Western Civ 2 Exam 4 Study Guide
Western Civ 2 Exam 4 Study Guide HY 102
Jacksonville State University
Popular in Western Civilization II
Popular in History
This 8 page Study Guide was uploaded by Kimberly Burke on Friday January 22, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to HY 102 at Jacksonville State University taught by Dr. Cook in Spring 2015. Since its upload, it has received 22 views. For similar materials see Western Civilization II in History at Jacksonville State University.
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Date Created: 01/22/16
Exam 4 – Final 14 Century (1300s) • End of the Crusades – 200 years st o 1095 Call of 1 Crusades – Power of the Pope o 1096 Great Success o 1099 Capture Jerusalem – mostly Muslim, Jewish, & Christians (knights kill them all) – “Crusader States” o 1291 Fall of Acre (last fortress) o 1300 Crusades over – Muslims win – Christian pilgrim allowed for $$ • The Good: Trade Flows to & from Holy Lands o Italy – makes money off of taking travelers & bringing stuff back to sell – Genoa, Pisa, Venice, etc o Across Alps to sell goods – Swiss control passes to make $ o Rhine River – starts at Alps § Champagne Fairs (French), Hanseatic League (Germans ) unifies cities o A new class: traders – outside of Feudal System (King’s Rule), not nobles or serfs § Birth of “middle class” • Lived in fortified centers = birth of cities – on crossroads & rivers o “Burg” (G), “Bourg” (F), “Borough” (GB) § Called “Burghers” (G), “Bourgeoisie (F) § Condemned, looked down on, 10% of population; 10,000 people = 1 city o Dynamic Age – universities - training for gov’t, engineer, accounting § 1 university – Bologna, Italy; – Paris, France; England – Oxford & Cambridge § Teach in Latin § Justinian’s Law Code – 500s A.D, Constantinople • Condensed 1000 years of Roman Law • Basis of new legal system in Europe § Rebirth of Knowledge • Roman & Greek Writings • Arabs preserved ancients – improved in Physics, Astronomy, Medicine, Math • Philosophy – Aristotle (Master of all fields), Plato (Metaphysics, Universal ideals) • Theology – Pagan ideas vs Doctrine; Thomas Aquinas (sources of knowledge: Reason & Revelation) o Cathedrals § New math & engineering made big buildings possible § Preoccupation w/ God & Salvation § $$ in cities – people fund Cathedrals § Pointed arches, flying buttresses, higher, stained glass windows § Competition: $ to project, best archi tects, building continues for generations, engineers & laborers made ton $$ • The Bad: The Wrath of God o 1347 Sicily – Messina part § Ship from Black Sea – people on boat are dying § “Buboes” (Black Bubbles); Dance of Death = die twitching o Bubonic Plague § Moves to ports in Italy & France – city to city on trade routes § Mutations: to pneumonic form § Returns in 1361 & 1369 - people live in constant fear § Rats carry fleas that carry bacteria § Death rate: 50%, 25%, bypassed some areas; total = 50 mil § Book: Boccaccio’s Decameron § Reactions: pray, repent, live pious life • Wearing masks • Flagellants: whipping yourself or other people o Condemned by church b/c people are seeking forgiveness outside the church § Sparks the Reformation § Jews: Accused of poisoning the wells • Must: live outside Feudal System, live in cities in Ghettos, few prof(money lending, tailor) • Official attacks = “Program” • Accounts of Atrocities – Strasburg, along Rhine river – burn Jews • Flee to Eastern Europe beyond the plague – Poland & Russia – “Pale of Settlement” • Few ever returned the Western Europe o Constant Warfare - Boundaries of small state, Rise of Kings, Quarrels over succession o Hundred Years War (1337 -1453) § King of France vs King of England – over Aquitaine (Gascony) • 1200’s – Eleanor of Aquitaine o King of France marries her for land – get a divorce o King of England marries her to claim the land § Fought in France § Raids by English Knights into Gascony & Normandy • Outnumbered, used peasants=English Pikemen (not honorable) • Weapon: pike, Welsch w/ longbow § Battles: Crecy (1346), Poitiers (1356) • English take defensive position – knights in center & longbows on flanks • English victories – kill French knights § War drags on: war & peace treaties, English lack resources, destruction obad French kings § 1415 King Henry V – young, energetic, expedition to France • Great army: 10,000 knights, march deep into France, plunder/raise, di- dysentery • French army: 30,000 knights, cut Henry off • Battle of Agincourt – tragedy for France • Marriage = peace; Henry V marries French princess o Agreement: son of Henry & princess will have both the crowns for France & England • Charles VI – disowned son § End of War – Henry VI is 9 months old – dad (Henry v) & grandfather die (Charles VI) § Joan of Arc (Jeanne d’Arc) – born in northeast France • Legend: “Maid of Lorraine” will save France • Hears Voices: 3 saints, tell her to go to Chinon (Loire River) & take Dauphin (prince) to Rheims (where French kings are anointed) • Orleans Victory – Charles VII to Rheims & back to Chinon with his crown – Joan is given an army § End of Joan – Captured by Burgundians & sold to England, trial, burned at Rouen • Significance: not discredited, French Identity/Hero, unifies France, Against England – drive them out of France • Becomes Saint Joan § Charles VII • Slowly press England – He tries to be everywhere they aren’t o England: only wins Calais; Charles wins war § End of war – no treaty § Results of Hundred Years War • France: strong king, standing army (never go home) –pay army by Scutage (tax on nobles) o Research & Development: gunpowder • 1300s Cannon; 1400s Muskets • England: Henry VI King of England – terrible King o Dominated by people who took over when he was a baby o War of the Roses – everyone fights for the crown § Families: York vs Lancaster • Europe 1500 o France: united, strong kings, high taxes, armies o England: end civil war, strong kings (Henry VII, Tudor) o Spain: united, strong king & queen, drive out Muslims & Jews, C olumbus discovers new world o Italy: disunity, princes – tiny states, tiny wars, artists flock to Italy for princes funding art o Holy Roman Empire/Germany: poor, disunity, Emperor Avignon Papacy & The Great Schism (1300 -1417) • Power of the Pope o 1100s call for Crusades; 1200s great authority, still calling crusades o Involved in secular affairs – dispute over land, against King who resent interference in laws & wealth of the church • Pope vs Kings o Kings want to tax the church o Pope Boniface VIII issues Papal Bull (declaration) against King Philip IV “The Fair” § Papal Bull: Unum Sanctum • “There is one church…”, “Temporal power beneath the spiritual” • Cannot tax the church or clergy • “Must have Pope’s blessing for Salvtion” § Reaction: • King Philip IV of France doesn’t back down – excommunicated from church • Calvary to Rome – capture the Pope – Pope released but died later • Power of the French King • Next Popes o Cardinals meet in Vatican, elect “French” Cardinal o New pope announces move to Avignon – city on Rhine River & part of HRE, surrounded by French territory o 75 years of “Babylonian Captivity” (1305 -1377) – all Avignon Popes o Great Luxury – “Sin City” o “Puppet” of King of France = Pope o Reaction: decline of authority & respect, kings over pope/state over church • Return to Rome o Dying pope returns to Rome o Cardinals to Rome for elections – mob surrounds Vatican & demands Italian Pope § Elect: Italian Cardinal • The Great Schism o French Cardinals escaped, return to Avignon o Nullify election in Rome, elect French Cardinal = 2 Popes o Rome vs Avignon – excommunicate each other, declare each other “Anti -Pope” • Church Councils – solution to 2 Pope problem o Must heal the church § Council of Pisa – bishops & cardinals – elect new pope = now 3 Popes o Council of Constance – back to 1 pope in 1517 o Meet all the time & make their own decisions – until 1500s & democracy o Power of Pope is weak The Reformation • John Wyclif – Greek New Testament à English o Followers: Lollards; his bibles & his bones burned • Jan (John) Hus – Greek Bible à Czech o Burned at the stake o Hussites – use break & wine instead of just bread – chalice for all, not just priest o “Hussites Wars” in Bohemia – guys w/ shields in front, armored wagons • Church Troubles o Regain the Papal States – Pope’s armies regain territory o Nepotism – “nepo”=nephew – helping people in your family get positions o Simony – buying offices in the church o A series of bad popes § Pope Alexander VI – Spanish, Borgia Family, Uncle was Pope (simony & nepotism) • Children: Prince Caesare & Lucrezia (sent to marry men & get land) § Pope Julius II “Warrior Pope” – hired Michelangelo to paint Sistine chapel § Pope Leo X – Medici Family • Want largest church possible built = St. Peter’s Basilica • Takes money from tithers o Pluralism – people w/ 2 offices o Absenteeism – which office are they at or neither o Concubines o Monasticism – monastery, not needed to copy stuff anymore, homosexual rape • Gutenberg’s Press – idea stolen from China o German, in city of Maiz on the Rhine o Breakthrough: “moveable type” – use letters, instead of carving each page o Printed the Bible first • $ to Rome o Selling Indulgences (forgiveness) to reduce time in Purgatory § Dates back to the Crusades – fight=forgiven o Erasmus of Rotterdam – most famous writer in Europe – writes satire § “The Praise of Folly” – most famous writing, about the church § Erasmus laid the egg that Luther hatched • Martin Luther o Young Luther § Born: north-central Germany § Father: owned tin mine – middle class, sent Luther to university § Haunted by Salvation – thinks about death – haunted by “Sin” & “Satan” § Enters monastery – quits university • Studies Theology, ordained in 1507, Doctorate of Theology in 1513 o Works at university of Wittenburg (Germany) o Luther’s Bible Verse – Epiphany = Romans 1:17 – faith alone o Indulgences coming to Saxony § Luther posts 95 Theses – argument against Indulgences § Pope’s response: “Stop this drunken German” o Frederick the Wise – Luther’s ruler – Protects, church tells state they can’t arrest Luther o Luther excommunicated – does not care o Diet of Worms – meeting in Germany § “Here I stand…” – go strictly by scripture o “Escaped” to Wartburg Castle – translates bible to German & that becomes standard for German language • The Reformation Spreads o German states (northern only), Swiss States, Anabaptists, Church of England • Lutheran “ism” – Luther’s ideas become a church o For Burghers, Urban, educated people o No Jesus on the cross behind the altar o Lots of singing – Luther wrote hymns o Sunday School before church o Women should read & write but belong with KKK (Church, Kitchen, Children) • Holy Roman Empire (Germany) o Emperor Charles V should be able to crush Lutheran but Charles V: § Is waging war against France & Turks; this bought Luther time • Peace of Augsburg – a truce after 30 years o “Cuius regio, Eius religio” = Ruler will decide religion – applies to every German state • Swiss Confederation – not tightly held together o Zwingli’s ideas § “No graven images” – remove images of God, Christ § White washed interiors § No: Crucifix, statues, paintings, saints, monks, celibacy, POPE • Zwingli vs Luther o Problem of “Last Supper” § Catholic: The Eucharist – communion, transubstantiation (bread & wine become blood & body) § Protestant Communion • Luther: Con-substantiation (“With substance”) – “real presence” of Christ comes in body • Zwingli: Not to be taken literally b/c Christ cannot be in 2 p laces at once • Anabaptists o Very radical “Protestants” o Every man is a “Priest” o Adult Baptism = “reborn” o Simplicity of church services – all must come from scriptures, simple life like Christ (WWJD) o Church by “democratic vote” o Separation of church from state = treasonous in the 1500s o Persecution of Anabaptists: seen as dangerous by all, mass execution & burnings, seek refuge in Netherlands & England • “Jolly Old” England o Lost Hundred Years War o War of the Roses (civil war) § Battle of Bosworth Field – Richard III vs Henry Tudor(winner & new king) o Henry Tudor à King Henry VII § 1 son - Arthur marries Catherine of Argon (Spanish Princess) & dies right after marriage § 2ndson – King Henry VIII – marries the princess after Arthur dies – got special permission from Pope • Married for 18 years • 5 Children – 1 daughter survived (Mary Tudor/Bloody Mary) • Curse of God? – Rules in Leviticus o Henry made a baby with Mary Boleyn – Catherine must be cursed o Henry seeks divorce from Catherine § Anne Boleyn – lady in waiting – smart enough not to get pregnant • You can call me queen B – want to be queen § Pope refuses divorce – not taking money anymore § Henry VIII calls Parliament o Church of England § King is the head of the church § AKA Anglican Church (England) or