Biology 102 Exam 3 Study Guide
Biology 102 Exam 3 Study Guide BY 102
Jacksonville State University
Popular in Introductory Biology II
Popular in Biology
This 10 page Study Guide was uploaded by Kimberly Burke on Friday January 22, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to BY 102 at Jacksonville State University taught by Dr. Cline in Spring 2015. Since its upload, it has received 14 views. For similar materials see Introductory Biology II in Biology at Jacksonville State University.
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Date Created: 01/22/16
Exam 3 – Kingdom Animalia • Classification: Symmetry (None/Radial/Bilateral) à Body Cavity (None/False/True) à Blastopore (Mouth/Anus) • 3 Embryonic Cell Layers o Ectoderm – cells & tissues on outer body o Mesoderm – tissue that fills in between other 2 layers o Endoderm – center of body • Body Cavities o Acoelomates – no body cavity – Platyhelminthes (flatworms) – solid chunk of tissue, limits their size, takes longer for diffusion, takes longer for waste product to get out § Not very big, no real delivery system for gasses, simple digestive system, do not move fast o Pseudocoelomates – body cavity between mesoderm & endoderm - Mostly parasites § Nematodes (round worms) – very good at reproduction, efficient o Coelomates – body cavity w/in mesoderm - all other animals, humans § More efficient, lose less organisms to developmental defects § Category broken down further by blastopore • Protostomes – blastopore becomes mouth • Deuterostomes – blastopore becomes anus o Body cavities give mechanical advantage § Filled w/ fluid or gas – don’t compress easily § Filling gives muscles something to contract against & makes the contraction more efficient o DNA ultimately controls & regulates everything § Different chromosomes for different jobs, build what goes in body cavity • Digestive System o Protostomes – blastopore becomes mouth o Deuterostomes – blastopore becomes anus – echinoderms, hemichordates, chordates • Bodies o Lophotrochozoa – soft bodies – rotifers, worms, snails o Ecdysozoa – hard bodies (exoskeleton) – crabs, barnacles, spiders, insects • Parazoa (Super Phylum)– lack symmetry o Phylum Porifera – Sponges – marine § Spicules – made up of different molecules in different shapes, can tell type of sponge § Osculum – opening/lips, pump out un-needed material • Eumatazoa – have symmetry – everything but sponges o Radial Symmetry – equal halves on several planes – mostly marine & freshwater animals – THINK PIZZA o Bilateral Symmetry – distinct right & left side, only 1 way to get equal halves – more advanced animals § Specialization of body parts – more efficient § Front end detection, back end locomotion o Phylum Cnidaria – all have radial symmetry & stinging cells , largely marine § 3 classes: Anemones, Jellyfishes, Hydrozoans § Have a complex life cycle • Polyp Stage – Sessile (immobile) stage • Medusa Stage – motile stage (dispersal) • May be colonial or solitary • Colonial – can live alone but chooses to live attached to others – share nutrients § Stinging Cells – Cnidocysts – detects prey, water fills cavity, thread coils around prey, brings food in § Asexual – budding in warm weather § Sexual – produces ovaries & testes on the same individual, do not work at the same time, Cannot fertilize self, cold weather § Class Anthozoa – Green Anemone • Emphasize polyp stage • Stun/sting fish, digest parts of fish, spits rest out for other animals o Finding Nemo o Fish living within tentacles – eat “barf,” pee on anemone, algae soaks up nitrogen & gives extra energy to anemone, & anemone gets protection from fish living inside § Coral Basket – have stinging tentacles • Hard Coral – Elkhorn Coral - Brain Coral • Soft Coral – Sea Whips – not rigid – Sea Fan § Class Scyphozoa – Jellyfish – Sea Nettle, Upside Down Jellyfish § Class Hydrozoa – Green Hydra (solitary, freshwater) • Solitary or colonial, feed on invertebrates floating in water column • Reproduce asexually in Summer & sexually in Winter • Freshwater Jellyfish – colonial, local, not true jellyfish • Portuguese Man of War – colonial, tentacles up to 10m, highly toxic o Have ‘float’ that sits above water, mast catches wind to move them o Paralyzing power o Phylum Ctenophora – no stinging cells § Comb Jellies – filter feeders, cilia to move, radial symmetry, bioluminescence (speak through color) o Phylum Rotifera – Rotifers § Tailson – grab onto substrate & hold on § Mouth surrounded by crown of cilia – creates whirlpool to send food into mouth § Move like inchworms, freshwater, filter feeders, radial symmetry § In habitats w/ lousy food – cilia can act like propeller to move them up the water column § Parthonegenic in summer – asexual § Eggs start to reproduce before they’re born; fall/winter eggs come out male or female • Bilateral Symmetry Acoelomates o Specialized = efficient; w/o body cavity – solid mass of tissue o Phylum Platyhelminthes –parasites § Aquatic – marine, freshwater, wet environments § Turbellaria planaria – Dugesia • Head, nervous system, eyespots (active at night), “mouth” on belly, tiny brain (capable of learning) • Have flame cells w/ cilia that move back & forth inside cell, & used to collect nitrogenous waste in the body & dump it out at the stomach • Asexual Reproduction – cut planaria in ½, place in wet environment & will grow back § Cestoda – tapeworms – have tiny brain • Head (scolex), neck, proglottids (reproductive structure), can produce ton of eggs in 1 proglottids • Beef Tapeworm – from uncooked beef • Burrow into intestinal wall to feed on blood § Trematodes – flukes – parasites – live in snails, fish, human livers • Bilateral Symmetry Pseudocoelomates o Body cavity between mesoderm & endosperm in developing embryo o Phylum Nematoda – nematodes (round worms) § Many are parasites – burrow in intestinal wall, dump eggs into host’s digestive system, pooped out § Stick eggs to dog’s butt w/ biological glue, dog swallows them – same w/ toddlers § Aquatic/Marine, scavengers, predators • Bilateral Symmetry Coelomates – Protostomes o Phylum Annelida – segmented worms § Duplication of organs § Hermaphrodites – organisms w/ both male & female reproductive organs • 2 worms fertilize each other § Setae – “bristle” – pointy structure on worm for movement – all segments have them § Oligochaetes – earthworms • Free living, pseudo-aquatic, terrestrial • Charles Darwin – fascinated by earthworm – estimated 1 cube of dirt has thousands of earthworms § Polychaetes – marine worms – detritivores • Some live in long tubes of sounds & expand tail i nto fan that exchanges & grabs food § Hirudinea – leeches – hermaphrodites, parasitic, predators • 1600s/1700s – doctors used leeches to get out “bad blood” • Leech spit = anti-coagulate; used in organ transplants to increase acceptance • Medicinal leech o Attach leech to re-attached body part to re-establish blood flow o Head trauma/swollen eyes shot – leeches suck out blood & reduce swelling o Phylum Mollusca – mollusks - 2ndmost diverse group on the planet § Some carry the shell, some have 2 halves to their shell, so me shells are attached, some dump their shell & hide it (slugs), squid & octopi put shell inside body § Freshwater, marine, terrestrial § Class Gastropoda “stomach feet” ; Snails, abalone, slugs, nudibranchs • Snails – radula (mouth), eat biofilm, agricultural pests • Abalone – marine, carry shell, make buttons from shell • Nudibranchs – marine slugs, eat biofilm off coral & rocks, no shell, brightly colored, will eat tentacle of cnidarians b/c they don’t trigger stinging cells, the stinging cells line their stomach /internal & become active again § Class Bivalvia “2 halves” – upper & lower parts of the shell; Mussels, clams, oyster • Largely marine, estuarine (salt & fresh water), freshwater mussels, filter feeders • Scallops – have eyes that detect light & dark, open & cl ose shell to push water through to move • Oyster – wrap