Western Civ 2 Exam 3 Study Guide
Western Civ 2 Exam 3 Study Guide HY 102
Jacksonville State University
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This 4 page Study Guide was uploaded by Kimberly Burke on Friday January 22, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to HY 102 at Jacksonville State University taught by Dr. Cook in Spring 2015. Since its upload, it has received 29 views. For similar materials see Western Civilization II in History at Jacksonville State University.
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Date Created: 01/22/16
Exam 3 Prelude to WW2 • Re-arm Germany o Wehrmacht = “Army” o SS = Schutz-Staffe = Body Guards = Bad guys o Expand Nazi units o Luftwaffe = Air Force – under Herman Goering – had no airplanes o Navy – great battleships (“Bismark”, “Tirpitz”, etc) & submarines (U-boats) • Hitler Youth o Kids learn to fight/kill – radical boy scouts • 1935 – Italy in Ethiopia – Italy humiliated • 1936 re-occupy Rhineland – Hitler’s army upset in France • 1936 – Spanish Civil War – o Republicans & Communists (left side – want republic) vs Againt Francisco Franco, army, & Catholic Church (right side – want Fascism/dictator • Rome-Berlin Axis – Mussolini & Hitler decide that they control the world o “Advisors” into Spain w/ France to help fight o vs Commuism, New tactics • Hitler’s Condor Legion – Hitler’s Airplane Legion o Sent to France – drop bombs on civilians (no one has done this before) § Demoralizing to military (begin to surrender) o City of Guernica = “Terro r Bombing” – Picasso Painting o Austria joins “Germany”; Hitler invades Austria o Anschluss – Hitler wants all German speaking nations to be part of Germany • Sudetenland – areas of Czechoslovakia inhabited by German speakers o Munich Crisis – Munich given to Czech – claim Germans lived there & are being oppressed o Meeting in Munich = Appeasement at Munich § British PM Neville Chamberlain: “Peace in Our Time” § Hitler gets what he wants • Nazi-Soviet Pact (Hitler & Stalin) – Fascism & Communism Unite to agree on death of Poland o Want land back from WW1 • September 1, 1939 – German invasion of Poland – take Western ½ o Blitzkrieg = Lightning War – don’t stop, no trenches § Air Force, tanks, mechanized infantry; take out buildings, towns– confuse people – huge success • Start of Holocaust o Hitler ordered 5 Action Squads into captured Poland to murder: officials, priests, & intellectuals § Leader: Heinrich Himmler – Commander of SS § Jews into Ghettos WW2 • GB declare war on Germany – surprise • 1939-1940: nothing happens, SITzkrieg, is there even a war o Hitler invades Denmark fo r lost land in WW1, invades Normandy b/c it’s near GB & has too much coast o “Quisling” = Nazi-Norwegian, a traitor o “5 Column” – 5 already in your country o Russia invades Finland for land lost in WW1 – Finland kicks their butt § Russia’s army is untrained, loyal Bolsheviks only • PM Winston Churchill – new, elected b/c his warnings about Hitler were true • Allied Forces – F, B, Belgium, Holland (Dutch) – massing their forces • Night of May 9, 1940 – German paratroopers dropped behind enemy lines, cut co mmunication lines o German Gliders & Paratroopers dropped into Belgium & Holland = surrender • F & GB – shift troops to cover Belgium & Holland • Hitler goes through undefended Ardennes Forrest o French defense = Maginot Line – Hitler goes around it o German Panzers (tanks) through the forest o Stukas – air force bomber – really slow, dive bomber, whistle = terror sound o Blitzkrieg – fall of France on June 10, 1940 o Nazis occupy ½ of France – North & West Coasts & Paris § For submarines to come from West coast • Unoccupied France – South & East – new capitol: Vichy, President: Marshal Petain (WW1 hero) o Petain develops collaboration w/ Germany: give Hitler Jews & manufactured goods (trucks, cars, etc) • British at Dunkirk (coast) – running back to England o Goering’s Luftwaffe – destroy British army using airplanes o Miracle at Dunkir k – Winston Churchill & his army in France issue call on radio to GB to save the boys § ½ of the army killed: Victory for G = Miracle for GB o Hitler’s 1 mistake • Invasion of Britain o G has no landing craft & no navy; Hitler turns it over to Goering & Luftwaffe (reason for last mistake) o Bomb harbors & airfields • Battle of Britain – attack cities to break will power; called “The Blitz” • British resolve – strengthen GB w/ PM Churchill’s radio speeches • Hitler’s Side Shows during the