Biology 102 Exam 1 Study Guide
Biology 102 Exam 1 Study Guide BY 102
Jacksonville State University
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This 5 page Study Guide was uploaded by Kimberly Burke on Friday January 22, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to BY 102 at Jacksonville State University taught by Dr. Cline in Spring 2015. Since its upload, it has received 20 views. For similar materials see Introductory Biology II in Biology at Jacksonville State University.
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Date Created: 01/22/16
Exam 1 Chapter 1 • Biology – scientific study of life; lays foundation for asking questions about life & natural world • Atoms – make up all living things • Molecules that make up life – Nucleic Acids(in DNA), Proteins(build structure), Carbohydrates(energy), Lipids(fats) • DNA – signature molecule of life, molecule of inheritance, directs amino acids to make proteins o Inheritance – explains how we look the way we look; traits passed through DNA o Development – instructions from DNA • Energy – capacity to do work; nothing lives w/o energy o Metabolism – suite of chemical reactions by which cells acquire & use energy • Levels of Organization – cell, tissue, organ, organ system, multicelled organism, population, community, ecosystem, biosphere • All organisms – composed of same substances, engage in metabolism, respond to environment, can reproduce • Scientific names – devised by Carolus Linnaeus (Carl Linn) o Binomial Nomenclature – Latin (dead language, same definitions forever) • 5 Kingdom System: Monera (all bacteria), Protista , Fungi, Plantae, Animalia • 6 kingdoms – classification of living things Protistans Plants Fungi Animals 4 Eukaryotes 6 Archaebacteria (immortal) Eubacteria (mortal) 2 Origin of life • 3 Domains – Eubacteria, Archaebacteria, Eukaryotes • Mutation – source of variation – change in structure of DNA; benign, harmful, lethal • Adaptive trait –– trait that gives individual advantage in survival or reproduction - DNA changes o Ex) frogs w/ different voices attract different females • Acclimation – response to environment - physiological change • Evolution – genetically based change in a line of descent - change in gene frequency over time within a population • Artificial Selection – breeders are selective agents, favored traits become common; turkeys, Dar win’s pigeons • Natural Selection – individuals vary in some heritable trait, differences in survival & reproduction among individuals • Scientific Method – observe, hypothesis, predict, experiment, analyze, results, conclusion • Inductive Logic – using observations & facts to arrive at generalizations or hypotheses, requires experiment & data • Deductive Logic – drawing a specific conclusion based on a generalization; observation, conclusion, experiment • Experiments – used to study a phenomenon under known condit ions; allows you to predict if a hypothesis is right; can never prove a hypothesis 100% correct; you can disprove but you can never 100% prove o Control group – standard for comparison o Sampling error – non representative sample skews results – minimize by using large samples • Hypothesis – idea that has been refined but only a few or no testing • Scientific Theory – hyp that has been tested for its predictive power many times & accepted by scientists o Darwin’s Theory of Evolution • Limits of Science o Scientific approach cannot provide answers to subjective questions o Cannot provide moral aesthetic or philosophical standards o Conflict w/ supernatural beliefs: Copernicus & Darwin o External world, not internal conviction, must be the testing ground for scientific belie fs o Factors that affect scientists: society, gender, personal • Classification: Domain, Kingdom, Phylum, Class, Order, Family, Genus, Species Chapter 21 – Prokaryotes & Viruses • Microorganisms – single celled organisms that are too small to be seen w/o microsc ope o Bacteria are smallest living organisms; viruses are smaller but are not alive ; look like coiled ladder § 1000 bacteria can fit on the dot on an “I” § Genetic material of bacteria – single circular strand of DNA • Prokaryotes – Archaebacteria & Eubacteria, arose before Eukaryotes o No membrane bound nucleus or organelles, single circular chromosome, cell wall, prokaryotic fission, metabolic diversity (get energy in unique ways) , small, less complex o Peptidoglycan – in gram+(purple) & gram- (pink) – help determine what organisms are o Biofilm on teeth & creek rocks – bacteria capsules grouping together o Flagellum – beat around to use pili to bring food to bacteria, used for motion • Metabolic Diversity; photo=light, chemo=chemical, troph =eat, auto=carbon from environment, hetero=carbon from living o Photoautotrophs – energy from sunlight, carbon from CO 2 § Aerobic (oxy available, Cyanobacteria), Anaerobic (no oxy available, Green Bacteria) o Photoheterotrophs –energy from sunlight, carbon from recently living organism § Eat dead organisms or waste material, where CO2has already been converted to something else o Chemoautotrophs – energy from some element (usually sulfur), carbon from CO 2 § Grab nitrogen & convert it – important in nitrogen cycle o Chemoheterotrophs – energy from some element/atom, carbon from recently living organism – humans, largest group • Bacterial Genetics o Have single chromosome – circular molecule of DNA o Have plasmids – self replicating circle of DNA w/ few genes; can be passed between cells during sexual reproduction • Prokaryotic Fission • Conjugation – transfer of DNA; ex) transfer of plasmids • Monophyletic – share a common ancestor & derived traits • Polyphyletic – no common ancestor • Prokaryotic Classification – Eubacteria & Archaebacteria o Eubacteria – common bacteria, ancient § Bacilium – rod shaped; coccus – sphere shaped; spirillium – spiral shaped § Have fatty acids in plasma membrane, most have cell wall with peptidoglycan § Classification based largely on metabolism § Domain Eubacteria: Thermotogales, Flavobacteria, Cyanobacteria, purple bacteria, gram+, green n-sulfur § Ancient bacteria – largely thermophiles; Aquifex aeolicus § Related taxa – green non sulfur bacteria; Thermus § Cyanobacteria – ancient species, release2O during photosynthesis • Important in carbon & nitrogen cycles in soil & water • Important in nitrogen fixation o Anabaena – photoautotroph, not single celled, herterocysts (cells that only handle nf) § Protobacteria – most diverse, monophyletic group; Rhizobium, Agrobacterium tumefaciens (plant tumors) • All gram-, anaerobic photosynthesizers, important in nutrient cycles esp. nitrogen § Chlamydia – intracellular parasites, can’t make own ATP – take ATP from other organisms § Spirochaetes – free living, parasites, or symbionts (live w/ other organisms) • Pillotina – lives in termite guts to digest wood § Pathogenic Eubacteria – most are Chemoheterotrophs – eat other organisms • E. Coli – bacteria that is part of us - certain strains are deadly (feces) • Clostridium botulinium – food poisoning – caused by puncture wound • Clostridium tetanus – lock jaw, gangrene – caused by puncture wound • Borrelia burgdorferi – Lyme disease – caused by tick bite • Rickettsia rickettsii – spotted fever – caused by tick bite o Archaebacteria – Archaea – lives in water coming out of old faithful; found in harsh environments § Methanogens – gut bacteria, extreme environments – produces methane gas, flatulence § Extreme Halophiles – salt lovers; salt marshes, Great Salt Lake, deserts • No fish live in Great Salt Lake – nothing sinks b/c salt concentration changes buoyancy § Bacterial Behavior – move toward nutrient rich regions • Aerobes move toward oxygen; anaerobes avoid it; photosynthetic types move toward light • Magnetotactic bacteria sw im downward; Mycobacteria move together • Eukaryota – Eukaryotes – everything else; single or multi cell, larger, more complex § Membrane bound nucleus & organelles, proteins associated w/ DNA § Have microtubules in cytoskeleton, spindle fibers, & flagella o Gram+ - non monophyletic – no common ancestor; still being sorted § Lactobacillus – used in yogurt & milk § Clostridium & Bacillus – common in soil • Form endospores – resist harsh environments & antibiotics • Survive aerobic & anaerobic (prefer) – facilitative anaerobes • Duplicate DNA & send it to 1 end of cell, breaks off into spore • Virus – noncellular infectious agent – not living – protein wrapped around nucleus core o Cannot reproduce itself, only through a host cell o Viral body plans – genetic material is DNA & RNA, coat is protein § Helical, Polyhedral, Complex (bacteriophage) o Enveloped virus - HIV Chapter 22 – Protistans • Protistans – polyphyletic, have a nucleus & membrane bound organelles , have proteins associated with DNA o Use microtubules in a cytoskeleton, spindle apparatus, & cilia & flagella (9 tube arrangement; 9 sets + 2 more = flagella) o May contain chloroplasts ; may divide my mitosis & meiosis • Difficult to classify - historically a catch all kingdom, differ enormousl y from 1 to another in morphology & life styles • Flagellated Protozoans – have 1+ flagella, heterotrophs o Euglenoids, Kinetoplasids, Parabasilids, Diplomonads o Euglenoids – evolutionary puzzle, monophyletic § Some heterotrophs (eat other organisms), most have c hloroplasts, have flagella § Related to flagellated protozoans; acquired chloroplast by endosymbiosis (living inside another organism) § Body plan – eyespot (identify light & dark), pellicle (gets food), storage carbohydrate o Trypanosomes (Kinetoplasids) § Trypanosoma brucei – African sleeping sickness – Trypanosomes attack RBC § T. Cruzi – Chagas Disease – swelling – Trypanosomes block lymph nodes o Trichomonads (Parabasilids) § Trichomonas vaginalis – Trichmonasis (STD) o Giardia (Diplomonad) – interval parasite inside humans, survive outside body as cysts § Ingested cysts release trophozoites that attach to intestinal lining § Giardiasis – Bever Fever, Camper/Hiker Fever • Amoeboid Protozoans (Sarcodina) – outer shell called a test o Move by cytoplasmic streaming & pseudopods o Rhizopods – naked amoebas & Foraminiferans § Naked Amoebas – change shape constantly, symbionts in animal guts, opportunistic pathogens • Most are free-living cells that engulf their prey § Foraminiferans – calcium carbonate shell o Actinopods – Heliozoans & Radiolarians – shell of silica • Alveolates – have tiny membrane sacs (alreoli) underneath their outer membrane o Ciliates (paramecium) – heterotrophs, diverse life styles, cilia for movement & eating § Ciliate conjugation – sexual reproduction - Most ciliates have 2 nuclei (macro & micro) • Partners exchange micronuclei in sexual reproduction o Sporozoans – parasitic, disease causing § Complete part of life cycle inside host organism; elaborate life cycles that require diff hosts o Cryptosporidium – motile infective stage (sporozite) invades intestinal epithelium § Cramps, diarrhea, transmitted by water contaminated w/ cysts; ex) water in Mexico o Toxoplasma – cysts ingested w/ raw or undercooked meet, exposure to cysts in cat feces (dangerous to pregnancy) § Symptoms – mild in people w/ normal immune function o Malaria – most prevalent in subtropical parts of Africa; kills a million people each year § Anopheles mosquitoes transmit, Caused by 4 species of plasmodium ; attack & reproduce in red blood cells o Dinoflagellates – most are photosynthetic cells; important component of phytoplankton (plants that float); 2 flagella § Algal Bloom – population explosion of dinoflagellates; use up nutrients, die, take all oxy, kill other organisms, new nutrients appear § Pfiesteria pisicida (MEN) – population explosions due to water pollution; large fish • Complicated life cycle, several stages before maturity • Red tide blooms – Gymnodinium • Stramenopiles – 1 of their 2 flagella has thin filaments; cells have 4 outer membranes o Oomycotes – large egg cell forms inside oogonium; Saprobic (eat dead organisms) decomposers, parasites, pathogens § Water molds, downy mildews, white rusts § Phytophthora – plant pathogens • Phytophtora infestans (late blight of potatoes), Phytophtora ramorum (sudden oak dea th) o Chrysophytes (Chrsophyta) – free living photosynthetic cells; contains