BIOL 100 Final Study Guide
BIOL 100 Final Study Guide BIOL 100 7012 01
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BIOL 100 7012 01
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This 5 page Study Guide was uploaded by kgrunwaldt on Saturday January 23, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to BIOL 100 7012 01 at Truman State University taught by B Moore in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 23 views. For similar materials see Biology with Lab in Biology at Truman State University.
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Date Created: 01/23/16
EXAM 4 Study Guide Evolution, Natural Selection, Speciation, Population Ecology, and Community Interactions (Parts of Chapters 13, 14, 36, 37) THERE WILL BE NO REVIEW SESSION! Chapter 13, sections 13.113.8, 13.1113.17 and Chapter 14, sections 14.414.6 + lecture Know how each of the following is evidence of evolution: (be able to give examples or explain) 1. artificial selection: the breeding of plants and animals to produce desirable traits 2. comparative anatomy: the study of similarities and differences in the anatomy of different species a. homologous structures: structures that have different functions but developed from the same type of embryonic tissue b. vestigial structures: structures that seem to have no purpose or function 3. embryology: organisms that seem to have common lineage 4. fossil record: refers to the total number of fossils that have been discovered as well as the information derived from them 5. biogeography: distributions of living organisms (or fossils of) throughout the world 6. comparative biochemistry: similarity of DNA and proteins Know the contribution(s) of the following individuals to the theory of evolution: 1. Aristotle: classified all living organisms hierarchally 2. Cuvier: studied fossils and established extinctions 3. Lamarck: inheritance of acquired characteristics; said bodies of organisms are modified through the use or disuse of different parts 4. Lyell: geologist that explored the doctrine of uniformitarianism 5. Malthus: studied the ecology of human populations 1. Darwin: proposed the theory of Natural Selection Explain what evidence of evolution Darwin discovered in the Galapagos Islands. Understand how Lamarck’s and Darwin’s ideas of evolution differed. (Be able to identify examples.) Darwin saw the differences in finches in the Galapagos Islands; they all had different shaped beaks Lamarck would have said that they grew different beaks to be more suited to their environment, but Darwin would have said that the ones with different beaks were more suited to survive Know the 5 major microevolutionary processes. (If given examples, be able to identify.) 1. mutation 2. mating preferences (sexual selection) 3. genetic drift (unpredictable changes in allele frequency due to a chance event) a. population bottleneck b. founder effect 4. gene flow (change in allele frequency as individuals leave or enter a population) 5. natural selection (difference in survival and reproduction among individuals of a population that differ in the details of their heritable traits Given an example and/or graph, be able to identify the 3 general types of selection: 1. stabilizing (average is favored) 2. directional (one extreme is favored) 3. disruptive (both extremes are favored) Understand divergent evolution, adaptive radiation, convergent evolution, and coevolution. If given an example, be able to identify which is which. 1. Divergent evolution: when one species “evolves” from another (macroevolution) a. Polar bears evolved from brown bears 2. Adaptive radiation: several species may have evolved from one common ancestor a. Allopatric speciation (geographic isolation) b. Sympatric speciation (reproductive isolation) 3. Convergent evolution (the independent evolution of similar structures among unlike species 4. Coevolution: the evolution of adaptations in two species due to their extensive interactions with one another a. Predator/prey interactions; plants and their pollinators Chapter 36, sections 36.136.6 + lecture Understand the difference between population, species, community, ecosystem 1. Population: groups of individuals belonging to the same species that live in the same region at the same time 2. Species: a group of closely related organisms that are very similar to each other and are usually capable of interbreeding and producing fertile offspring 3. Community: an interacting group of various species in a common location 4. Ecosystem: a community of living organisms in conjunction with the nonliving components of their environment Understand the 4 characteristics of a population: 1. size: number of individuals 2. density: group of individuals occupying a given area at a given time 3. dispersion (or distribution): how populations are spread 1. Clumped: due to patchy resources 2. Uniform: due to competition of resources 3. Random: conditions and resources fairly uniform 4. age structure 1. Prereproductive 2. Reproductive 3. Postreproductive Know how to calculate the rate of population increase. BirthsDeaths/Number of individuals in the population Know what an exponential growth curve looks like when a population is reproductively at its biotic potential. Biotic potential: the maximum rate of increase per individual under ideal conditions Increased growth, slope up Understand what a limiting factor is. Environmental conditions that limit the growth, abundance, or distribution of an organism or a population of organisms in an ecosystem. Know what carrying capacity is and how this is represented on a graph. The maximum population size of the species that the environment can sustain indefinitely, given the food, habitat, water, and other necessities available in the environment. Represented with a line of carrying capacity and a line of variant such as the overshot. Understand what happens if a population “overshoots” its carrying capacity. The population is not sustainable. Understand density dependent and density independent controls & examples. Density dependent factors are factors where the effects on the size or growth of a population vary with the density of the population itself. Density independent factors are factors that limit the size of a population whose effect is not dependent on the number of individuals in the population. Know how to interpret a graph representing a survivorship curve and characteristics of each type of survivorship and examples. Type I: Large mammals Type II: Small mammals, birds Type III: fish, insects, amphibians, reptiles Know ways humans have managed to sidestep normal population controls. Expanded to new habitats and climates, increased carrying capacity through agriculture and technology, removed some limiting factors such as sewage, nutrition, disease control Chapter 37, sections 37.137.6 and 37.937.10 + lecture Understand the difference between a niche and a habitat and given examples, be able to differentiate between the two. Ecological niche: the role of a particular species within an ecosystem, including all aspects of its interaction with the living and nonliving environments (encompasses all aspects of its way of life) Habitat: type of place where an organism normally lives Understand the difference between intraspecific competition and interspecific competition. Which is more intense and why? Intraspecific: competition among individuals of the same species More intense Interspecific: competition between individuals of different species Given examples, be able to identify whether an interaction is: neutral relationship commensalism: one species benefits, the other does not benefit nor is harmed mutualism: both species benefit interspecific competition exploitation competition: all have equal access to a resource, but they differ in how fast or how efficiently they use it interference competition: certain individuals limit or prevent others from using the resource intraspecific competition predatorprey: predator hunts prey as a food source parasitehost: parasite latches onto host and lives off its flesh Know some effects of predatorprey interactions Understand some defense mechanisms of plants and animals. LABS: Foraging Lab EXAM: 25 MC x 2 pt 15 fillintheblank x 2 pts 20 pts essay/short answer
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