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Study Guide for Exam #2

by: Mary Cooke

Study Guide for Exam #2 HIST 0150

Marketplace > University of Pittsburgh > History > HIST 0150 > Study Guide for Exam 2
Mary Cooke
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Study guide for exam #2; weeks 5-10
Novosel,Anthony Stephen
Study Guide
history, Ireland
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This 13 page Study Guide was uploaded by Mary Cooke on Saturday January 23, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to HIST 0150 at University of Pittsburgh taught by Novosel,Anthony Stephen in Fall 2014. Since its upload, it has received 30 views. For similar materials see HISTORY OF MODERN IRELAND in History at University of Pittsburgh.


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Date Created: 01/23/16
History of Modern Ireland Exam #2 Lecture #5 Terms: Charles I – Civil War / Protectorate – Restoration (Charles II, James II) – Glorious Revolution  The Protectorate o Time when England, Scotland, and Ireland were ruled by a Lord Protector rather than a monarch; under Cromwell o Cromwell lands in Ireland in 1649 and subjugates it a few years later o This period ends with the Restoration of the Monarchy  Restoration o Restoration of the monarchy and Charles II to the throne  Strictness and “Puritan” values of the Protectorate disappear (“King of Bling”) o Cromwell’s son becomes Lord Protector after Cromwell dies  Is a weak leader and is not able to reconcile different factions  Loses control of the New Model Army and therefore all of his power o Long Parliament (Parliament before Pride’s Purge and the Rump Parliament) is restored as Presbyterians are allowed back  Claim that Charles II was the original rightful heir to the throne after the execution of Charles I  Restoration Settlement o Charles II comes to power and removes the strictness of the Protectorate  Believes in religious toleration although he has secret Catholic sympathies o Catholics get some of their land back that they lost in the Restoration settlement o Those involved in the Civil War are pardoned (for the most part) o Disbanded the New Model Army o Charles cannot levy taxes without Parliamentary permission o Sectarian lines:  Catholics are hopeful (get their land back)  Dissenters are suppressed and assimilated  Executions; desecration of Cromwell’s and Ireton’s corpses  Clarendon’s Code (directed at them) o Ministers had to belong to the Anglican Church o Was intended to prevent potential revolutionaries from joining together and challenging the government  Presbyterians are frustrated  Supported Charles II against Cromwell’s son because they thought that he would make the Presbyterian church the official church of Ireland and Scotland  This does not happen; idea of empty promises by the king returns  Blood’s Plot o Attempt to march on Dublin and overthrow the Restoration settlement (Charles II’s return to the throne) in Ireland by Dissenters  Dissenters were frustrated with the Restoration settlement o Steals the crown jewels but is not executed because Charles II finds this amusing  Popish Plot o Supposed “plot” by Catholics and the French to kill Charles II and replace him with his Catholic cousin o Reinforced the siege mentality from 1641 and the fear of treacherous Catholics  Popery o “Priest-craft”- Pope and priests “lord over” the people  You have no freedom of conscience because you are being told what to believe o People are ignorant and superstitious and this is maintained by the Pope  Loyal remonstrance o “Remonstrance”- to speak out against; complain  Test Act o Prevented Catholics (and Dissenters) from holding public office by forcing all elected officials to swear an oath to the monarchy and the Anglican church o Applied to only England at first but then Ireland by the 1710s  Act of Settlement of 1662 o Passed by the Dublin Parliament in 1662 as a partial reversal of the Cromwellian settlement earlier o Stated that those given land in the Cromwellian settlement had to give a portion of it up to the Old English and loyal Catholics  Very few Catholics actually got land because the Protestant Parliament included stipulations that equal amounts of land would be given to the Catholics as to Protestants  Exclusion Bill o Wanted to exclude the king’s brother and heir, James of York from the throne because he was Catholic  Tories opposed this while the Whigs supported it o Was ultimately defeated  Act of Uniformity- part of the Clarendon Code o Aimed at making it more difficult for Dissenters to worship  Dissenters were seen as more dangerous than the Catholics, who had no power o Stated that all ministers had to be consecrated by officials of the Anglican Church  Non-conformity (aka Dissenters) o Broke with the Church of England and did not believe in an established Church o Examples: Puritans, Quakers, Anabaptists, Presbyterians, Fifth Monarchists  New Row Dissenters o Source of radical republican ideas and pro-reform politics o Involved in a rebellion