chlorophyll a, c , & c 1 2 § 4 groups: Golden Algae, Yellow Green Algae, Diatoms, Coccolithophores • Diatoms – major component of phytoplankton, silica shell of 2 overlapping parts o Sediments rich in diatom remains quarried for many uses ( diatomaceous earth) • Coccolithophores – major component of phytoplankton, calcium carbonate shell o Remain in chalk & limestone deposits o Brown Algae (Phaeophyta) –found in temperate seas; contains to chlorophyll a & c, & fucoxanthin § Range in size from tiny filaments to giant kelp ; Fucus “Rockweed”, Kelp • Green Algae (Chlorophyta) – resemble plants; contains chlorophyll a & b; cell walls of cellulose, pectin (carbs that act as glue) o Ulva “sea lettuce”, Scenedesmus, Chlamydomonas o Share w/ plants the ability to store energy in starch grains in chlorophyll • Chlamydomonas – 2 flagella, cup shaped chloroplast, central vacuole, eyespot; 2 types: + & - o Diploid sexual or haploid asexual reproduction based on cl imate o Alternation of generation – part of the life cycle is haploid & the other part is diploid o Chlamydomonas nivalis – red snow algae • Red Algae (Rhodophyta) – most abundant in tropical seas; can grow at great depths o Phycobolins – special molecule that catches shortest wavelengths of light, traps the electrons, gives the electrons to chlorophyll to keep the green color – makes photosynthesis possible a great depths o Complex life cycles – may include very different forms • Slime Molds o Cellular Slime Mold (Acr asiomycota) – moist environments (under logs, leaves, rocks) § Aggregate – slime molds fuse together into giant glob w/ whole bunch of nuclei § Amoeboid cells aggregate to form migrating mass, fruiting body § Glob either choose migrating slug stage or culminate into spore o Plasmodial Slime Molds (Myxomycota) – cell walls break down during aggregation § Plamodium migrates, then differentiates to form spore bearing structures § Some of disease causing, break down plant material, important in nutrient cycles Chapter 24 – Fungi • Most fungi are vital decomposers & plant symbionts – only few are pathogens or dangerous to humans • Fungi as Decomposers – break down organic compounds in their surroundings; carry out extracellular digestion & absorption o Plants benefit b/c some carbon & nutrients are released; some specialize in breaking down cellulose or dead plants o Release enzymes into environment to break down dead or dying plant material – recycling • Fungi play a variety of roles – pathogens, spoil food, antibiotics, cheese (b lue cheese) • Fungal Classification – 3 major lineages: Zygomycota, Ascomycota (sac fungi), & Basidiomycota (club fungi) o Imperfect fungi – those not classified yet o Club Fungi – mushrooms, shelf fungi (on tree trunks), coral fungi (resembles coral heads), sti nkhorns, puffballs § Death Angel – Amanita sp – poisonous mushrooms; Italian family – made rich by killing people w/ DA • Fungi are Heterotrophs - Cannot carry out photosynthesis , must acquire organic materials from environment o Most are saprobes – get nutrients from nonliving organic matter o Some are parasites – extract nutrients from living host – Athlete’s Foot • Mycelium – multicellular feeding structure that consists of hyphae (branching tubular cells) o Below ground, net of little fibers that look lik e roots, spread out in environment, tips(hyphae) eat things in environment o Cell walls contain chitin (like shell of crayfish), relates Fungi closer to animals o Hyphae grow through organic substance eating their way through, find another hyphae, & promycelium • Extracellular Digestion o Mycelium grows into food source ; tips of hyphae secrete digestive enzymes o Enzymes break down organic material into simple forms that can be absorbed into hyphae o Block of cheese w/ a little mold – hyphae & mycelium still all the way through • Fungal Life Cycle o No motile (movement) stage o Asexual & sexual spores produced, spores germinate after dispersal o In multicelled species, spores give rise to new Mycelium o + & - combine, cytoplasm fuses, 2 nuclei in same cell, fungus grows, g ills