American Lit 1 - Exam 1 Study Guide
American Lit 1 - Exam 1 Study Guide EH 201
Jacksonville State University
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This 7 page Study Guide was uploaded by Kimberly Burke on Friday January 22, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to EH 201 at Jacksonville State University taught by Mr. Bennett in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 52 views. For similar materials see American Literature I in Foreign Language at Jacksonville State University.
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Date Created: 01/22/16
American Lit 1 – Test 1 Literature of the 1700’s o Diego Colon – Native Indian, Taino tribe Given name by Christopher Columbus –took Diego to England o Natives adopt English tools, clothing, & politics Influenced by Church & state Church – wants to convert & civilize State – economic gain o America will be re-shaped – starting in the West Indies Workers from Africa introduced Europeans are superior – have tools & technology Native populations are decimated by disease Colonies are changing More diverse than Europe: o More languages & religions o Rule – councils, kings, men, women o Literature – mostly no written language Oral tradition – before written languages stories passed verbally o Europeans/explorers battled with natives, colonists, & their people Colonists fight among themselves “Now in Jamestown . . . prisoners for England.” – p.92 o Richard Hakylut – edited a book called Principal Navigations Book of letters & reports from explorers Popularized the idea of going to the New World o Why people wrote in the early days To influence policy – report what they saw & encountered to send to Europe To justify actions that stolate policy Literature of witness – 1 person accounts of what was going on o Europe’s viewpoint of colonization: bringing civilization to this country, superior, take what they want John Smith – “The General History of Virginia” o Proud, boastful man – hated by fellow colonists – Jamestown o Wrote several years after going back to England – witnesses dead o Uses force to get what he wants “Being six or seven in company . . . redeem their Okee.” – p.85 “but when his barge . . . they took him prisoner.” – p.86-87 “two great stones . . . save him from death” – p.90 o Good: he saved the colony, map maker (drew 1 maps of area), discovered the Hudson River o 1 book he wrote – A True Relation o Preserved colonists from laziness – don’t work = don’t eat o Claims to fight 200 Indians alone o Indian Princess who saved him – Pocahontas William Bradford – “Of Plymouth Plantation” o Age 12 – heard sermons from Nonconformist pastor (Clyfton) o Church of England – started by King Henry VIII – Episcopal Church People who didn’t want to conform = nonconformists Met in secret house – Bradford joined Separatists/pilgrims & Puritans o Puritans – make religion what they think it should be – change Church of England Believe in personal connection with God English Protestants – simplify religion o Separatists – extreme Puritans – oppose & separate from the Church of England Saints – nonconformists; strangers – other people o John Calvin – Calvinism Nonconformists & Pilgrims used his ideas - TULIP Total depravity – everyone is a sinner Unconditional election – predestination – elect go to heaven Limited atonement – Jesus died for the elect Irresistible Grace – saved whether you want to or not Perseverance of the saints – once saved, saved for good o Scrooby Community – Clyfton’s Church Had to leave country, moved to Holland/Netherlands Bradford learned to be a weaver Eventually had to leave Holland for America “But that which was more lamentable . . . be corrupted.” – p.125 o ½ left, ½ stayed, why they went to America Ended up in Plymouth, Massachusetts o Bradford became governor – head of community o Natives are after them “But here . . . full of arrows than otherwise.” -p.133 No one to help them, Bible says Paul was helped when shipwrecked, stick to beliefs “Of Plymouth Plantation” – record of time in America Believed they were fulfilling God’s plan o Typology – comparison of old & current (Bible vs. now) Type = Israelites; Antitype = Pilgrim; both God’s chosen people “In the sundry of these storms . . . they drew near the coast.” – p.132 God’s grace saved man, God protects his people “There was a proud & profane young man . . . hand of God upon him.” -p.131 Tormenting pilgrims, God protected the pilgrims o Mayflower Compact – obey laws of England & vote on other issues “In the name of God . . . of the ends aforesaid” – p.138-139 Make equal & just laws based on their needs Written on board ship by separatists – adult men signed (41/101 people) Thomas Morton – called “Lord of Misrule” o Not liked by Pilgrims – he traded with Indians for furs to make money; Shipped back to England Anne Bradstreet – America’s 1st poet st o Out of the Puritan age – wrote to express herself – 1 woman writer o Father worked for a Puritan nobleman – Anne got an education b/c of this o Pilgrims vs Puritans Both nonconformists Puritans – largest group, think they can change people Pilgrim – separatists o Jamestown not Christian Puritans land at Plymouth Puritans settle Boston o Anne comes over with Puritans – settles in Boston – wife & mother o Married Simon Bradstreet – nobleman, important in community Writes personal poetry, common everyday things Puritans are supposed to write spiritual poetry Bro in law thinks her poetry is good – takes it to England o Published: The Tenth Muse Lately Sprung in America o Muse – mythological creature in ancient Greece o Anne is upset – thinks her poetry is bad o P.225 “The Author to Her Book” Metaphor – compares book to child Wrote poem to describe her feelings about books Edits poems & republishes in Boston o She proves Puritan woman can have knowledge, charm, & maintain her wifely duties – writes about husband, children, family, faith, nature Claims she is praising God through admiring nature P.226 “To My Dear & Loving Husband” Relationship with husband Simple rhyme scheme – couplets (2 lines that rhyme) Incorporates religion P.215-222 “Contemplations” She contemplates life, world, God More spiritual poem Talks about being in the New World Broken into stanzas Praises God for beauty of nature Mary Rowlandson – “A Narrative of the Captivity” - 1st American woman writer of prose o Married John Rowlandson (preacher) – 4 kids, 3 survive o Indian raid on Lancaster – part of King Philip’s War (war over land) King Philip – also called Metacomet (chief) Mary’s husband was in Boston o Genre – Captivity Narrative (testimony, historical document, memoir) Popular in her day – specifically European women captured by natives Could be considered travel literature b/c the Natives are nomadic 1) Women outside normal roles – separated from husband & children Not treated the way women are to be treated Some women become violent to survive 2) Differences between natives & settlers Stereotyped the natives – think they’re all evil “Last of the Mohicans” – influences by Mary Religious Differences o P.257 – she does not try to convert the natives o About God’s goodness & salvation o Held captive for 11 weeks – moved 20 times (removes) “No sooner . . . merciless heathen.” – p.258 – how Mary is captured Held captive apart from her children, sister, brother She sewed to earn favor with the Natives Given a Bible by the Natives – comfort to her Someone paid ransom for her release Mary sees natives as people surviving in difficult environment “I laid down my load . . . broth as I would.” –p.276-277 Natives were occasionally nice to her “ The chief and commonest food . . . God in providing . . . enemies in the wilderness.” – p.283-284 God provides for the Natives b/c he is using them to punish Puritans (scourge) Natives viewed as scourge (way of punishment) Mary can admire God using natives b/c they always got away from English o “I can but admire . . . God . . . hand in all of those things.” –p.283 #3 o “and yet how to admiration . . . did not see . . . die of hunger.” – p.283 #4 “But now . . . scourge & chasten me” “Yet I see . . . gainers thereby.” –p.288 o Punishment directed at her, but God will see her through o Religious Testimony – kind of like preaching (women not allowed to do) “And here . . . suitable scriptures in my distress.” – p.267 Example of her preaching, God seeing her through “knocks colonists on the head” = kills them o Typology – compares Bible to her situation Antitype – herself & Puritans; type – Joseph & brothers Brothers cast Joseph out - sinners “But what shall I say . . . marvelous in our eyes.” – p.283 #1 Comparison, God’s decision to punish them but also offer salvation “Now the heathen . . . He hath as many to destroy them.” – p.284 #5 God waits until people say they have no hope but God steps in & punishes heathens Edward Taylor - poet o Spiritual poetry, wrote to work through ideas he was presenting in a sermon o Father – farmer, owned his own land (unique, only