Episcopal Church (American) § Church of England grants annulment of Henry VIII’s marriage to Catherine • Henry marries Anne Boleyn – daughter: Elizabeth § Same “catholic” rituals but: • Drop Latin, have English Bible • End of relics & shrines • Abolish “Church Courts”; New “King’s Court” only § Confiscate monasteries – 1/6 of all English land belongs to King now § All $ to King, not Rome o End of Anne Boleyn – Anne of 1000 days § Accused of: witchcraft, adultery, incest § Beheaded at the Tower of London § Elizabeth – spawn of witch, exiled to country estate o 3 wife of Henry VIII has son - died in child birth o Henry has 6 total wives: divorced, beheaded, died, divorced, beheaded, survived • Jean (John) Calvin – Presbyterian Church o Swiss, France, Germans, Dutch, Scotland – all want his ideas o Priest in Paris at Royal Court giving mass to King – talk’s about Luther’s ideas – exiled – refugee to Geneva o Reformed Church – Church of Calvin § Close to Luther: “Faith Alone” § 2 sacraments: baptism & communion (vs Catholic 7 sacraments) § Geneva follows him & builds Model Co mmunity • Presbyters “elders” – watch everyone, get rid of or punish people who sin too much o Calvinism § Predestination • God is all-knowing • No free will: all is fated • The reprobate – damned; The elect – salvation § Signs of your Salvation – Faith, Godly Life, attack sin o Later – after Calvin dies § Signs of Salvation: God’s will • Success in life, healthy, wealthy, wise, hard work, good family • Seek new converts – new b/c Catholic church was the only church o Spread of Calvinism § France – west & southwest • Missionaries go in secretly – away from Paris (King) • Bourgeoisie, some Nobles – having $ is not evil if used for good • Known as “Huguenots” § German states – along Rhine River – Burghers, educated, rich § England – Calvinist ideas creep into Church of England • John Knox – missionary that converted all of Scotland to Presbyterian France – Absolute Rulers • Wars of Religion o Catholics vs Protestant s § Protestants = Huguenots/Calvinists (minority) • Successful, rich, educated people • Advantage: weak kings – all brothers, sons of Catherine de Medici o King of France married her for money o “Madame Snake” – manipulates people & her sons • Catherine tries to stop Civil War o Marriage – Catherine’s idea – her daughter Margaret (Margot) to leader of Huguenots (Henri of Navarre) § St. Bartholomew’s Day, feasts o Protestants massacred in their hotels – Henri escapes • Catherine’s children do not have children o Henri in line to be King but he’s protest- claims Catholicism to be King – not trusted § King Henry IV – 1 of Bourbon Family on the throne § Protestant or Catholic doesn’t matter – must save France • Edict of Nantes – Toleration of Calvinists • Henry IV - “Vert Galant” = Playboy, lots of children o Assassinated in the streets of Paris by “mad” Catholic monk • 1600s: Age of Absolutism o God’s Hierarchy: G od à King à Nobles à People § “Divine Rule”, “Absolute Authority” – even in household (husband is King) § No Estates General (Parliament) § Taxes: from Bourgeoisie (middle class) § Benefits: King grant $$ privileges • France: King Louis XIII – son of Henry IV, Louis is 9 when dad dies o Regency: mother – Marie de Medici (wealthy) § Calls Estates General b/c she’s too weak • Estates General (Parliament) o Control taxation, democracy: people vote, § Representation: 3 houses w/ 1 vote • Catholic Church – priests, bishops, cardinals – 1% of population • Nobility – 5% of population • Commons – 94% of population • Catholics & Nobles generally vote together • Cardinal Richelieu – great speaker, defends rights of King o Protector of King & advisor to Marie de Medici o Ruthless (vs Nobles) o Machiavellian Politics § Italian writer Machiavelli – need a strong Prince, end justifies means, fear is motivator o Goals: § Take power from Nobles – no noble assemblies, collect & use tax money • Use intendants – “King’s will”, handle justice & taxation § Increase King’s power – use tax money to make Royal Army & Navy § Power in Foreign Affairs – vs HRE, vs Spain, he supports protestants (stirs the pot, create problems) § Unite France – Prestige of King (unites everyone), control using Catholic Church, disarm Huguenots • No state within the state o Dec 