sand up in lining that makes pearl, sand is irritant to soft tissues § Class Cephalopoda – octopi, squid, nautilus – squid & octopi = Eintsteins • Octupi – 8 arms, brilliant – inner shell • Squid – 10 arms, legend (attack whaling ships), communicate by color, tear prey – inner shell • Nautilus – 100s of arms, thought to be extinct until recently – outer shell o Phylum Arthropoda – Arthropods “jointed leg” - Largest phylum of animals on the planet § Broken down by number of legs • Spiders, ticks, & scorpions – 8 legs • Centipedes & millipedes – 100s to 1000s of legs • Crustaceans – 10 legs • Insects – 6 legs § Body Parts • Thorax – locomotion – where legs & wings attach • Abdomen – digestion & reproduction § Chelicerata – no antennae, no jaws, parasites (disease vectors) • Chiggers – juvenile dog tick; American Dog Tick • Scorpion – claws to tear prey, venom in tail • Garden spider § Crustacea (decapods) – crayfish, lobster, shrimp • 3 pairs chewing mouthparts • Crayfish – will burrow in soil & make chimney of mud, must have gills in water § Uniramia – centipedes & millipedes • Air vac trachea • Water discharged via Malphigian tubules – thread like fibers at joint b/w stomach & intestines • Centipedes – 1 pair of legs per segment, predator, shre d prey, have venom • Millipedes – 2 pairs of legs per segment, herbivores § Insects – more kinds of insects than anything else; butterflies, beetles, grasshoppers • Terrestrial, aquatic, arboreal (trees), fossorial (underground), marine, arctic, desert, etc • Body Parts o Head- sensing & control o Thorax – attach wing & legs o Abdomen – digestion & reproduction o Compound Eyes – Facets (omatidia, pointed at diff angles & don’t see adjacently), see ultraviolent (beyond violet) • Complex Life Cycles: egg -> larvae -> pupae -> Adult (has wings) • Bilateral Symmetry Coelomates – Deuterostomes o Phylum Echinodermata “Spiny Skins” – marine; Sea Stars, Brittle Stars, & Sea Cucumbers § Strange – some go back to radial symmetry § Closely related to humans – blastopore becomes anus, bilateral symmetry § Brittle Stars (Ophiuroidea) – quick, arms break off easily § Sea Cucumbers (Holothuroidea) – look like cucumber, throw guts out when detect predators § Sea Stars (Asteroidea) – eat clams, predators, can regenerate from 1 leg § Body of Seas Star & Brit tle Star • Radial Canal – has branches, push water through the canal, branches/bulbs attach to tube feet, help organism move • Central Disk – where organism opens up to water, where mouth opens, opening for gonads § Sea Lilies/Feather Stars (Crinoidea) – burrow tube into sea bottom & stick “feathers” out § Sea Urchins, Sand Dollar, Sea Biscuit = Echinoidea – have central core w/ jaws • Urchins – grazers (like sheep), eat sea grass, produces toxins that cause paralysis o Phylum Chordata § All Chordate at some point in their life cycle have: • Notochord – rod that runs from front of body to back of body, stiffening structure to help move through the water • Dorsal, hollow nerve chord – in the chest • Pharyngeal gill slits – in the neck –Humans have in the first 2 weeks • Segmented post-anal tail – segmented past anus on the organism • Tissue that becomes thyroid gland § Hemichordates – marine, filter feeders, burrow into wooden structures in ocean; ex) Acorn Worms § Cephalochordates – filter feeders, burrow into sand/sediment; ex) Tunicates • Become mature while still have juvenile characteristics § Urochordates – thin & small, marine & estuarine, filter feeders; ex) Lancelets, Amphioxus (genus) § Vertebrates – fish, amphibians, reptiles, mammals • Of the 5 characteristics: replace notochord w/ vertebrae, still have remnants of post -anal tail (tail bone), still have thyroid gland • Super Class Pisces – fishes o Class Agnatha – Jawless Fishes § Parasite - Latch onto other fish, burrow teeth into side, use horny tongue to make hole to drink fluids o Class Chondrichthyes – Cartilaginous Fishes § Spotted Eagle Ray, Manta Ray, Sharks o Class