nobles own land) o Puritan - Puritans asked to take oath to Church of England Moved to America b/c he’d rather be exiled than to give up o Went to Harvard College & studied to be a minister o Went to Westfield, Massachusetts to be a church’s minister Also served as a public servant Married twice & had 14 kids (most died as infants) Believed in old church of England Puritan traditions Must stand up to give testimony to be part of the Church – public o Grandson compiled his writings & stored in the basement at Yale o Poetry was very different – used logic & poetic structure to eliminate doubt & encourage himself There is an order to the world – looks through spiritual plane st o Metaphysical Poetry – 1 of the 1 American More Scholarly, fancy way of writing Spiritual conceit Metaphors & figures of speech Analyzes people He wrote “meditations” on his perspective on Bible verses - starting on p.291 Puritan meditation – putting love/emotion in words Uses typology “The Joy of Church Fellowship Rightly Attended” - handout “Saints who were/ Encoached for Heaven” o Saints sang as they ride to heaven “And if a string do slip by Chance,/ They soon Do screw it up again:” o Screw it up = repair it “Block up this Coaches way, do go/ As travelers afoot: and so do trace/ The Road that gives them right thereto;” o some people are walking to heaven b/c only those that belong to church get to ride in the coaches, but all of the elect get to go to heaven “Huswifery” – p.305 Housework/labor in home – poem about weaving Metaphor – God is weaver – compare religious life to weaving “Make me, O Lord, Thy Spinning Wheel complete.” o Make me the raw material you can use “Make me Thy Loom then, knit therein this Twine:” o Weave thread to make cloth “Then clothe therewith mine . . . Then mine apparel shall display before Ye” o Now speaking of a person rather than weaving tools o Take material & clothe me with it Samuel Sewall – “The Diary of Samuel Sewall” o Puritan – not preacher but went to Harvard College (classmate of Taylor) Used education for other careers (Judge, business man, printer) o Married wealthy woman – became part of father in law’s business o Judge at Salem witch trials o Diary/Journal – talks about life, politics, family “I have . . . health & opportunity to offer up Nine Children to God in Baptisme.” – p.310 Family “Went to Salem . . . witchcraft.” “Mrs. Cary makes her escape . . . witchcraft.” – p.311 Witchcraft “ . . . press’d to death for standing Mute . . . but all in vain.” “. . . Dorcas Hoar, who now confesses:” p. 312 – confession sets you free or torture for more information “Copy of the Bill . . . Desires to take the Blame & Shame . . . his Word & Spirit.” – p.313 Only man who went back to admit the trials were wrong & apologized Read in church, Apology Feels he is being punished b/c so many of his children died o Invited to funeral = sent gloves as invite; if attend = receive ring; gave up ring for religious reasons o Known for writing a book called The Selling of Joseph – slavery is wrong “Having been long & much dissatisfied . . . Write this apology . . .” – p.313-314 Conscious gets the best of him b/c he hadn’t wrote anything Wrote an apology – meaning he wrote saying slavery was wrong o Known best for his journal b/c it gives us a glimpse of Puritan mans daily life Neoclassical Age = New Classical Age = The Enlightenment = The Augustine Age = The Age of Reason o Started looking at Greeks & Romans – more Intellectual period of time o Things began to flourish: scientific thought, art o Emphasis on Individual – what they think/feel o Change in Religion – shift back to Theism Theism – Jonathan Edwards Idea that God exists & proof is in the Bible God is involved in our lives - answers prayers Deism – Ben Franklin More intellectual people God revealed to us through nature God is not involved in our lives God compared to clockmakers – stands back & watches it happen People (Kings, Royal Family) believed God divinely appointed them o Common people wanted to think that God did not make them the King o Movement from Religious Scientific is clear in literature Writing is done for the masses o The Great Awakening – period of religious revival Preachers traveled & preached to get people fired up about God William Byrd – “The Secret Diary of William Byrd of Westover” o Church of England – Theist – considered himself Calvinist elect b/c he was wealthy “Some night this month . . . God avert His judgment from this poor country.” – p.392 o Called “The Great American Gentleman” – upper class, lots of money Considers himself Englishman, not American o Called “Cavalier” – implies someone is a follower of the King From the French words Chivalier – man who rides his horse (where Chivalry also derives) Southern Gentleman o Jobs – Surveyor, plantation owner, politician, writer, lawyer, farmer Surveyed land between Virginia & Carolinas o Born in America – family came from England Sent back to England as a child for 25 years to be educated – went to Law School Kept a diary & recounted his social life Came back to America when his father died o Elected to the House of Burgess (representatives) o Known for his home – Westover Best example of colonial architecture – 179,000 acres Donated the property to start Richmond, VA o Considers himself English b/c Educated in England Member of English society while he lived there Met some English authors Continued to correspond with people in England o Had a lot of political & Social Influence o Makes up with his wife by having sex with her o Dealing with his slaves – people or property to him? “My wife and I had a terrible quarrel about whipping Eugene . . . “ – p.394 “My wife caused Prue to be whipped . . . she would be revenged of me.” – p.396 “My people” = his slaves o “Danced my dance” = exercises Jonathan Edwards – “Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God” o Old school about Puritan religion – church control – believes man’s true nature is sinful/bad Wanted it to be practiced in the Old New England way o North Hampton, Massachusetts o Led a series of revivals – preliminary to “The Great Awakening” o What caused the great awakening 1) Decline in religious dedication – decline in Theism 2) Rise in consideration of reason & logic – Deism Skeptical, people more scientific 3) 1 generation of religious leaders have died New generation of leaders 4) Growing spirit of democracy/equality Everybody can experience God in their own way Rise in different ways of worshipping God – increase in sects (religious denominations) o Did not see a conflict in religion vs. science Can’t understand God through science, sense emotionally – it’s a feeling Wants people to be liberated from pre-conceived notions Need brain to understand why you need to be saved- combo of logic & emotion Believed people had to publically repent before they joined the church – very controlling o Went to Yale at 13 – trained for ministry, studied theology o Leading Theist – religious (vs. Franklin – logic) o At 26 – takes over Grandfather’s church Becomes prolific sermon writer Nothing we can do can save us except God’s grace & being the elect – very Calvinist o “Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God” Very angry – preached in a monotone voice, given twice; people endangered of going to hell Natural Man = sinners, close to going to hell Typology – compares to Israelites Thesis: “The observation . . . the mere pleasure of God.” – p.431 God uses his hands to hold us back from hell Comparisons/Analogies – God’s anger “The wrath of God is like great waters that are damned . . . let loose.” – p.435 o God’s anger is like water held back by a dam “The bow of God’s wrath is bent, and arrow made ready . . . drunk with your blood.”-p.435 o God’s anger is like a bow & arrow pointed at your heart “The God that holds you over the pit of hell, much as one holds a spider or some loathsome insect over the fire . . .” – p.436 o God’s anger is like a child hanging an insect over the fire Uses “you” so people feel like he’s talking to them – more personal Make the people feel remorse – preaching fear – wants people to repent & attend church Trying to get people back in church Points out individual people for backsliding Controlling who gets to do anything – won’t let people get baptized or take communion Later fired by his church b/c his plan fails o Dies after receiving experimental smallpox vaccine; Ironic – tries to keep past, killed by the future nd o 2 Great Awakening – 50 years after he dies o Dominant religion changes to utilitarian o 4 changes he contributed 1) Stressed emotional experience of God 2) Weakens the church b/c you do not have to be in church to have emotional experience 3) Helped make religion more democratic – don’t have to be smart to experience God 4) Sects spread – religion available to everyone, not defined by 1 certain church/person People dictate what they want to do – personal between you & God
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