against Charles II  Wood Street Dissenters o Source of radical republican ideas and pro-reform politics o John Toland was associated with Wood Street; published a book considered “atheistic” o Francis Hutcheson- established a school for the Wood Street Dissenters (Presbyterians)  These Presbyterian ministers who studied at his school joined the United Irishmen later on o William Drennan, leader of the United Irishmen, belonged to Wood Street congregation Questions:  Why did the Restoration occur? o Cromwell’s son became Lord Protector upon his father’s death o Loses control of the New Model Army because he is unable to reconcile opposing factions o Royalists restore Charles II to the throne and rewrite history, amending it to say that Charles II was the original heir and Cromwell usurped the throne  What was Charles II’s attitude towards Catholics and Catholicism? o Was very sympathetic towards it o Converts on his death bed  How did Charles view Dissenters? o Were seen as dangerous because they did not want the restoration of the monarchy o More dangerous than the Catholics  For whom was the Clarendon Code really intended? o Dissenters in England but was applied to Ireland  What happened in Ireland because of Charles’s policies and views? (NOT ON EXAM) o Suppression of Presbyterians- many were executed, left for America, forced underground  However, did not end the dissenting tradition o After the restoration, focus shifted to Dissenters rather than Catholics  Why did Charles fear Presbyterians and Dissenters in Ireland more than Catholics? o Catholics had no power because they had no land, whereas all of the great landowners were either Protestant or Dissenter o Presbyterians / Dissenters were more of a threat because they actually had the ability to overthrow the monarchy and the Restoration settlement  Why did James II’s actions scare all Protestants? o Started to form a Catholic army; fear that he would turn Britain into a Catholic nation o With the birth of his son, the fears of a Catholic dynasty became viable  How do Charles II and James II prepare the ground for the Glorious Revolution? o Instilled fears of a Catholic dynasty in England, which scared Protestants  James II has a son (Catholic heir to the throne)  Raising a Catholic army, etc. Lecture #6 Terms  Glorious Revolution o Protestants / Parliament invited William of Orange to bring an army to England to protect them from James II o James flees and William and Mary take the throne  Test Act o Series of laws passed by London to limit the power of Catholics and Dissenters o No one who didn’t take Anglican communion could hold public office  Penal Laws- failed, eliminated in 1793 o Aimed at Catholic landowners (only Catholics with power); also Presbyterians and Dissenters to some degree o Put in place by the Protestant Ascendency and Anglican Church; created by the Dublin Parliament, NOT the British Parliament  British Parliament could have stopped these laws but they needed the support of the great landowners and Ireland because they were at France  Habeas Corpus o Right to a trial or to appear before a judge before being imprisoned  Bill of Rights o William and Mary accepted a Declaration of Rights that they had to honor as a condition of being offered the throne o These rights were passed by Parliament and became the Bill of Rights- the rights of the people to be protected by Parliament  King couldn’t suspend the laws, Parliament would meet regularly, no censorship of the press, Monarch must be Protestant, etc.  James II o Became King of England; Catholic (fears of a Catholic dynasty when his son was born) o Fled when William’s army came to England; continued the war in Ireland  William and Mary o Took the throne from James II during the Glorious Revolution o Mary was James II’s daughter; was crowned monarch and William brought over a Dutch army to take the English throne, causing James II to flee  Ruled as joint monarchs  Siege of Derry o Protestant town o 13 apprentice boys closed the gates of the city and refused to surrender to Catholic forces of King James o Siege is lifted 105 days later when Williamite forces relieve the city o Results of the siege:  8,000-10,000 people die  Reinforces anti-Catholic feelings and anti-British sentiments because England did not come to protect the city  Battle of the Boyne o Defeats James o Guarantees the supremacy of Protestants in Ireland  “God is on their side”; same as Siege of Derry  Jacobites o Followers of James II in the war in Ireland during the Glorious Revolution  Williamite War  Tories o Supporters of an absolute monarchy  Whigs o Saw the Bill of Rights as a victory because it gave people power against the king  Revolution was “of the people”  Penal Laws o Passed after William’s victory against Catholics o Catholics couldn’t buy land, vote, or hold offices o Catholic landlords had to split their land equally between all children  Results in more subsistence rather than market farming o Bishops, friars, etc. could not practice anymore (although priests