom • Can coerce/protect individuals • State is anti-Romanticism – Romanticism Era (freedom of individual, choice) • Karl Marx – Soviet Union, creator of Communism o Father: Jewish Lawyer, converted to Christianity; racially Jewish/Communist à Hitler’s Racism o Went to U of Berlin – joined radical Hegelians, editor of Journal, dissertation of Greek Philosophers o Driven out of Prussia, ended up in Paris in 1840s, meets Friedrich – sidekick, German, son of wealthy man § Engels’ father owns textile factory in Manchester, England o Against Capitalism/Market Economy o Industry Conditions: “Hordes of Ragged Women & Dirty Children” o Leader of Communist League in Paris - Focus on communes (small villages); ideal good – people take care of each other o Communist Manifesto – 1848 – what Communism believes § Revolution must be taught, Education = new religion, ruling class will tremble, Proletariats have “nothing to lose but their chains” § Catch phrase - Workers of the WORLD, Unite! o New “Dialectic” of Materialism § Barbarism – man in charge owns the most § Theocracy – man in charge is the 1 who talks to God § Kings – decide who owns what § Feudalism – kings give parts of territory to nobles § Capitalism – money returns, Feudalism disappears • Bourgeoisie – people who take their money & use it to make more money § Imperialism – growing at the time – countries planting flags around the world § Communism – empires will go to war w/ each other, end result = Communism = Perfe ction o Historical Materialism – “mankind” produces, makes tools § Existence = what you produce & how you produce it § Classes evolve & “Class Warfare” § Theories are very logical & clear – bad times but headed to Utopia o Control of Property – 19 Century Industrial Revolution § Proletariats = Industrial Laborers – will rise up in Revolution § Women hired more – will work for less § Trade values freely – everyone paid the same § Eventually “Private Property” Vanishes; no more greed or envy; politics & nations fade o Religion – should be Atheism – opium for the masses = drug of 1800s § God is man’s creation in man’s image; churches enforce “God’s” Laws that benefit ruling class • 1848 Revolutions – all across Europe o Started in Paris: King Louis Philippe “Bourgeois Monarch” – had business, supported business; escaped to Britain o Spread to other nations, People want Democracy & seek Constitutions & Liberal Reforms o Nationalism – people want their nation to be great – Germans & Italians o Financial Reforms – gov’t should protect from depressions – 1840s Depressions o Paris – declares republic, write Constitution § Universal suffrage – men can vote – women too easily swayed by Church § Right to work for every man, national workshops – show up, get jobs or money § Marx arrives – predicted Revolution, showing people his book § Conservative backlash – Bourgeoisie for stability/law & order § Conservatives take back over, shut down national workshops • Army called in – Bloody, “June Days”, Rebels killed or imprisoned § 2ndRepublic – elect Louis Napoleon Bonaparte – Napoleon III – 4 yr term • Coup d’état –takes over gov’t & declares himself Emperor § Failure of 1848 – not enough workers • Polarized classes – other side must be completely wrong • Bourgeoisie – against revolution, deciding factor, suppressed liberals, what’s best for business • Workers killed – blood spilled all over Europe – united workers wore the “Red Flag” = blood o Marx = prophet of Next Revolution, communism is well -known § Flees to London, wrote, built theories § Lived in extreme poverty, sent 6 children to orphanage § $ to support Engels – his right hand man • 1 International – International Working Men’s Association – Marx is power behind the scenes o Song – The Internationale • Karl Marx’s Beat Book – Das Capital – the history of money – 1 translated into German then in Russian Russian Revolution (1894 -1924) • Tsar Nicholas II & Alexandria, 4 girls & 1 boy – Romanov Family o Son Alexis – Hemophilia b/c mom & dad are 2 ndcousins – bleed to death, blood won’t clot o Family shot, thrown in well w/ acid; People believe Anastasia lived • Gregori Rasputin – known to heal people, spell over women, heals Alexis, stays in palace, begins ruling Russia • Russo-Japanese War – Russia lost every battle; Japan: Samurai Swords à Guns & Battleships • 1905 Revolution – “Bloody Sunday”; army guns