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Exam 2 Study Guide

by: kgrunwaldt

Exam 2 Study Guide BIOL 100 7012 01

Truman State
GPA 3.92

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This study guide covers chapters 4, 5, 10 and labs.
Biology with Lab
B Moore
Study Guide
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This 7 page Study Guide was uploaded by kgrunwaldt on Saturday January 23, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to BIOL 100 7012 01 at Truman State University taught by B Moore in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 17 views. For similar materials see Biology with Lab in Biology at Truman State University.


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Date Created: 01/23/16
Study Guide ­ Biology 100 ­ Moore ­ Exam 2  Exam will cover parts of Chapters 4, 5, 10  + lecture Chapter 4 – A Tour of the Cell (Sections 4.1­4.17, 4.19) Know who contributed to the development of the cell theory Galileo: first to record observations through a microscope Robert Hooke: looked at slices of cork through a microscope and called them “cellulae” Schleiden & Schwann: looked at plant and animal tissues Rudolph Virchow: said all cells come from preexisting cells Know the three basic premises of the cell theory 1. All living things are composed of cells 2. Cells are the basic unit of structure and function for living things 3. All cells come from preexisting cells Know the advantages and disadvantages of the following:  light microscope, transmission electron microscope (TEM), and scanning electron microscope (SEM) Light microscope: can view living cells; low magnification and cells must be transparent TEM: powerful magnification, high­quality; specimens must be dead, black and white  images SEM: provides three­dimensional images; expensive and large Know 3 features common to all living cells 1. Have a plasma (or cell) membrane 2. Have cytoplasm with ribosomes 3. Have DNA Understand the differences between prokaryotic and eukaroytic cells Eukaryotic: distinct nucleus, membrane­bound organelles Prokaryotic: no nucleus, no membrane­bound organelles Know the following structures found in a cell ­ and their functions nucleus: control center of the cell; controls synthesis of organic materials; governs  growth and division lysosomes: membrane­type sacs that clean up the cell cytoplasm: fluid portion within a membrane mitochondria: powerhouse of the cell that carries out respiration  ribosomes: sites of initial protein synthesis plastids  (chloroplasts, chromoplasts, amyloplasts): help carry out photosynthesis;  chloro=green pigments; chromo=orange and yellow pigments; amylo=storage of starch  grains endoplasmic reticulum (rough & smooth): rough ER carries out protein synthesis and  smooth ER carries out lipid synthesis vacuoles: sacs of fluid that store water in plants Golgi complex: packaging and distribution center for proteins and lipids cytoskeleton (microtubules, microfilaments): maintains the shape of the cell;  microtubules are thickest and made of tubulin; microfilaments are thinnest and made of  actin centrioles: play a role in cell division in animals Know which organelles are commonly found in animal cells and those commonly found in plant  cells Animal: cell membrane, nucleus, nuclear membrane, cytoplasm, endoplasmic reticulum,  ribosome, mitochondrion, lysosome Plant: cell wall, vacuole, chloroplast Understand the endosymbiotic theory Theory explaining the origin of eukaryotic cells from prokaryotes, meaning mitochondria  and chloroplasts were once prokaryotes that now live in eukaryotic cells Chapter 5 (Sections 5.10­5.20) ­ Cell Membranes – Structure and Function Understand the structure of the cell membrane ­ both physical and chemical Composed of lipids and proteins; lipid molecules have hydrophilic heads and 2  hydrophobic tails that create a phospholipid bilayer that regulates what gets in and what  gets out Understand why it is important that the cell membrane is selectively permeable Selectively permeable means that it won’t let everything in and helps to maintain  homeostasis at a cellular level Understand diffusion and osmosis Diffusion: passive transport, requires no energy because it moves down a concentration  gradient, is either simple or facilitated Osmosis: a type of facilitated diffusion, the movement of water across a semipermeable  membrane in response to a solute concentration Know which molecules are capable of diffusing through the cell membrane Dissolved gases, lipid soluble molecules (ether, alcohol), ions, glucose, water Know why some substances cannot diffuse through the cell membrane How/whether substances get through depends on the size of molecule, polarity  (solubility in lipids), electrical charge Understand concentration gradient, tonicity, isotonic, hypotonic, hypertonic Concentration gradient: process of particles moving through a solution or gas from an  area of higher concentration to lower concentration Tonicity: comparison of solute concentration Isotonic: area of equal solute concentration Hypotonic: area of lower solute