Exam #1 Study Guide
Exam #1 Study Guide SOC 0317
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This 3 page Study Guide was uploaded by Mary Cooke on Saturday January 23, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to SOC 0317 at University of Pittsburgh taught by Dr. Bamyeh in Fall 2014. Since its upload, it has received 24 views. For similar materials see Global Societies in Sociology at University of Pittsburgh.
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Date Created: 01/23/16
Global Society Exam #1: Study Guide McNeill: Polyethnicity and National Unity ● History of civilizations is the mixing of peoples ● Distinguished how lines are drawn between us and them ● Defines civilization as a settled population, stable with a geographic reference point ● Civilizations vs. barbarians: ○ Nomadic people move from place to place ● Trade, conquest, and disease caused the mixing of peoples ○ Disease: caused people to move from the country into the towns to fill the need for increased labor ● Self Determination Woodrow Wilson after World War I: people thought more about nationality and the “nationstate” as a collective unit to which ALL the people of a country belonged ○ Discludes nomadic peoples, colonies (example of India being colonized by the British), religions, guilds from the right to selfdetermination Triumph of Nationalism: ● How nationalism was used ○ Justifies sacrifice during war ○ Keeps peace at home ○ Strengthens government hand in everyday life ● Rulers use religion to control the masses ● Societies are like organs/the body ○ There are certain parts of the body that absolutely have to function like the brain or the heart (analogous to the government) but other parts that are helpful but you can live without. ■ Are all parts equal? ○ Also, each group/person has a specific, individualized function. ● National loyalty leads to manipulation which leads to war/killing ● Interdependence: post WWII; WWII had been caused by nationalism and countries realized that they had to depend on each other to avoid conflict trade increased, etc. AbuLughod / Wallerstein: Ideas on world systems Wallerstein ● Founded the idea of the world system ○ WORLD SYSTEM: Single division of labor (global economy/everyone working towards a common “goal” or purpose) with multiple ethnicities ● Said that it began in the 16th century and Europe was the center with the colonies as the periphery Britain and its colonies ○ Capitalist system AbuLughod ● World systems began much earlier, as early as the 13th century ● Systems can/do have multiple cores and peripheries and they can overlap Frank ● World system began 5,000 years ago, as old as settled populations ● Has always been Chinacentric and will be again with decline of the US Requirements of a world system: ● Has a core and a periphery (or multiple cores) ● Periphery provides raw materials / natural resources to the core ● Physical winds (ex. monsoon season), camels, wheel ● Political objective was to make passage safe; entered into by autonomous actors with mutual interests ● Institutional business culture, lingua franca, insurance, common currency, loans with interest (USURY), Geniza Documents (set rules and guidelines for trade, revealed how commerce worked) ● Most important alliance in the world system was between Venice and Cairo ○ Egyptians used Mamluks as slave soldiers; military caste system, most powerful class ○ Mamluks regulated trade through Egypt and protected caravans ● Requires constant exploration and resists interruption; when you are blocked from your current route, you had to find another one ● Conflict usually occurs within a civilization rather than across them Three Routes: ● Northern Route: controlled by the Mongols in Central Asia; had to pay Mongols for rite of passage ○ Failed because the Mongol leader died off and the empire became fragmented under his sons; passage was no longer effective or secure because there was no central authority anymore / too dangerous ● Middle Route: went through the Persian Gulf, controlled by the Persians ● Southern Route: controlled by the Egyptians; went through the Red Sea to India; mainly an oversea route Three Explorers: Marco Polo ● European from Venice (Italy was only a geographic concept, not a country) ● Father was a merchant, brothers also? ● Devout Catholic gave him a global identity ○ Two strongest identities were local (to Venice) and global (to Catholicism) ● Went to Peking (or somewhere in China) which was a trade hub with people from around the world because the emperor was very curious and open to different cultures and religions ○ Mongol rulers converted to the religion of the people that they were ruling over rather than the European idea that the people had to convert to the king’s religion Ibn Battuta ● 13th/14th century (contemporary of Marco Polo) ● Muslim traveler (Central Asia, India, China, North Africa, Maldives) ● Geographically more extensive than Marco Polo and kept more detailed records ● Many places that he visited were Muslim felt more “at home” than Marco Polo ● Argued/disagreed with native citizens often because of his global Muslim identity ● Education: was a judge; was able to be a judge in India without further training ○ Showed the universallyapplicable nature of education at the time ChengHo ● 15th century ● Expedition was financed from above by the Ming Dynasty (similar to the European voyages of discovery) ● Went to East Africa and India, but did not claim these territories for China like the Europeans did for their kings ○ Ming Dynasty had no need for expansion or more resources Chinese Trade ● AbuLughod: China was the core of the world system at a certain point in time ○ Experienced the Industrial Revolution before the rest of the world and had paper, iron, steel, gunpowder, explosives, and consumer goods for trade before everyone else ■ Did not use any of these things to control the World System ● Did not trade simply for the sake of money but to contribute to the world ○ Official regulated trade and unregulated trade (bigger because of no taxes) ● Stopped suddenly, got rid of their navy, and halted trade for a long time ○ Confucian Ideology no desire to conquer other nations ○ Black Death went through twice and wiped out huge part of the population ○ Fragmentation Crusades ● Caused more militaristic governments in the Middle East ● Stopped the trade with Muslims (Middle Route) ● Was a collaboration across civilizations ● Merged into a fight for money, power, and possessions rather than religion ● Plundered Constantinople; became a quest for economic and political power rather than religious gain (4TH CRUSADE) Silent Trade ● In North Africa ● Traded gold for salt; never actually met each other but continued for a very long time
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