could)  Rye House Plot o Attempt to assassinate King Charles II and his brother James of York (later James II)  Monmouth’s Rebellion o Was an attempt to overthrow James II after he had become king o Led by the Duke of Monmouth, an illegitimate son of Charles II who claimed the right to the throne Questions  What caused the Glorious Revolution? o Parliament invited William of Orange to come to England to save them from Catholic King James II o Fears that James II was raising a Catholic army  Why did Parliament invite William and Mary to take the throne? o Did not want a Catholic dynasty in England o Would be able to establish their own supremacy and the rights of the people  Why is the Seige of Derry so important for Protestants in Ireland? o Reinforces the siege mentality of 1641 and the fear of Catholics o Also encourages anti-British sentiment because Britain does not come to aid of Derry  Why is the Battle of the Boyne so important? o Established the supremacy of Parliament of England o Defeated King James, who would have re-established the divine right of kings and ended Parliamentary systems o Establishes Protestant supremacy in Ireland (Penal Laws come shortly after) o Totally positive in England  Establishes the Bill of Rights  Puts the kind under the law o Negative in Ireland  Penal Laws are passed  Lose more of their land  5% of land is owned by Irish landowners in Ireland; the rest is owned by the Ascendency  What did Parliament accomplish by the acceptance of the Bill of Rights? o It established its own supremacy over the king and protected against future abuses of the monarchy and absolute rule  What happened in Ireland because of the Glorious revolution? o Led to the war between Williamite James’s and William’s forces in Ireland o Ends the Restoration (time after Cromwell with Charles II and James II) Lecture #7 Terms  Protestant Ascendency o Members of the established churches of Ireland and England (Protestant) who controlled Ireland  Frances Hutcheson o Father of the Scottish Enlightenment o Opposed Hobbesian philosophy o Believed in…  Equal division of property  Liberation of the lower classes from poverty, tyranny, ignorance, superstition  Governments created by popularly elected assemblies  Opposed slavery o Linked to the Wood Street Dissenters as well as the United Irishmen***** o Paved way for secret ballots, annual parliaments, payment for members of Parliament  John Toland o Dissenter o First Irish militant republican o Believed in…  Freedom of conscience  Religious toleration  Religion had to be rational  No priests are necessary; anyone can understand scripture  Equality of men and women  Abhorrence of tyranny and arbitrary power  United Irishmen fought for these same things  Dissenter o Sects of Protestantism which broke off from the established church o Typically had ideas of freedom of conscience, distaste for popery, and  Unitarians o Wanted to apply reason and science to the Church o Did not believe that the scripture was literal truth  Non-subscribing o Sect of the Presbyterian church o Named for those who would not subscribe to the Westminster Confession  The Westminster Confession- conservative document o Set up a Presbytery in Northern Ireland o Split between conservative and liberal (non-subscribing) Presbyterians  Treaty of Limerick o William wanted to create a just and fair peace NOT to hold the Catholics down  Would be allowed to fight with Louis XIV in France  Could keep their horses and could have guns  Gave Catholics more freedom of worship, like they had had under Charles II o Protestant Ascendency did not want this “lenient peace”  Treaty is struck down by the Dublin Parliament  Act to Prevent the Further Growth of Popery 1704 o Part of the Penal Laws o Intended to decrease the influence of the Catholic landowners  Forced landowners to divide land between all children  Made plots of land much smaller  Forced transition to more subsistence farming rather than market farming  Act of Toleration 1719 o Essentially gave Presbyterians freedom of religion in Ireland o Passed by the Dublin Parliament  Irish Protestant Patriots o Was not the romantic patriotism of the French and American Revolutions o Were not looking for a republic; just wanted equality with England o Looking out for their own economic security and self-interests  Johnathan Swift o Wrote many pamphlets as well as “Gulliver’s Travels” o Was a minister of the Established Church o Wrote in support of many Irish causes, which frustrated the government Questions  Why did the Dublin Parliament undercut the Treaty of Limerick? o England is at war with France- giving Catholics in Ireland power could hurt England if an alliance between French and Irish Catholics were to occur o Even though William wants to give freedoms to Catholics, he has to keep Protestants happy in Ireland for stability o Protestants, who control the Dublin Parliament, want to protect their own interests  Why did the government and Anglican Church fear Dissenters as much as they did Catholics? o Dissenters had more power than the Catholics because many actually owned land o Challenge the hegemony of the Anglican church  How are the Dissenters of Dublin linked to Cromwell and the United Irishmen? o Had similar radical religious and political ideas which influenced each other through the generations  Freedom of conscience; split off from the established church, etc.  