Battle of Britain o Mussolini – § Italy in North Africa vs Egypt – to get to Australia, South Africa, New Zealand, India • Take out = cripple GB § Italy in Balkans – promised in WW1 § Italians always surrender • Destroy the USSR – Hitler’s #1 Goal 1. Vs Communism (Nazi Party’s initial goal) 2. Peace w/ GB 3. Lebensraum – living space, wants Russia’s land 4. Grain & oil – ton of food in Russia, G has no oil • Operation Barbarossa – 1941 – invade USSR o 3 armies in Leningrad (Petrograd), Moscow, Kiev (Ukraine) o Great German victories – millions of Russian prisoners to camps § Sept – reach Leningrad; Oct- 60 miles to Moscow; take Kiev • Germany at Moscow – Russian Counterattack, 35 miles from Moscow, -25°F o Hitler goes crazy – fires army command, replaced by people who do what they’re told o Decides to command the army himself • December 7, 1941 – Japanese attack Pearl Harbor, Hawaii – destroy US battleships • FDR & Churchill(PM of GB) – must save GB by defeating “Germany First”; Plans: invade France • Stalin o “Allies” = USA, GB, & USSR – all against Germany o 1942 – Hitler launces offensive against USSR o Stalin needs help: “Second Front” • Hitler – 1942 o Focus power deep into Southern Russia (where all the grains, oil, & resources are) o Huge Success (1941 & 1942) o June: capture Crimean Peninsula – 6 army to Stalingrad o Africa: Rommel (G tank commander) 60 miles from Nile River • 3 turning points in 1942: o Germans at Stalingrad – stuck b/c November weather o Rommel defeated at El Alamein (Egypt) – done in Africa o Operation Torch – Americans in action/on the ground st § Invade Morocco & Algeria – belong to Vichy, France – French shot as US – 1 casualties • 1943 – Great year for Russia, Bad year for US & GB o USA: Africa à Sicily à Italy o Stalin = mad, fighting G alone o Churchill = happy USA is goi ng w/ his plan to stick w/ the soft underbelly • 1944: Americans = Ready to invade Europe & liberate France o June 6, 1944: Normandy Peninsula across the English Channel § Not well defended by G; 4 beaches taken easily, G kicked butt o/Omaha § US takes Utah & Omaha Beach o Bocage in Normandy - sit for a month; farms everywhere surrounded by stone walls § Solution: bulldozers on fronts of tanks, airplane bombs, & torpedos o Operation Cobra: Patton’s 3Army * Breakout * § Aug 1 – 35 miles outside of Normandy § Eisenhower (AKA: Ike; tank commander) to Patton: “All out offensive”, “Caution to the wind” § To Paris: Liberation – allow “Free French” to take back Paris; Leader: Charles De Gaulle (future Pres of F) • Allied Victory: Certain o G: fleeing to the Rhine; GB: to Be lgium & Holland; US: from Paris to Rhine • German Secret Weapons o Bombs that destroy whole cities – never actually built, G scientists built them for Americans later o Jets – very few built o Rockets – bottle rockets to roman candles • Montgomery’s Plan – British commander o To win the war by Christmas 1944 o Operation Market Garden – invade through Holland § Air Drop: GB & US paratroops § Into Holland: seize bridges to Rhine • Fail: Disaster for GB paratroops; Americans captured their bridges • End of 1944 o G: Westwall on Rhine River - digging ditches; Out of action o GB: Stuck in Holland b/c lost last bridge o US: stuck in Belgium/Eastern France – waiting for Spring o Winter Weather causing everything to stop • Battle of the Bulge – Dec 16, 1944 o Hitler’s counterattack though Ardennes Forest § 1000 monster tanks, 250,000 G soldiers § Split the allies – US & GB § Must: capture Fuel supplies – city of Antwerp § Blitzkrieg on Americans, take Americans to camps § Enough Americans fight back that they run out of gas & can’t make it to Antwer p o Patton to the Rescue – US win o German Disaster – Lost: 6000 tanks & 100,000 men • 1945: Eastern Front o January – USSR take Warsaw after G defeated Poland; USSR towards Budapest & Vienna to claim WW1 territory § Revenge on G: Russia is raping & pillaging – G did that to them o February – USSR: 40 miles to Berlin, Hitler in “Bunker” o April 16 – Battle of Berlin – Hitler kills himself o Occupation of Germany: R (east), GB (north), US (south), F (west) Cold War • Yalta Conference – Big 3: Stalin, Churchill, FDR o Discuss occupation of Europe – rebuild Europe, punish Nazis – war crime trials • Eastern Europe o Stalin promised “democracy” o East: occupied by Red Army o Votes say people want communism – Red Army controls the polls • President Truman – FDR’s VP o Big 3: Stalin, Truman, GB PM (Churchill voted out) § Meet