Soc 151 SOC 151
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This 5 page Study Guide was uploaded by Don Jon on Friday January 22, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to SOC 151 at University of California - Los Angeles taught by Dr. Waldinger in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 119 views. For similar materials see Comparative Immigration in Sociology at University of California - Los Angeles.
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Date Created: 01/22/16
1. What question do FitzGerald and CookMartin seek to explain? They explain how and why policies of overt immigrant selection based on race, ethnicity, and nationality became unpopular and were consequently th dismantled across the region toward the latter half of the 20 century. 2. What is ethnic selection? Negative discrimination against particular groups, such as an outright ban on their entry, lower immigration quotas, or special entry taxes, and positive preferences for particular groups, such as assisted passage, free land, higher immigration quotas, or exemptions from requirements enforced against other groups 3. How might liberalism and racism be related? Racism has been the cultural frame that allowed inferences about people’s morality and capacity for democratic participation from their appearance or cultural practices. o As a temporary anomaly linking two phenomena that are generally incompatible. o As a case of inherently linked ideologies. o As an instance of distinct traditions that happen to coincide in particular contexts. 4. What are the three different dimensions to which they attend? o The temporal dimension o The vertical dimension o The horizontal dimension 5. What is the different between the vertical and the horizontal dimensions of policy making? The vertical dimension of policymaking composed of political struggles within a country: o The pluralist perspective examines how different interest groups struggle to achieve their preferences. o Institutionalism offers a corrective to a reliance on pluralist theories alone by paying attention to how the design of organizations shapes outcomes. Autonomous state interests are particularly relevant in the exercise of foreign policy. Foreign ministries tend to push immigration policies that are attuned to foreign policy objectives, while legislatures are more responsive to domestic demands. The horizontal dimension, composed of struggles between and across countries, over an extended temporal dimension: examines the sources of ethnic preferences, identify factors that reinforced or deviated the paths of immigration policies, identify long term processes of convergence in policy across cases that can then be explained by attention to policy diffusion, and examine how the sequence of policies within a particular country, and across cases, explains why they developed and the prospects for future change. 6. What are the shortcomings of explanations based on class interests? o Racism (based on claims that certain human groups are naturally inferior) o Racialism (which differs from racism in that no claim is made that the groups are hierarchically ordered) o Capitalists are often divided over their ethnic preferences in ways that correspond to an economic logic o Perceptions of who makes a good worker are themselves the product of shifting racial ideologies about the inherent characteristics of particular groups o Business interests in attracting particular groups have often varied depending on whether the immigration is temporary or permanent o Another deficiency in strictly class based accounts of ethnic selection is that they have a difficult time explaining the malleability of classbased preferences over time in the same countries o Business owners follow ideological as well as instrumental economic motivations in selecting employees, and when selecting potential neighbors and fellow citizens, employers have been more likely to follow non economic logics 7. What are the shortcomings of explanations emphasizing racism or discrimination? o Racism is an ideology that individuals can be sorted into hierarchically arranged categories based on their perceived ascriptive characteristics and moral capacities. o “Scientific racism” is a variant of racism arising in the late nineteenth century that attempted to confer academic legitimacy on the idea of a hierarchy of biological groups 8. How and why do international factors influence immigration policymaking? What is the difference between security concerns and “soft power”? And how is that relevant to immigration policymaking? o One of the purposes of immigration and emigration policies is to make a country appear more modern and civilized. Migration policies are dramaturgical acts aimed at national and world audiences. Policies are a way to build a country’s international brand. o Branding is a form of what Joseph Nye calls “soft power,” in which governments seek to expand their prestige through language, images, and symbolically important gestures rather than by deploying the hard power of tanks and aircraft carriers. International prestige is often its own reward for weaker countries, but for a globally interventionist United States, soft power is also a means to achieve greater hard power. o The more states try to increase their soft power abroad, the more they are susceptible to external pressures to change their own policies as a means of gaining legitimacy. 