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CSU - BC 103 - Life 103 Notes 1st Week - Class Notes

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CSU - BC 103 - Life 103 Notes 1st Week - Class Notes

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background image Phylogeny & the Tree of Life geologic record - standard time scale for presence of life on earth over the last 3.5 
billion years
types of classification —Linnaeus: binomial classification
—phylogenies: use of molecular and morphological traits to infer evolutionary 
relationships —domains: reorganization of kingdoms using endosymbiotic theory Linnaeus classification —created “bins” of similar organisms—>taxonomy
—hierarchal system: kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus, species
binomial nomenclature is the scientific two-name system for naming 
organisms (Genus, species) accurate taxonomy should reflect evolutionary relatedness and individuals within a 
bin should contain all the organisms that share a common ancestor
phylogeny - evolutionary history of a group of organisms, represented by branching 
diagram called phylogenic tree
systematics classifies organisms and determines evolutionary relationships nodes on a phylogenic tree point to a common ancestor between organisms homology - phenotypic and genetic similarities due to shared ancestry analogy - similarity due to convergent evolution convergent evolution occurs when similar environmental pressures and natural 
selection produce similar adaptations in organisms from different evolutionary 
lineages
an organism’s evolutionary history is documented in its genome —DNA that codes for rRNA changing slowly over time is an example of a  conserved gene, which is used to explore ancient evolutionary events —mitochondrial DNA evolving rapidly is an example of what is used t explore  recent evolutionary events 3-domain system adopted —bacteria (prokarytes)
—archaea (prokaryotes)
—eukarya (eukaryotes)
endosymbiotic theory  —Lynn Margulis proposed that mitochondria/chloroplasts in eukaryotes came  from symbiotic bacteria —probably led to development of heterotrophic and autotrophic organisms advent of mitochondria led to explosion in diversity —aerobic respiration gives considerable energy advantage  horizontal gene transfer - movement of genes between genomes, has played a key 
role in evolution of prokaryotes and eukaryotes 
causes of horizontal gene transfer —exchange of transposable elements and plastids
—viral infection

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School: Colorado State University
Department: Biology
Course: Biology of Organisms-Animals and Plants
Professor: Jennifer Dewey
Term: Fall 2016
Tags: Biology
Name: Life 103 Notes 1st Week
Description: These are the notes from the first week of Life 103 lectures. These notes only cover one day of lecture, since the other two days were not spent covering material.
Uploaded: 01/23/2016
2 Pages 8 Views 6 Unlocks
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