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The process by which criminal offenders come into contact with and are processed through the criminal justice system•Criminal JusticeThe study of offenders and offending•Why is it important to understand the causes of crime?•CriminologyEx. Crime is more likely in the presence of a motivated offender, suitable target and a lack of capable guardianship○Ex. Residential burglary (95% rule in criminology and other social sciences)○A statement regarding the relationship between two variables•TheoryEmphasize moral weakness and evil spirits as the cause of criminality•Based on false logic or assumptions•Ex. Salem Witch Trials (1692-1693)○Not based on scientific evidence•Non-scientific Theories (pre-1700s)Classical School was the first to use systematic methods to explain crime○Crime is a result of free will○Crime is a conscious choice○Emphasizes deterrence as a response○Ex. The death penaltyUsed in founding of laws, early correctional practices○Classical School (beginning in the mid-1700s)•Biological, chemical and genetic causes of crime○Offender often does not have free will○Incapacitation is used as a response○Ex. Long prison sentencesLittle influence on law, heavy influence on correctional theory○Biological Determinism•Schools of Criminological ThoughtCrime is based on a subconscious influence○Offender must be "driven" to commit crime○Treatment is a key response○Insanity defense is the primary influence of the criminal justice system○Psychological Theories•Crime is a result of socioeconomical factors, peers/learned behavior and conflict○External forces key driving force○Changing of situations can be used as a response○Ex. DARE, Boys and Girls Clubs of AmericaGeneral and community-based crime prevention techniques in criminal justice system○Sociological Theories•Crime is not a result of evil spirits○Free will, rational choice○Classical•Ex. Age, mental capacityPresence of "mitigating factors" in crime of factors that reduce criminal culpability ○Emphasize "proportionality" or idea that punishment should fit the crime○Neoclassical•Classical vs Neoclassical TheoriesChapter 2: The Search for UnderstandingFriday, January 15, 20169:40 AMNotes Page 1
Advocated "Pleasure-Pain Principle"•Believed there were no mitigating circumstances when it came to crime•Believed all people were rational•Opposed death penalty○Crime can be prevented through deterrence with swift, certain and severe punishments•Ceasare Beccaria (1738-1794): Father of Classical CriminologyCriminal behavior is matter of free will•Ex. Cut break for young○Believed in mitigating circumstances•Utilitarianism: punishment is for the good and happiness of society•Jeremy Bentham (1748-1832): Founder of neoclassical school of criminologyEx. InsanityCrime is a matter of free will and implications of proving crime was not a result of free will○Classical Criminology•Ex. Separate adult and juvenile punishment○Neoclassical Criminology•Implications of Today's Criminal Justice SystemTake into consideration emerging disciplines of psychology, genetics, sociology, and psychiatry ○Ex. Reliable data and ability to replicate findingsMake use of scientific method○Crime not a matter of free will but matter of external and internal forces can be observed and measured○The Positive School (20th Century)•Biological TheoriesFather of Scientific Criminology•Ex. Observable, primitive characteristics○Viewed criminals as cases of "atavism" or failure of humans to fully develop into modern men and women•Characterized people as "criminal" and "non-criminal"•His theories have since been rejected•In early prisons, criminals were treated as animals•Emphasis on obedience to strict rules•Viewed as impossible to reform "criminal man"•Cesare Lombroso (1835-1909)Friday January 22, 2016Ex. Commonly known as biosocial criminology"Biocriminology" focuses on research into the roles played by genetic and neurophysiological variables in criminal behavior○Normal males have one X and one Y chromosomeExtra Y chromosome has been shown to correlate with violent male behavior"XYY Chromosome Theory of Violent Behavior"○Modern Approach•Overall, biological theories have not been incorporated into criminal just practice○Biological Theories and today's criminal justice system•Biological TheoriesAdvanced by Sigmund Freud in the late 1800's○Does not directly address but is still useful in criminal justicePsychoanalytic Theory•Psychological TheoriesNotes Page 2
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School: University of South Carolina
Department: Criminal Justice
Course: Criminal Justice 101
Professor: Corey Burton
Term: Winter 2016
Tags: Criminal Justice, 101, and crju
Name: CRJU 101 Chapter 2 Notes
Description: These are notes covering all of Chapter 2.