9. When do horizontal conditions matter most? o When policymakers perceived that overt discrimination would carry a high diplomatic price, they created secret policies of restriction or adopted criteria that were ethnically neutral on their face. o emigrants originated from an independent nation state at peace with the country of immigration, and that nation state was either geopolitically powerful or perceived as needed for an alliance against an existential threat o a country of immigration’s foreign policy sought a sustained expansion of diplomatic, military, or commercial power in the region of origin o Multiple countries of emigration worked collectively to protest ethnic discrimination in countries of immigration. o Immigration policy was most affected by foreign policy when governments sought sustained expansion of military, commercial, or diplomatic power in migrant source regions. A qualifier to this pattern is that when bilateral relations turned to open conflict, immigration from enemy countries was cut off. 10. What does Tichenor seek to do in his book? What are the factors which Tichenor highlights? o How to explain the distinctive patterns of immigration control that have prevailed for extended periods of U.S. history o How to account for occasional bursts of major policy change in spite of intense political conflicts that might be expected to produce routine stalemate o How to make sense of the content or direction of immigration policy over time o The capacity of both restrictive and expansive immigration policies to transform the American political landscape. o Consider what immigration policymaking in American political development reveals about how different generations of government officials have interpreted the demands of liberal democracy and political community in the United States. 11. Why, according to Tichenor, do experts exercise influence? o The power of social interests in immigration policy o Social interests o National values or electoral realignments 12. What makes immigration coalitions (“pro” and “anti”) so unstable and so difficult to assemble? The dynamics of U.S. immigration policy have long been influenced by the making and remaking of distinctive political coalitions on this issue that cut across familiar partisan and ideological lines. At least since the late 19th century, this policy domain has divided proimmigration free marketeers and restrictionist cultural exclusionists on the American Right, and proimmigration cosmopolitans and restrictionist economic protectionists on the American Left. As a result, it would be hard to think of an area of U.S. public policy that has engendered more incongruous political alliances in American history. And it is precisely the creation of these unstable yet powerful liberalconservative coalitions over the years has proven crucial to achieving major immigration reform in the United States. Significantly, the relative power of the proimmigration and restrictionist coalitions have shifted over time as new interest groups and political actors have emerged and as older ones have redefined their policy goals. 13. According to Tichenor, what are the sources of stasis in immigration policy making? o Institutional change “punctuated change,” “critical junctures,” “realignments,” “branching points.” o Political fragmentation o The frictions between political structures endowed with incongruous and intersecting logics due to their “nonsimultaneous origins” 14. Tichenor underlines the importance of path dependency as an influence on policy making. What does this concept mean? What examples of path dependency have already been highlighted in the readings and lectures of weeks 3 and 4? o Early conditions and choices send public policy along a distinctive developmental pathway from which it is difficult, though not impossible, to depart in the future. Initial decisions are reinforced over time by engaged agents, interests and institutions that have either invested in or adapted to the track along which policy has traveled. o The steady expansion of European inflows of the end of the 19 th century even after several momentous judicial rulings hastened the naturalization of U.S. immigration policy. At a time of low immigration, plentiful land, and labor scarcity, the nation's early political leaders established easy naturalization for European immigrants while eschewing federal controls over their admission. The rise of massbased parties and universal white male suffrage in the Jacksonian era reinforced broad opportunities for European immigration. The Democratic Party almost from its inception courted immigrant voters by opposing nativist policy goals. Although the Republican Party was sometimes prone to anti immigrant nationalism, it also was attentive to proimmigration constituents and eager to prod national economic development through immigrant labor. Judicial activism of the 1870s ultimately led to limited federal regulation of European admissions, but the vibrant partisan and electoral politics was routinely inhospitable to nativist policy designs throughout the nineteenth century. As a result, national restrictions on European inflows were quite modest for more than a century. 15. Tichenor’s model: o Vertical: institution (structure of American government); coalitions (interest groups); ideas and experts o Horizontal: international crises o Temporal: path dependency (prior events constrain future options) 16. Why do FitzGerald and CookMartin emphasize the vertical over the horizontal dimensions? o The vertical dimension is more consequential in shaping ethnic selection. o In the field of international relations, constructivists point out that the policies of a particular government on the horizontal plane are influenced by the vertical dimension of domestic politics
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