Osteichthyes – Bony Fishes § Bass, Holiday Darter, Queen Angel Fish, Bo Fin Fish • Super Class Tetrapoda “4 feet” o Class Amphibia – Amphibians § No claws on feet, no scales, no shells around eggs, no lungs § Have poison glands in skin, breathe through skin (skin must be wet) o Class Amniota – Amniotes § Have specialized membranes around embryo – amniotic egg w/ 4 membranes § Reptilia - Reptiles & Birds – feathers & scales from same tissue, same pelvis • Non-Avian Reptiles – turtles, lizards & snakes, crocs, alligators o Turtles – oldest, primitive o Crocs & alligators – most related to dinosaurs & birds • Aves – birds or bird like reptiles o Hawks, owls, penguins, ostriches, mocking bird § Mammalia - Mammals • Have fur/hair, produce milk • Monotremes – egg layer; ex) Platypus • Marsupials – Koala Bear , Opossum, Kangaroo o Have live birth – no where near fully developed – leave mother’s womb & crawl to pouch through mother’s hair & attach to nipple in pouch • Placental Mammals- baby develops in mother’s womb o Elephants, Vampire Bats, Manatee Animal Digestion o Macronutrients – required in large quantities § C. HOPKINS CaFé. Mighty Good – Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen, Phosphorius, Potassium, Iodine, Nitrogen, Sulfur, Calcium, Iron, Magnesium o Digestion – process of breaking down complex food into small parts & absorbing the nutrients o Digestive System – series of organs designed to carry out digestion, all digestion is extracellular (outside cell) § Digestive process is mechanical – breaks down so we can absorb nutrients into tissues (chemical) § Types of Digestive Systems: • Incomplete – 1 opening, central cavity (different names for different organisms) o Cavities: Spongocoel (sponges), Gastrovascular cavity (snida rians) • Complete – 2 openings, # & size of organs vary o Usually includes: Mouth, esophagus, stomach, intestines, anus § Parasites – simple/ small digestive system o Mouth § Teeth – mechanically prepare food • Incisors – tear flesh from prey • Canines – stab food • Pre molars – slice food • Molars – grind food • Dental Formula - # of each type of tooth on upper & lower jaw § Saliva – water & amylase (breaks down carbohydrates/sugars) • Enzymatic portion helps digest simple sugars § Tongue – manipulates food, chemical taste, gate keeper/warns of something bad § 2 Parts: • Oral Cavity – strictly digestion – hard & soft palate • Pharynx – back of mouth shared digestive & respiratory o Esophagus – connects mouth to stomach, muscular tube § Peristalsis - waves of contractions move food along § Cardiac sphinctor – muscle outside the stomach to the heart – controls movement of food E à S & Sà E o Stomach – mechanical grinding § Chemical Degradation – HCl (Hydrochloric Acid), Pepsinoge n (enzyme, breaks down proteins) • HCl dumped from cells of stomach i nto body cavity, cause shape change in food by changing Ph • Mucus lines stomach & HCl cannot break down mucus o Stress & bacterial infections break down lining & cause ulcers • Certain foods produce higher levels of HCl & causes HCl to move to esophagus Heart Burn • Molecules from food open up & pepsinogen goes in & breaks them down • Acid helps break down proteins § Pyloric Sphinctor – controls movement between stomach & small intestines o Small Intestines – digestion & absorption, Chyme (mix of food & partially digested food, highly acidic) § 3 Parts: • Duodenum – digestion & little absorption • Jejunum – little digestion, lot absorption • Ileum – all absorption o Liver – detoxification, convert food to store, convert food to mobilize, urea synthesis, iron metabolism & b ile § Food stored as glycogen (short term, energy, sent to muscles that need glucose) & fat (long term, can be converted to glycogen) § Urea synthesis – body produces ammonia (bad) that gets in blood. Blood goes through liver – converts ammonia to urea. Blood goes to kidney & is sent out through urine § Iron Metabolism – liver breaks down RBC, gets rid of