Why did the Protestants in Ireland develop a form of Irish Nationalism, centered on Protestantism? o Were looking out for their own interests (primarily economic) o Wanted equality with Britain and more self-rule for Ireland  Why did the Dissenting Presbyterians support the Crown in its conflict with the renewed Jacobite uprising in Scotland? o Charles II had become King o Promised Scots that he would make Presbyterian the official religion of Scotland o Don’t want Catholics back on the throne; “lesser of two evils”  Better to be aligned with the king and the established church rather than the Catholics who they felt would suppress them if they took the throne  What led to the mass migration of Ulster-Scots (Scotch-Irish) in the 18h century? o Multiple waves (5) with different causes o Wanted religious freedom from the Penal Laws o Years of drought and bad harvests; hunger and famine o Continuous rack-renting (yearly increases in rent) o Frustration with tithes which had to be paid to the Anglican church o Propaganda (“Florida time shares”) encouraging people to come to America and get large amounts of good land for a cheap price  Why were the Ulster-Scots able to immigrate but the Catholics weren’t? o Protestants had money; could afford it o Also had relatives and connections in America  Catholics could only leave as indentured servants o 3 waves of migration- CAUSES:  Paying tithes; rack-renting  2 famines, starvation  Companies were trying to get people to come to America; were being convinced that they could have large amounts of land in the colonies  Could not hold office- were excluded from political life  What role did the New Row and Wood Street Dissenters play in questioning the authority of the Established Church? o Held radical new ideas o Were sources of republican and reform politics Lecture #8 Terms  Volunteer Movement o Began in Belfast in the late 1700s because Ireland was left defenseless from the French  British had not protected Ireland in the past o Spontaneous movement with multiple classes (middle, lower classes, ministers)  Protestant movement with Catholic upper class in support as well  Wanted a much more independent Ireland o Confronted French forces when they landed in Carrickfergus o Also volunteer movements in Dublin and Ulster which were more radical  Tried to enlist Catholics early on  Viewed the Dublin Parliament as corrupt as well as English governing influence o Communicated with American revolutionaries o Impact  Responsible for the creation of Grattan’s Parliament- distance from England  Achieved free trade  Foreshadowed the creation of the United Irishmen  Whiteboys o Catholic groups who attacked Protestant farms (counterpart to the Peep-O-Day Boys) o Wore white shirts; first oath-bound society in Ireland  Society of United Irishmen o Middle-class; well-educated  Irish Protestant Patriotism o Were loyal to Britain and wanted to stay with the kingdom o Saw London Parliament as the source of many of their economic problems  Wanted their own parliament o Not the same type of patriotism that we have in America or French Revolution  Economic self-interest  Grattan’s Parliament (know what it represents and what it accomplished) o Parliament that existed for 2 decades between the repeals of Poyning’s Laws and the Act of Union  Period when the Dublin Parliament was free to rule itself without English control  This was because England was at war with France; fears of a French invasion through Ireland (Ireland would not be able to protect itself) o Accomplishments  Eased the Penal Laws and gave Catholics the right to vote (with a property qualification) o Represents  Distance from Britain  HOWEVER, not very much distance because the same people still controlled Parliament.  Catholics and Dissenters began to push for a Parliament completely free from British control.  Volunteer Convention 1783 o Series of multiple meetings of the various volunteer factions o Wanted more freedom from England  Grattan’s Parliament  Free trade, etc.  