concentration Hypertonic: area of higher solute concentration Given two environments, be able to identify which is hypotonic/hypertonic Understand crenation, lysis, turgor pressure plasmolysis Crenation: when animal cells are placed in a concentrated salt solution Lysis: when animal cells are placed in distilled water Turgor pressure: when plant cells are placed in a concentrated salt solution Plasmolysis: when plant cells are placed in distilled water Understand passive transport and facilitated diffusion Passive transport: requires no energy and moves down a concentration gradient Facilitated diffusion: uses the channel or carrier proteins to go down a concentration  gradient Understand active transport Active transport: requires energy (ATP) and uses proteins; goes against the  concentration gradient Understand exocytosis, endocytosis, phagocytosis, pinocytosis Exocytosis: taking out substances Endocytosis: taking in substances Phagocytosis: “cell eating” phagocytes Pinocytosis: “cell drinking” phagocytes Chapter 10 –  (sections 10.2­10.5, 10.6­10.16) Molecular Biology of the Gene Understand the difference between genes, chromosomes, and DNA Genes: discrete units of inheritance; segments of DNA Chromosomes: composed of DNA and associated proteins DNA: deoxyribonucleic acid Review the structure of a nucleic acid and nucleotide Nucleotide: phosphate, 5­carbon sugar (deoxyribose), and a nitrogen base Nucleic acid: chain of nucleotides covalently bonded together Understand the structure of DNA ­ physical and chemical Physical structure: double helix Chemical structure: deoxyribose attached to a phosphate group and a base (adenine,  guanine, thymine, or cytosine) Understand DNA replication DNA unwinds, 2 strands separate (due to nuclease/helicase), hydrogen bonds break  between bases, nitrogen bases are “exposed” beginning at the origin of replication, new  nucleotides are joined to the exposed “template” strand Understand the structure of RNA Single strand of nucleotides covalently bonded together, 5­carbon sugar (ribose), 4  possible bases (adenine, guanine, cytosine, and uracil) Understand how RNA and DNA are different (in both structure and function) DNA is double stranded, found in the nucleus, represents genetic material, contains  thymine RNA is single stranded, found in the nucleus and ribosomes, represents the protein  makeup of the body, contains uracil Know the three types of RNA involved in protein synthesis Messenger RNA (mRNA): carried code from DNA to ribosome [set of three successive  bases on mRNA is called a CODON] Transfer RNA (tRNA): carries amino acids to mRNA at ribosomes [set of three successive bases on tRNA is called an ANTICODON] Ribosomal RNA (rRNA): makes up ribosomes and is responsible for peptide bonds Understand what transcription and translation are and how & where they occur Transcription: RNA is transcribed from DNA, DNA unwinds, portion of DNA separates by  nuclease, free nucleotides join to one side of the exposed DNA, newly formed strand of  RNA separates from the DNA and moves out into the cytoplasm, DNA rewinds Translation: mRNA attaches to a small ribosomal subunit, tRNA attaches to codon on  mRNA, large ribosomal subunit attaches, a second tRNA attaches to mRNA, peptide  bond forms between first two amino acids, tRNA moves down the line, empty tRNA  moves down the line, process continues until STOP codon is reached Understand what triplets, codons, and anticodons are Triplet: a group of three bases that code for a specific amino acid Codon: a set of three successive bases on mRNA Anticodon: a set of three successive bases on tRNA Understand the process of protein synthesis ­ and why it is so essential a. DNA unwinds b. Nuclease enzymes cause hydrogen bonds of DNA to “break”  apart c. RNA polymerase joins free nucleotides to template strand d. New strand of RNA separates from DNA e. DNA strands “rejoin” f. RNA leaves the nucleus g. mRNA binds to ribosomal subunit h. The anti­codon on the tRNA (carrying the amino acid  methionine) pairs with its anticodon with the mRNA codon (AUG) i. A second tRNA anticodon binds to a second mRNA codon j. An enzyme joins the first two amino acids to each other by a  peptide bond k. The tRNA that had the amino acid methionine attached leaves l. The ribosome reaches a UGA codon on the mRNA m. The newly­made polypeptide chain is released from the  ribosome n. mRNA is released from the ribosome Given a chart and either a triplet code, a codon, or anticodon, be able to determine which amino acid will be coded for Understand what a mutation is ­ and the effect of a point mutation and frameshift mutation Mutation: a heritable change in the DNA Point Mutation: a substitution of one or more bases in the DNA molecule Frameshift Mutation: an addition or deletion of a base in the DNA molecule Don’t forget the labs!!!!   (Enzymes, Diversity & Cells,  Diffusion/Osmosis, and  Respiration) Don’t forget to look over any homework/on­line assignments and in­class discussion  questions.                                 


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