down poor people for marching to palace o Tsar submits b/c of violence – allows a Duma (congress) – vote, representation, political parties § No constitution, but a hint of democracy § Political party – Socialists for Revolution – gov’t control • Alliance w/ France o French investments for natural resources & workers; $ for RR & Industry, factories built • 1905 Defeated by Japan • 1908 Bosnia Crisis – humiliation for Russia • 1912-1913 Balkan Wars – Russia supports Serbia; Serbia winning = 1 thing going right for Russia • 1914 ready for war – backing Serbs, Assassination of Archduke, Pan-Slavic movement – Racism • WW1 – mobilize against A-H, invade East Germany – Russia Slaughtered • 1916 Tsar takes command – Launch Brusilov offensive, Russia slaughtered, Tsar has no one to blame o Nobles kill Rasputin – series of poisons & wounds but dies of drowning • 1917 “February Revolution” – spontaneous, in St. Petersburg, soldiers join protest, Tsar abdicates, imprison royal family • Provisional Gov’t o Capital – St. Petersburg à Petrograd (Peter the Great) o Soviets = councils, everyone represented all across Russia o Leader – Kerensky (college professor) – decides to stay into the war • Lenin returns from exile in Switzerland via “sealed train” by Germany o Catch phrase: “Peace, Land, Bread” § Peace: Treaty of Brest – Litovsk; R gives G: Finland, Baltic States, Poland, & Ukraine § Land: seize land from large landholders; Peasants/Farmers form soviets § Bread: transport food to cities, make farmers give up food o Rise of Bolsheviks (political party) – elite, educated about Marx, leaders/doers, teach the masses § Bolsheviks start “Congress of Soviets” o “All Power to the Soviets” – workers’ councils, democracy o Lenin’s Best – “People’s Commissars” • Nov 1917 – Street Fighting – model of how to take out gov’t o Bolsheviks take out Provisional Gov’t; Kerensky flees to America • Storming of the Winter Palace – “October Revolution” – end of Provisional gov’t, take out both capitals (Petrograd & Moscow) • Russian Civil War (1918-1921) – Reds (communists – for Lenin) vs Whites (Various, divided – for Tsar) o Spread of Communism – military revolutionary committees ; Spread to all cities & towns o People’s commissars – tell people to obey Lenin; disagree = disappear; people tell on each other § Commissars = War Lords – enforce laws o War Communism – all resources belong to gov’t: land, food, banks, RR, ships, trade o Leon Trotsky – Lenin’s right hand man; created the red army from scratch for communism § 7000 workers, discipline, equipment; 5 mil soldiers in 3 years § Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) – no kings or presidents o Cities seek food, weak industry, droughts o Russia at the edge of Abyss • The “Red Terror” – remove opposition, only the best survive , end of other factions o Cheka = secret police, later called KGB – “organized terror is essential” • Kronstadt Rebellion – sailors at Petrograd – soviets vs Bolshevik oppression • Lenin submits New Economic Policy (NEP) – allow some capitalism – shops, private farms, manufacturing • Communist Politburo (Political Bureau) o Leader: Lenin; Advisors: 5 men; Minister of War: Trotsky o Commissar of Nationalities/Secretary General: Stalin – sets agenda, controls party membership • Sudden improvements = happy people o Capitalism – Industry, trade; better weather = farm production • 1924 – Death of Lenin USSR 1924 – 1939 • Communist Politburo – no clear instructions in Lenin’s will about which of the 5 advisors takes over o Frontrunner: Leon Trotsky (right hand man) – intellectual, writer, military (Red army, Hero – won the civil war), Jewish (downfall b/c Anti-Semitism) § Idealism – world revolution (his view of communism) o Joseph Stalin – early member of Communism, non-intellectual, brutal & crude (thug), Party Secretary § From Georgia (Southern Russia), almost Turkish § Realism – Russia 1 , solidify USSR o In-fighting (Mean Girls) – back stab each other § Fear Trotsky, No fear of Stalin § Trotsky – no worries. Hurt 1 = hurt all, no backstabbing § Stalin – build personal alliances § Other 4 men declare Trotsky a traitor & exile him to Siberia, escapes & leads world revolution • Follower: “Trotskyites”; believe Marx, Lenin, Trotsky • Assassinated in Mexico in 1940 st o Stalin controls party membership – “rules” over Politburo, starts 1 5 year plan § 5 Year