Impact of the French Revolution (and connection to the United Irishmen) o Were in touch with the United Irishmen; connections from Paris to Dublin  Impact of the American Revolution o United Irishmen had connections to the American radical revolutionaries  Edmund Burke o Was a conservative Whig o Wrote “Reflections on the Revolution in France”  Supported the American Revolution but opposed the French Revolution o Believed that…  Democracy and radicalism were dangerous o Wanted an alliance between the rich conservative Catholics and the British Tories in order to defeat the Dissenters  William Drennan o One of the leaders and creators of the United Irishmen movement  Wanted a “benevolent conspiracy” that fought for the greatest happiness for the greatest number and a free, republican Ireland o Presbyterian; had radical political and religious ideas o Joined the Volunteer Movement and supported the American Revolution o Campaigned for Catholic emancipation  Defenders o Catholic landless peasants; looked at local grievances rather than the bigger picture o Wanted to get their land back and also revenge o Threat to both the United Irishmen and the state  Orange Order o Composed of only Protestants; named for William of Orange  Reject Catholic and Dissenter views o Oppose the United Irishmen and protect the state against revolution  Peep-o-Day Boys o Protestant groups who attacked Catholic Irish farms at the break of day o Reasons for this  Catholic were driving the increases in rack-renting  Oppressed by landlords  Country was modernizing; threat of the Whiteboys  Yeomanry o Believe in a closer union with England  Protestant Ascendency and the established church  Orange Order comes from this  Thomas Paine o Promoted Deism and attacked organized religion (specifically Christianity) o Considered the father of the American Revolution by many o Irish volunteers and United Irishmen read, and were inspired by, Common Sense Lecture #9 Terms  Tithe o Religious tax that Catholics and Presbyterians (Dissenters in general?) had to pay to the Anglican church  Act of Union- passed with the failure of the United Irishmen o Brought Ireland and England closer together  United the Church of England and the Church of Ireland  Created the United Kingdom  Abolished the Irish Parliament o Result:  Protestant Ascendency continues to run local Irish politics  Catholics become even more anti-union after they don’t get any new rights  Ireland’s economy suffers because of new trade regulations  Can’t compete with Britain  Questions and conflicts over land are still not settled by this  ****”imperfect union”  Wolfe Tone o Founding member of the United Irishmen; member of the Protestant Ascendency  Wanted to reduce English influence in Ireland originally (reformers not radicals)  Eventually is driven underground and becomes a revolutionary society o Very radical and wanted to unite Protestants, Catholics, and Dissenters Lecture #10 Terms  Emmet’s Rebellion o United Irishman who wanted a union with Napoleonic France o Tried to raise a rebellion but failed because…  No great support throughout the country  Early explosion o More of a riot or a scuffle in the street BUT did set the precedent for future Irish rebels  Other consequences were…  Was the final defeat of the United Irishmen o Attempt to create a democratic, inclusive Irish republic failed  Was a working class rebellion- failure of the working class  Death of non-sectarian politics o Made a very long, passionate speech on the dock before his execution  The King Killers of Pill Lane o Derogatory term for the United Irishmen  Unitarianism o Applied science and reason to the church (inspired Jefferson and the Jefferson Bible) o Believed that scripture was not a literal truth o Founded by Dr. Priestly and inspired William Drennan who converted o Religiously Presbyterian; civilly independents  Deism o Belief that God created the world but has not interfered in it  God plays no role in politics, etc.  Non-sectarian Republicanism o Support for an Irish republic regardless of religious beliefs o Republicanism  State where ruler is elected rather than born into the position (ex. monarchy)  Supreme power rests in the people Questions  What was the last stand of non-sectarian Irish Republicanism? Why? o Emmet’s Rebellion o Is the final defeat of the United Irishmen  Why did Emmet’s Rebellion fail? What are the ramifications of its failure? o Lasts only a few hours o Fails because it does not get much support, early explosion o Ends nonsectarian politics in Ireland  Religious divisions between Protestants and Catholics still exists today  Republicanism becomes associated solely with Catholics  Presbyterians and Established Church see Union as safer for them  Why did the Act of Union fail to achieve its goals of peace and stability in Ireland? o Alienates Catholics—“imperfect union” o Hurts the Irish economy with new free trade regulations favorable to England  Why were Catholics so bitterly disappointed by the Act of Union? o Thought that they would get some more freedoms from it but they get nothing o Are viewed as dangerous from now on for opposing the Union  What is the link between Cromwell’s invasion of Ireland and the birth of the United Irishmen? o Radical ideas of government and freedom of conscience that influenced each generation from Cromwell to the United Irishmen  People who came over with Cromwell were Fifth Monarchists, Puritans, etc.  Republican ideas; new ideas of religion and government  What did one Hessian think of the American Revolution? o Said that the American Revolution was actually a rebellion of Scotch- Irish Presbyterians


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