1642 – Death of Richelieu o Feb 1643 – Death of Louis XIII French Revolution • King Louis XIV “Sun King” o Builds a giant palace called Versailles (famous for “fashion & culture” & parties w/ nobles invited) § Motivations: • Control nobility through parties – go into debt by going to parties, go deeper to get them removed • Grant them privileges – above taxation • He governs France • Intendants (Richelieu’s idea) – run F through Louis, takes nobles place b/c nobles at party o Middle class men from Universities o Louis is Catholic – if he’s Catholic, everyone should be Catholic – “One King, One Law, One Faith” § Revoked the Edict of Nantes • Henry IV created – Tolerance of Protestants • Effects in France: 200,000 Emigres (Huguenots/Calvinists) o Protestants have no rights, Emigres leave France o Go to HRE/German States, England, Holland, Switzerland, USA, Canada • Effects in Europe: French immigrants w/ money o Louis XIV looks like tyrant/crusader, anti -protestant o Wars of Louis XIV “The Sport of Kings” § War of Spanish Succession -1701 • King Carlos II of Spain – “2 Bagger” = mentally & physically deformed • Great Alliance vs Louis XIV • End of War – ton of treaties – 1 World War, France in enormous debt o 1715 – Death of Louis XIV • Louis XV o Loves mistresses & hunting – not running France § Madame Pompadour – mistress that runs France § Decides to get involved in Seven Years War – disaster for France • Lost Canada in French – Indian War (happens at the same time) • Lost India & Islands in Seven Years War § Crushing debts • Louis XVI o Personality: Pious & Honest o Hobbies: Locks & Clocks – very intelligent o Boring, prefers to be alone o Marries Marie Antoinette from Austria – she’s hated b/c reminds France of Seven Years War § “Marital troubles” – don’t have sex o American Revolution § France helps us § Battle of Saratoga – Americans defeat GB army § French aid to Americans – Marquis de Lafayette § France goes further into debt o Louis XVI calls Estates General § Have not met since 1614 (Louis XIII à Richelieu) § Feudal but a form a Democracy § 3 “Estates” • Clergy – Church – 10% of land • Nobility – 20% of land • Anyone Else – 97% of population § Estates General – May 1789 • Famine through Winter • “Double the Third” (King granted) – double representation • Meeting held at Versailles o High hopes, Enlightenment (education ) o Opening ceremonies at Versailles rd o King told Estates to Separate – 3 Estate refused § Leaders emerge: Lafayette § 3 Estate – declare they are the “National Assembly” • Elected by 97% of the people, write a constitution • Tennis Court Oath – meet in indoor tenn is court o Swear Oath: 3 Estate will not disband o France must have a constitution o Louis XVI gets tough & calls troops o Paris Explodes – mobs attack the Bastille (a prison) seeking gunpowder § Results of “Bastille Day” • Paris has saved the Revolution • Create National Guard – middle class men under Lafayette • 1000s of Nobles leave – Emigration • Several murders of Nobles – “Heads on Pikes” o Work on 1 Constitution – takes 2 years, terrible constitution § Left vs Right (wild/radical vs Conservative) o Influence of Paris Masses § City Laborers: dress like them to get along w/ them • San Culottes “without knee-britches” o Oct 5, 1789 § Women attack bakeries in Paris – march to Versailles, want to kill Marie Antoinette (glutton) § Lafayette & National Guard try to protect Marie § Women bring King & family back to Paris – prisoners in their own home o Debt Solution § Nationalize Church lands § Create paper money - “Assignats” = worth piece of church land § People who get paper $ are w/ the Revolution • If Revolution fails – church takes land back o Constitution of 1791 § Monarchy under Bourbons § 1 house = Unicameral § Optimism – symbolism § King must ratify – not cooperating – Hope for collapse o Easter 1791 – King leaves palace to go to church – attacked o Escape from Paris § Planned by: Axel Ferson – Swedish Ambassador § Carriage to Belgian Border § Flight to Varennes • Caught – almost to border, brought back to Paris o War Fever § Declare war of HRE § King is treasonous – wanted war to collapse his own army § Lasts until 1815 (23 years) § France gets dictator - Napolean
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