Plan – Rest of the world in depressio n except Russia b/c no one deal w/ Soviet Union • Increase: electricity, steel production, coal production, food production • Bring in foreign experts – people who know how to do things; people flock to Russia • Party control – no deviation (own ideas), demand q uotas • Forced labor – no objection, 100% employment • Military Increase – scares the world • Farming Collectives – no personal farms • New factories all over Russia – terrible locations; quotas = unreasonable • Shipping – dig canals, connect rivers, Stalin only 1 to actually do it (Tsars talked about it) • Let women fight & work • Success in 4 years o Gov’t planned economy – Socialism o Quota: 10% growth/yr; Reached: 13%/yr o R’s natural resources, Industry all the way to Central Asia, Propaganda around the world • Stalin is genius b/c Actual: 5%/yr, death & starvation, opposition=Gulag, 20 -25 mil dead § Collective Farms –gov’t owns the land, work together, do not go well, farmers revolt • Agree to do it gov’t gives: tractors, combines, silos, markets • Purpose: food to cities • Farmers Revolt: Stalin turns the blame to Kulaks (rich farmers) o Kulaks killed & sent to Labor Camps “Gulags” in Siberia § Master of: Party Control, Propaganda (cult of personality – dictator talks about himself) § State Control of: Education, Arts & Culture, Women ’s Roles (emphasize women = women defend Stalin), vs Religion (only Russian Orthodox, Stalin made priests comply), Communism/Bolsheviks § Suffers Paranoia • Purge – cleanse party of old members, Leninists, Trotskyites, Intellectuals, Foreign Plots, Assassins • Show Trials – broadcast in Europe as Propaganda or threats; accused forced to plead guilty • Purge of Army Officers – fear Coup d’état o New Officers – no military ability, only prove loyalty to Stalin o Removed all officers w/ ability = not ready for WW2 o Huge army w/ no ability & no initiative Rise of Hitler 1919 (end of WW1) – 1939 (start of WW2) • Chaos in Germany (1919 -1923) o Gov’t Weimar Republic –liberals, democracy; Capital City = Weimar o Treaty of Versailles – war guilt clause; solution: print money (Marks), Result: Hyper Inflation • Communism in Germany o Industrial Workers – Marx’s Prediction o The Spartacists – Communist Party, Coup d’état to take over Berlin o Leader: Karl Liebknecht & Rosa Luxemburg – Jews before Communists • Freikorps – oppose Communism – “Corps of the Free” o Vets from Western Front – armed, trained, angry, Conservatives – Return of Glory o Conspiracy: “Dolchstoss” (Dagger Stab) – Stabbed in the back by Jews • Street Fighting – Freikorps vs Communism • French Occupy Ruhr Valley (Germany) – take over industry, force payment of reparations • Chaos in Italy – Rise of Communism & Nationalism o Benito Mussolini – has newspaper; nickname: “il Duce” (leader) § Followers wear black shirts § Plan: restore the glory of Italy § Coins the term Fascism – 1 leader, turn back the clock – comes from Roman Empire • Fasces – symbol of authority, bundle of sticks w/ axe blade • Start of German “Nazis” o Munich, Bavaria – Hitler “spies” of the NSDAP (National Socialist Deutsche/German Arbeiters/Workers Party) o Nazis – short for NSDAP, members wear brown shirts § Groups = Sturm (storm) -Albteilung = SA § Job: fight Communists in the streets • SA battle Communists – Initial ideas: violence & intimidation o Against Weimar Gov’t – Alien weak; against Democracy (sign of failure); against Jew s – Communist o “Aryan Race” = myth • Beer Hall Putsch – Coup d’état – vs Munich gov’t, take down city hall • Failure of the Putsch – Ludendorff captured, let off b/c WW1 Hero o Herman Goering (WW1 Ace) shot in groin o Hitler – trampled, captured, put on trial for treason – allowed to speak at trial & Germans love him § NSDAP publicity, sentence: 5 yrs, only serves 9 months § Autobiography: Mein Kampf (my struggle) • Dictated to party secretary in cell w/ him, sold 5 mil copies by 1939, only in German • Hitler’s Plans o Restore greatness of Germany; create master Aryan race o Lebensraum = “living space” , Eastern Europe, rule over Slavic people (slaves) o Jewish Conspiracy = “dirty blood” § Communism throughout the world – run by Jews § Caused defeat in WW1 – “refused to fight” • Dawes Plan – help from American Economist to restructure the reparations o Tie German money to the US Dollar o Huge success – stop printing