at Potsdam (Berlin) – July 1945 § Truman (hard liner) vs Stalin – Truman tough b/c US has atomic bomb • Atomic Bombs on Japan o Aug 6, 1945 – Hiroshima o USA invaded other Japanese islands before this, realize too many Americby invading Japan o Aug 9, 1945 – Nagasaki o Russia declared war on Japan as payback to US – took stuff from Asia (reason they declared war) • Churchill declared “Iron Curtain” o Voted out of office & goes on speaking tour o Stalin put “Iron Curtain” – building flames of war – nothing in or out • Truman Doctrine – support of “free people”, against outside interference • 1947 – Marshall Plan – Truman - $$ to rebuild Europe & to stop Communism • West G & East G – separate countries (West – US & East – USSR) o Berlin split inside Russian sections • 1948 Blockade of Berlin o US countered: Berlin Airlift – dropped supplies in o 1961 Berlin Wall • 1949 USSR Atomic Bomb • NATO Warsaw Pact – Both sides have an atomic bomb o NATO – North American Treaty Organization • 1950 o North Korea attacked South Korea o UN voted to “restore South Korea” o China kicked our butt in North Korea o Korean War – no segregation • 1954 o F pull out of Indochina § New countries formed out of Indochina: Laos, Cambodia, N Vietnam, S Vietnam o Hero: Ho Chi Minh – communist, kicked Chinese out o US takes over S Vietnam to save them from Communism – Vietnam War • 1972 - Nixon elected – “Peace w/ Honor” – leave Vietnam • 1975 - US withdraws completely, Vietnam completely Communist • Nov 1989 – Fall of Berlin Wall • 1991 – USSR collapses – becomes a bunch of little republics ID’s • Lebensraum o In the 1920s, Lebensraum, meaning “living space,” was one of the two strategic goals Adolf Hitler addressed in his autobiography Mein Kampf. Hitler intended to expand Germany’s control over flat agricultural land in Eastern Europe and the Balkans at the expense of the Slavic people, who would work for the master race . Hitler actually invaded Poland in 1939 and caused the start of WWII. • Blitzkrieg o In the beginning years of the war after 1939, the Nazi’s developed a Blitzkrieg, “lightning war,” strategy. This strategy concentrated heavily on mobile firepower, tanks and aircraft, and rapid troop movement in small areas. They split their opponents’ for ces then proceed straight through the divided flanks forcing their opponent to regroup before they can counter. • Maginot Line o In the 1930s, the Maginot Line was designed by Andre Maginot and built to be an impenetrable line of fortresses along the French-German border. In 1940, Hitler invaded France through Belgium around the Maginot Line. France was defeated in weeks and the line was a complete failure because it was designed on the idea of digging trenches in WWI, and it is clear the French learned the wr ong lesson from WWI. They failed because they tried to prepare the trenches while Germany was preparing air and Blitzkrieg attacks. • Nazi-Soviet Pact o In 1939, Hitler and Stalin meet and agree on a Nazi -Soviet Pact between Germany and the USSR to agree on p eace and trade. This meeting shocked the world. However, there is a secret clause included that states an agreement on the death of Poland. Hitler invaded Poland in 1939 and started WWII, and Stalin invaded the Eastern half of Poland ten days later. • Miracle of Dunkirk o In 1940, the British experienced the Miracle of Dunkirk. The British were against the German Luftwaffe at Dunkirk, France, and the British army and Churchill started to run back to England. They issued a call on the radio to Great Britain to save the boys, but one-half of the army did not make it. This was a victory for Germany, a miracle to Great Britain, and Hitler’s first mistake. • D-Day o In 1944, the Allied invasion Normandy, known as D -Day, shocked the Nazis because of the location. The All ied forces landed on the beaches and parachuted behind the Nazis to cut off reinforcements. Though costly in lives, the D-Day invasion was a huge success, and the Allies captured five beaches. • Operation Market Garden o In 1944, Operation Market Garden was put into action by the Allies to invade through Holland. Paratroops from Great Britain and America were air dropped into Holland to seize all bridges leading to the Rhine River. However, the British gave the easier bridges to the Americans but could not cap ture the all the harder bridges successfully. It was a fail because they went one bridge too far.
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