form, zygote & meiosis, spores dispersed • Club Fungus Life Cycle o Hyphal cells of 2 mating strains meet (haploid 1n); Generate from spores, grow, & feed § + & - chemically detect & touch; Cell wall & cell membrane break down o Cytoplasm fuses to form dikaryotic (2 nuclei in same cell) mycelium § Dikaryotic mycelium go on feeding frenzy & eat its way through food source § Find right combo of moisture, nutrients, etc o Reproductive structure (basidiocorp) forms; Mushrooms we eat = reproductive structure o Spore bearing structures form on basidiocorp; gills – leaf life, below the mushroom cap o Nuclei fuse to produce zygote o Zygote undergoes meiosis to produce haploid spores – spores dispersed around environment o Spores give rise to haploid mycelia • Fungal Spores – made up of 1+ cells, resist dehydration, produce sexually or asexually o Remain dormant until environmental conditions favor germination o Fungal classification is based of type of sexual spores o Archaeologists that opened pharaohs tomb – attacked by fungal spores that sat for 1000s of yrs • Types of Sexual Spores o Club fungi make basidiospores on the surface of basidium (club shaped spores) o Sac fungi make ascospores inside ascus (parent cell) o Zygomycete hyphae fuse to produce thick walled zygospore (ex. Rhizopus) • Zygomycete Life Cycle of Rhizopus stolinifer o Can reproduce sexually or asexually § Sexually – hyphae of mating strains meet & form gametangia • Gametangia tips fuse & form Zygosporangium • Nuclei inside Zygosporangium fuse to produce diploid zygote • Zygote may remain dormant • Meiosis of zygote nuceli produces haploid spores o Duplicate chromosomes, cell division twice, finish meiosis, 4 spores (daughter cells) w/ single set of chromosomes • Sac Fungi (Ascomycota) – most diverse group o Produce asexual spores – conidia o Produce sexual ascospores in asci (sac shaped cells) o Scarlet Cup Fungus (Sarcoscyha coccina) § Cup under water, water splashes back out § Small drop of water hits asci & pop ascospores out ; some spores grow into new fungus o Birds nest fungus, morels (gourmet fungi), yeasts (Thrush, Bakers Yeast) • Imperfect Fungi – species that have not been classified, have never produced sexual spores, most reproduce asexually o Predatory fungi (Arthrobtrys dactyloides) – captures prey in nooselike hyphae • Lichen – combo of fungus & photosynthetic organism(s); symbionts (living together) o Fungus (mycobiont) – usually ascomycete; photosynthetic (photobiont) – cyanobacteria or green algae o Fungus composes bulk of structure o Relationship is mutualism – both individuals benefit st o Beatrix Potter- author of Peter Rabbit – 1 to recognize lichens as combos o Ecological Roles of Lichens – survive in hostile environments & colonize new habitats § Absorb mineral ions from subst rates § Cyanobacteria - containing Lichens can fix nitrogen & convert atmospheric nitrogen to a form plants use o Early Warning Systems – very sensitive to deteriorating environmental conditions § Absorb toxins but cannot get rid of them o Mycorrhiza (Mycor -fungus, Rhiza-root) - mutualism between fungus & tree root § Fungus gets suagrs from plant; plant gets minerals from fungus § Many plants do not grow well w/o Mycorrhizae § Ectomycorrhizae – ecto=outside • Hyphae form net around roots – like hair net; common in temperate forests § Endomycorrhizae – endo = inside; fungus penetrates cell • Fungus enters root cells; from in 80% of vascular plants • Zygomycetes are fungal partners • Plant Pathogens o Pathogens – Chesnut blight, Dutch elm disease, Apple scab; Ascomycetes are respo nsible o Basiomycetes – cause smuts & rust of cereal grains • Human Pathogens & toxins o Ascomycetes cause § Histoplasmosis, Valley Fever, Candida (yeast) infections, ring worm, Athlete’s Foot § Claviceps purpurea – ascomycete that parasitizes cereal grains • Produces alkaloids – some used medically, ingestion causes ergotism (hallucinations,vomit,diarrhea) • Related to Salem Witch Trial & took out Napolean’s Army o Basiomycetes – do not eat
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