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UTA - BIOL 2457 - A&P 2457 Week 1 - Class Notes

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UTA - BIOL 2457 - A&P 2457 Week 1 - Class Notes

School: University of Texas at Arlington
Department: Biology
Course: Human Anatomy and Physiology I
Professor: Timothy Henry
Term: Summer 2015
Tags: anatomy and physiology
Name: A&P 2457 Week 1
Description: These notes are a good review for upcoming exam over Chapter 1.
Uploaded: 01/23/2016
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background image Intro to Anatomy and Physiology (Notes taken from  Laboratory Manual for Anatomy and Physiology , Allen & Harper, 5th edition)   Anatomy—the science of the body structures and the interactions between 
them 
o first studied by  dissection  Physiology—the science of the body functions or how the body parts work Structure reflects function Levels of Organization  o        Chemical Level Atoms—the smallest units of matter Molecules—two or more atoms combined together C (carbon), H (hydrogen), O (oxygen), N (nitrogen), P 
(phosphorus), Ca (calcium), S (sulfur) essential to life 
Examples of molecules include DNA and glucose (blood 
sugar)
o        Cellular Level Cells—fused molecules, the basic structural and functional units
of an organism that are composed of chemicals 
Examples of cells: muscle cells, nerve cells, and epithelial 
cells 
o        Tissue Level Tissues—groups of cells that work with materials around them 
to perform a specific function 
4 types of tissues  o Epithelial—covering of surfaces, lines of hollow  organs and cavities o Connective—connects, protects, supports body  organs while distributing blood vessels to other 
tissues
o Muscular—contracts to move and generate heat for the body o Nervous—carries information from on party of the  body to another part of the body through nerve 
impulses 
o        Organ Level Organs—structures that are made of two or more different 
types of tissues; have specific functions and have recognizable 
shapes
o        System Level      System—related organs with a common function that work 
together to perform a certain task 
 There are 11 body systems for the human body  o        Organism Level     Organism—any living individual, all parts of the human body 
work together, which make an organism
background image        Basic Life Processes  o        Metabolism—sum of all processes that occur in the body     Catabolism—breakdown of complex chemical compounds   The enzyme pepsin breaks down meat (a source of 
protein)
    Anabolism—building of chemical compounds from smaller 
components
 The body takes protein and uses it for other places in the 
body, such as nails, hair, skin
o        Responsiveness—body’s ability to detect and respond to changes      Nerves and muscles  o        Movement—motion of the whole body, single cells, individual organs,  and the structures inside cells  o        Growth—increase in body size that usually results from the increase in  size of cells and/or increase number of cells  o        Differentiation—development of a cell to a specialized state for a  specific function      Stem cells o        Reproduction—maturation of new cell growth, repair or replacement  (mitosis) or production of a new individual (meiosis)        Homeostasis—dynamic condition of equilibrium in the body’s internal  environment due to constant interaction of the body’s regulatory processes  o        Body fluids—homeostasis plays a role in order to maintain the volume  and composition of body fluids (dilute, watery solutions that have 
dissolved chemicals) 
         Intercellular fluid (ICF)—fluid within cells           Extracellular fluid (ECF)—fluid outside of cells           Interstitial fluid—ECF that fills the narrow spaces between cells  of tissues   ECF in blood vessels=blood plasm; lymphatic=lymph; 
brain=cerebrospinal fluid; joints=synovial fluid; 
eyes=aqueous humor and vitreous body 
       Negative Feedback Systems—reverses a change in a controlled condition   o  Example: Blood pressure (BP) increases (stimulus), baroreceptors  (receptors) send nerve impulses (input) to brain (control center), 
which interprets and responds by signaling nerve impulses (output) to
heart and blood vessels (effectors).  Heart rate decreases and blood 
vessels dilate, which causes BP to decrease (response).
o  Examples: sweating when hot, shivering when cold,   Positive Feedback Systems—strengthen/reinforce a change in a controlled 
condition
o  Examples: childbirth and increase in contractions; bleeding more in  order to cause clotting; losing a lot of blood causes BP to decrease and 
oxygen to cells decrease 
 Homeostatic Imbalances o        Disorder—abnormality of function or structure

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School: University of Texas at Arlington
Department: Biology
Course: Human Anatomy and Physiology I
Professor: Timothy Henry
Term: Summer 2015
Tags: anatomy and physiology
Name: A&P 2457 Week 1
Description: These notes are a good review for upcoming exam over Chapter 1.
Uploaded: 01/23/2016
6 Pages 52 Views 41 Unlocks
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  • 24/7 Homework help
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