trash & keeps good stuff (iron), iron is released from liver to make new RBC § Bile – stores in gall bladder o Gall Bladder – stores bile § Bile is high Ph = Alkalin e – neutralizes chime § Bile is emulsyfier = breaks down fat into smaller particles, makes it easier to digest § Bile dumped into duodenum & stomach dumps chime (highly acidic) = neutralized o Pancreas – between stomach & small intestines § 2 portions: • Portion 1 – all in duodenum o Pancreatic lipase – breaks down fats o Pancreatic amylase – breaks down carbs o Trypsin – breaks down proteins o Chymotrypsin – breaks down proteins • Portion 2 – Endocrine Portion – Islets of Langerhans o Alpha Cells – make glucogon that converts glycogen to glucose § Dumps glucogon into blood, goes through liver & converts it to glucose to give body energy o Beta Cells – make insulin that helps transport, glucose across cell membrane o Large Intestine – ascending colon, transverse colon, descending colon § Absorb water & vitamin K (from gut bacteria) § Rectum – store feces § Valves of Huston & Anal Sphinctor – tight circular muscles that close off & regulate the movement of waste § E. Coli – wants waste product & break s cellulose down to produce vitamin K o Appendix/Cecum – at juncture between small intestine & large intestine § Small in us, large in other organisms § Stores bacteria that can break down cellulose § A blind pouch off the digestive tract, filled with bacteria § Vestigial organ in humans – not used much § Partially digested food into cecum. Filled with bacteria that can break down cellulose § Caecal pellets re-ingested (coprophagy) • Pass through system a 2dtime to get better digestion of cellulose • Come out of Cecum & enter large intestine, go out rectum, out the anus as partially digested food nd • Some organisms eat pellets & pass through cecum a 2 time & comes out completely different o Eat their own pellets o Modifications § Herbivore • Teeth modified for mechanical grindin g • Intestines longer to keep food longer & have more opportunity to break down food • Gall Bladders small - do not eat a lot of fat • Foregut Fermentors – modify the front end of the digestive tract (aka the stomach) o Ruminant Stomach – 4 chambers: rumen, reticulum, omassum, abomasum § Each chamber has unique set of bacteria & pH (acids) • Combo of acids & enzymes breaks down cellulose • Hindgut Fermentors – modify the posterior of the digestive tract (aka Caecum/Cecum/appendix) o Ex) Rabbit o Pass material through stomach & intestines to where small & large meet (cecum), dump food into cecum to let bacteria break it down, dump waste into intestines, animals turn around & eat it & send it through again o Caecal pellets re-ingested (coprophagy) § Pass through system a 2dtime to get better digestion of cellulose § Come out of Cecum & enter large intestine, go out rectum, out the anus as partially digested food § Some organisms eat pellets & pass through cecum a 2dtime & comes out completely different • Eat their own pellets § Carnivore • Modify molars to be like scissors to cut meat into smaller pieces • Shorter Intestines • Gall Bladders larger – meat is fatty Animal Reproduction • Asexual Reproduction o No combination of genes o Vegetative (Fragmentation) – generate new organisms from pieces of organism o Budding – grow new organism off parent organism o Pathogenesis – all female population only producing more females § Some in constant, some seasonal (sexually in fall/winter, asexually in warmer weather) • Sexual Reproduction o Recombination of genes – male & female – potential to be better, to create new genes, to fight disease o Species may be: § Monecious – individual w/ both male & female sex organs = hermaphrodites § Diecious – individuals is either male or female – humans o Males need to place spe rm inside of female § Cephalopods – fire harpoon like spear through females body wall • No external parts, impales females ovary, no openings in body wall § Salamanders – spermatophores • Males attract female, walk off, waves tail in air to discharge sperm & femal e lowers hips to pick up § Intromittant organs – physical structure that places sperm in females body • Claspers – sharks – 2 tiny anal fins & 2 longer fins • Gynopodium – some fishes – extension of males anal fin • Hemipenes – lizards & snakes – sharp “fingers” • Penis – mammals, turtles o Modes of Development § Oviparous – lay egg outside body – lizards, snakes, birds § Ovoviviparous – retain egg inside female’s body, no additional female nourishment • Mom doesn’t assist in development • Could hold egg a few days or almost the whole development time § Viviparous – physical connection between mother & offspring • Mom’s tissue + baby’s tissue = placenta • Exchange of materials across placenta – fetus (ammonia & CO2) & mother (nutrients & oxy) o Amniotic Egg – 4 extra-embryonic cell layers around embryo § Yolk sac – for nutrition, stored energy from mom § Allantois – for waste, where metabolic waste is dumped (especially ammonia) § Amnion – surrounds developing embryo, filled w/ fluid/water, acts as shock absorber § Chorion – regulates water & gasses – dumps CO 2 grabs oxy o Male Reproductive System § Reproductive Organ = testes /testis • Produce sperm via meiosis, produce testosterone (keeps testes functional) § Reproductive Structure = penis § Sperm • Head – stores DNA & chromosomes • Acrosome – top of head, contains enzymes that help open membrane surrounding female’s eggs • Body – cellular, full of mitochondria, break down sugars to produce ATP, ATP moves tail • Tail – for locomotion § Scrotum – sac-like structure, holds testes outside body, regulates temp • Max sperm production is at lower temp than body temp • Cold – pull testes to body; hot – relax to keep from overheating § Corpora Cavoranosa – erectile tissue, blood flows in & out through capillaries • Fills with blood = produces erection § Glans – high innervated, excitory organ, head of penis § Epididymis – where sperm goes to mature § During ejaculation sperm leaves via vas deferens (ductus deferens) § Sperm passes through Seminal Vesicle – adds fructose, energy source, where mitochondria gets energy § Sperm passes through Prostate Gland – secretes alkaline fluid, buffers pH of vagina (highly acidic) § Sperm passes through Bulbourethral Gland – secretes thick viscous fluid (protects sperm) § Semen = combined sperm, fluids, & sugars • Enters urethra, flows through penis, exits trough glans § Cancers of Male Reproductive System • Prostate Cancer - #2 cause of death in men. #1 cancer of repro structures • Testicular Cancer – 5000 new cases yearly, 50% death rate • Both painless early on • Mestasize – move to other places – lymph nodes, abdomen, chest, etc § Hormonal Control • Testosterone – generated by testes, steroid hormone o Promotes development of 1 & 2 nddegree sex characters • FSH (Follicle Stimulating Hormone) & LH (Lutenizing Hormone) o Anterior pituitary glands, promote sperm developments o Maintain repro tissue pre & post fertilization o Female Reproductive System § Reproductive Organ = ovary/ovaries • Produce eggs via meiosis; # of eggs produced by female is fixed at birth § Reproductive Structure = vagina § Fimbrae – tiny ‘fingers’ § Infundibulum – opening § Oviducts (Fallopian tubes) – lined w/ cilia – where pregnancy occurs § Uterus – womb – where embryo develops • 2 Parts: o Myometrium – muscular tube, used during birthing o Endometrium – innermost – lines uterus, supports implantation of embryo § Contributes to placenta, egg attaches to endometrium § Cervix – constriction at the end of vagina – between vagina & uterus • Monitored closely at birth – dilates to 10 cm § Vagina – receives penis during intercourse, muscular tube, cont racts to push out baby during birth § Labia Majora & Labia Minora – 2 pair skin folds, entrance to vagina • Reduce problems w/ system, protection § Clitoris – female excitory structure, homologous to glans of penis (made of