Mark; revived German economy • Locarno Pact – France & Weimar gov’t meet, Germany accepts treaty & joins League of Nations, “Peace at Last” • Roaring 20’s o Jazz – invented by the African Americans o Cabaret – Europe o Decline of extremists: Communists & Fascists • Stock Market Crash – Germany tied to US economy, World Depression, except Stalin’s USSR • Revival of Extremism – unemployment, communists vs fascists o Big Businesses choose Fascism; Middle Class like law & order • Nazi Party o Hitler – seek power “legally” by using democracy against Weimar democracy § Program: National Pride o 2ndlargest group; gov’t is splintered into 300+ parties o Propaganda § Germans love uniforms, parades, music: Richard Wagner, songs, greatness of Germany § Symbols from Roman Empire § Building 3 Reich (empire) § Sieg Heil! Heil Hitler! – Hail Victory, Hail Hitler – salute • Weimar Gov’t – democracy o President: Paul von Hindenb urg o Parliament: Reichstag o Splinter Parties: Deadlocked – nothing gets done o 1 Chancellor after another – parties can’t agree • Hitler becomes Chancellor – Nazi Party 37%, lead a coalition (over 50%) o Hindenburg: Hated Hitler, knew he would fail § Von = nobility; Hitler = nobody • Reichstag Fire – set by Communist o State of Emergency clause in Constitution – temp power to Chancellor for 6 months o Hitler takes over Federal gov’t – ends privacy/assembly, outlaws Communist Party • Enabling Act o Use Democracy: Reichstag vote (2/3) § Nazis, German Nationalists, & Catholics elect Hitler § Hitler – all legislative & executive power for 4 years • Hitler’s Programs o Attack Socialists – forbid strikes, arrest union leaders o Gov’t Control economy – gov’t tells what to make & when to make it o Give $ to industry & business o Put men to work- take women out of work force o Autobahns – system of roads connecting towns (interstates) o Volkswagen – Volk=folk • National Gov’t – takeover by Nazis o Secret Police = Gestapo w/ SA o Create new Federal Departments § Overlap – for when he can’t break part of the old gov’t § Advantages to Join Party – people are willing to help you o State Gov’t posts o All press & publishing – people only hear/read what you want them to o Universities – tell profs what they can & cannot teach – eliminate Jewish findings in Chemistry o Only 1 legal party • Society o All conservatives united o For Glory of Germany; against Hitler = against Germany o Alliance: Catholic Center Party § Concordant w/ Pope; Protect Catholic Church o All professions: Associations – comply w/ Nazi rule o Workers: Unified Labor Front – strikes outlawed but Nazis will listen to your problems o Opposition is difficult – Germans are law abiding • German Army – conservative – want to protect themselves o Run by “nobility”, didn’t want to follow Hitler – he was a corporal & Austrian o Nazi’s SA – Hitler’s Army § Gets rid of SA to please the real army – Night of the Long Knives • Send out Assassins to kill SA leaders § SA members can join the workforce, the army, or SS • President Hindenburg of Germany dies – Hitler assumes the title o Now: Chancellor & President – Der Fuhrer = “The Leader” • Distraction o Protect German race – Anti-Semitism Laws (against Jews) § Out of gov’t service § Excluded from associations § Nuremberg Laws • Nuremberg Rally – Hitler’s meetings w/ Nazis o Nuremberg Laws § Jews lose citizenship § Forbid sex & marriage to non -Jews § Germans cannot work for or employ Jews § Wear yellow star of David § Live in Ghettos o Laws from Middle Ages – bringing them back § Add Systematic terror – police enforce laws • German Jews: clothing & retail, bankers, lawyers but not judges, doctors but few in hospitals, professors o Poor – live in Ghettos • Vs. Jews 1937-1938 (took break in 1936 for the Olympics) o Increased attacks – Boycott Jewish stores o No gov’t contracts to Jewi sh firms o Register property – cannot sell o ID cards – Jewish names for babies o Doctors & Lawyers – no G clients o Emigration: 120,000 out – only rich can leave o Correlation – pressures of foreign policy o Culmination – Night of Broken Glass (Kristallnacht) § Nazi attacks Jews – planned by Goering (head of Air Force) § Burn businesses – vandalized § Burn synagogues § 91 murders § 20,000 Jews taken away to Concentration “work” camps o World Reaction – trade Boycott w/ Germany


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