same tissue) § Hormones: LH, FSH, Progesterone, Estradiol (Estrogen) • FSH & LH – helps gametes mature • Progesterone & Estradiol – cause endometrium to thicken & prepare body for embryo § Menstrual Cycle • Follicular Phase – menstruation slough off endometrium, re -build endometrium • Spike FSH & LH, spike body temp • Ovulation – release mature egg – day 14 • Luteal Phase – release egg & follicle collapses – corpus luteum o Corpus Luteum produces estradiol & progesterone o Target endometrium, promote endometrium development & vascular tissue o If fertilization doesn’t occur § Corpus Luteum lasts approx. 12 days, breaks down § w/o corpus luteum, no estradiol & progesterone, endometrium starts to break down, enter follicular phase o When fertilization occurs § Intercourse = coitus § Orgasm – continued stimulation of glans, clitoris, vagina § Male ejaculation – muscle contractions along epididymis, vas deferens, add sperm, seminal fluids • Ejaculated fluid = sperm + sugars + viscous fluid + alkaline fluid; 150 -350 million sperm § Process: • Sperm enters vagina – sperm (alkaline), vagina (highly acidic) = neutralized • Sperm swim upstream – follow flow of mucous secreted by cervix, some get lose & die • Sperm swim past uterus & up oviducts – some swim up wrong oviduct & die • Cilia in oviducts beat in unison to move egg – create current & some sperm die § Average sperm lasts 36 -72 hours inside female § Not all sperm are equal: • Sperm w/ X chromosome = better at low pH • Sperm w/ Y chromosome = better at high pH § Development/Gestation • Humans – 38 weeks; Elephants – 2 years o Divided into 3 trimesters: 1= 1-3 months, 2nd= 4-6 months, 3 = 7-9 months • Weeks 3-8 = embryonic period – major organ formation • Weeks 9-38 = fetal period – enlargement st • Day 1-2 = 1 cleavage (cell division) w/in 24 hours • Day 4 = ball stage – 16-32 cells in a ball • Day 5 = Blastula stage (hollow ball) – embryonic tissues start to differentiate, start to develop digestive system • Day 6-7 = implantation of endometrium, 4 extra -embryonic membranes start to form, placenta develops • w/in 2 weeks = corpus luteum coming to end of normal function o Embryo secretes HCG (Human Chorionic Gonadotropin) – stimulates corpus luteum to continue functioning, target hormone for pregnancy tests o HCG failure = endometrium breaks down, embryo lost (miscarriage) o HCG success = corpus luteum continues hormone production until placenta can take over around week 12 • Day 15 = gastrulation – cell migration & differentiation, reorganize cells, move tissue around o Development of endoderm, mesoderm, & ectoderm • Days 18-23 = organs start to form • Days 24-25 = pharyngeal arches appear – blocks of tissue in neck area o Contributes to face, neck, nasal cavities, larynx, pharynx • Placenta – part mom & part embryo o Supplies Oxygen & nutrients; removes CO &2wastes o At full term the Placenta cover ¼ of uterus • At 4 week – embryo 500x starting size limbs, fingers, & toes are formed • By 8 week – umbilical cord forms, circulatory system forms, head huge -Recognizable as human fetus nd • 2 Trimester o Fetus moves facial muscles, sucking moti ons, moves arms & legs (mom feels) o Lanugo covers body – fine hair, helps regulate body temp • 5 months = hear heart beat w/ stethoscope – hear & see on sonogram • 6 months = eyelids/eyelashes form • 7 months = eyelids open § Survival • 22 weeks (7+ months) = nearly 0 chance • 22-28 weeks = low survival • After 28 weeks = steady increase in probability • 36 weeks = 95% § Problems • Trisomy 21/Down Syndrome – extra #21 chromosome o Symptoms: § Head smaller & abnormally shaped § Decreased muscle tone at birth § Flattened nose § Small ears § Separated sutures in cranium § Upward slanting eyes § Wide, short hands w/ short fingers o Associated Medical Conditions: § Mental Retardation § Heart Disease (including Heart Murmurs) § Eye Problems (i.e. Cataracts) § Gastrointestinal blockages § Hearing problems § Hip dislocation § Sleep apnea § Underactive thyroid (hormones) • Nutrition – poor nutrition, lots of problems including neural tube & brain development problems o Neural tube – spinal & brain development • Infections – 50& chance organ malformations (especially heart & hearing) o Especially German measles (rubella) • Medications – Thalidomide (deformed feet & hands), Streptomycin (ear problems) • Alcohol – Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) o Reduced brain size, mental impairment, small head, facial deformities, slow growth, poor coordination, heart defects o 1 in 750 births affected, no ‘safe’ drinking level • Cocaine – severe nervous system deformities • Tobacco – smaller birth weight, heart abnormalities, mental effects (lower reading scores) o From both primary & secondary smoke Review: • Ultimately control comes from DNA – controls & regulates everything, where information is stored • Division of labor – different chromosomes for different jobs during development o All the control/instructions comes from a single chunk of DNA o Build the stuff that goes in body cavities • Body cavities – mechanical advantage – filled w/ fluid (don’t compress easily) or gas (don’t compress much) o Filling gives muscles something to contract again & makes the muscle contraction more efficient o Acoelomates – not very big, no real delivery system for gasses, simple digestive system, don’t move fast o Pseudocoelomates – mostly parasites § Nematodes – very good at reproduction, efficient o Coelomates – more efficient, lose less organisms to developmental defects § Broken down by blastopores • Protostomes – blastopore becomes mouth o Mollusks – some carry their shell, some have 2 halves to their shell, some shells are attached, some dump the shell & hide it (slugs), Squid & Octopi put shell inside body § Freshwater, marine, terrestrial § Intelligent – Einsteins = squid & octopi o Arthropods “jointed leg” § Legs more flexible - adds to efficiency, use the back & front for different things • Have the opportunity to do so much more , lots of problem solving options § Most diverse phylum – ton of insects • Deuterostomes – blastopore becomes anus o Echinoderms § Strange – gone back to radial symmetry § Sea Stars, Brittle Stars, Sea Biscuits, Sand Dollars, Feather Stars § Largely marine organisms, few freshwater § Closely related to humans in that that are deuterostomes w/ bilateral symmetry o Chordates § Hemichordates, Cephalochordates, Urochordates, Vertebrates § All have the 5 characteristics at some point in life cycle § Cephalochordates – become sexually mature while they still have ju venile characteristics § Vertebrates • Of 5 characteristics: Replace notochord w/ vertebrae; Still have remnants of post-anal tail = tail bone; Still have thyroid gland • Digestion – breaking food into smaller components mechanically or chemically & absorbing the rest o What organs are involved in breaking down o Herbivores – modify front end (foregut fermenters) § Change up stomach – different acid or bacteria in each stomach chamber § Ruminant Stomach – 4 chambers: rumen, reticulum, omassum, abomasum o Hindgut fermenters § Appendix/cecum nd § Dump food out, eat it again to pass it through digestive systetime2 • Reproduction o # Sperm in ejaculation o Alkaline in sperm neutralizes acid in vagina o Pregnancy occurs in oviducts o Implantation o Corpus luteum o Role of embryo in development o Estrogen & progesterone o Information in Menstrual Cycle graph is useful - not labeled, used to find info on test? o Myometrium – muscle component, birthing o Endometrium – big deal, implant embryo, developing tissue to make placenta *If he throws organisms out, know they are similar in some way (1 -2 Odd Man Out) *Won’t do extreme taxonomic questions *Old Tests – same questions, maybe changed fill in to multiple choice – high points; viruses, prokaryote & eukaryotes *Short Answer – new material only, very few
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