Exam #3 Study Guide
Exam #3 Study Guide SOC 0317
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This 6 page Study Guide was uploaded by Mary Cooke on Saturday January 23, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to SOC 0317 at University of Pittsburgh taught by Dr. Bamyeh in Fall 2014. Since its upload, it has received 39 views. For similar materials see Global Societies in Sociology at University of Pittsburgh.
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Date Created: 01/23/16
Global Society Exam #3 Study Guide November 3 (Sen) GIFT ECONOMY From a historical perspective were an everyday occurrence rather than occasionally, as in modern times o Expectation was that these gifts would be repaid over time No agency or institution to enforce this then (unnecessary) o Idea that gifts were a “total system” – had political and social purpose as well (not only economic) Politically – tied to status Quality / quantity, etc. of the gifts you gave determined your standing as a leader Socially – maintained social solidarity and cohesion within society Modern perspective o Some parts of our economy still operate as gifts, but most do not Ex. Medical care – one of the last parts of the economy to transition from a gift into the monetarilybased system Moral implications associated with this shift – no man should benefit from the misfortune of others Gift economies transition eventually into… MONETARILYBASED ECONOMY Problems with paper currency (unique to this system; were not associated with gift economies) Requires persuading the people that a piece of paper does have value associated with it o Can be mitigated with governmental backing Losses in value (ex. inflation) o Can result in shifts to other currencies, such as gold 3 Forms of Wealth Transfer (TRIBUTES, TITHES, and TAXES) Tribute – before taxes o What were they? Means of paying respect to someone Did not necessarily have to involve money (could be labor, traded goods, harvests, etc.) o Intertwined with the history of subjugation Conquered nations had to pay tribute to their conquerors Was a means by which a subjugated population could show loyalty and compliance; “buys peace” o Were used by those who received them for their own benefit Essentially, there was no expectation that the money would be used for the good of the population Key difference between tributes and taxes Tithes – money paid to one’s church o Why? Was a moral obligation (not a submission to power like tributes were) o Was distributed throughout the church congregation in whatever way church leaders saw fit Critique of tithes: Take away from the local communities Used for the church’s own benefit o Similar but NOT THE SAME as alms Alms – had religious roots as well, but were paid directly to society’s poor by individuals No direct church involvement in the exchange of the money Justified as a “loan to God” in Islam o Idea that God would return the loan many times over eventually Taxes o Historically – not a uniquely modern concept; existed in Medieval Europe by lords to consolidate power o Modern perspective – related to the formation of democracy People give money to the government with the expectation that their interests will be met and the money will go back into society in some way Government, therefore, has to negotiate with its citizens because they are the ones funding it Citizenship and the State STATE: 2 types (tax state and rentier state) Tax state – its power comes from the taxes that it collects o Justification for a tax state – promote the common good of the people with the taxes collected o Welfare state can exist within a tax state (but does not always) Examples: Germany (under Otto von Bismarck) – post WWII o Saw welfare as one way to weaken socialist parties because welfare decreases the social inequality that these parties condemn (essentially, if social inequality is no longer a significant problem, socialist parties lose their platform) US – during the Great Depression era o Social security, unemployment, etc. were introduced Rentier state – survives off of “rent” (ex. oil, beneficial geography) o Taxes are not needed in some countries because of high revenue from assets available to that country o Results from this type of system: Does not need revenue from the population, which means that it experiences no pressure to democratize Population is often unrepresented CITIZENSHIP Premodern era – o Idea of citizenship does not exist but rather the idea of “subjects” Government acts on its own accord Modern era – o State claim to act in the interests of their citizens o Different forms of citizenship CIVIC (legal): citizen is protected from arbitrary state power Ex. Due Process rights; protection from confiscation of property POLITICAL: citizen has the right to determine the type of government within their state SOCIAL: citizen has the right to expect some sort of state aid / welfare, etc. November 5th (Stiglitz) DEVELOPMENT Development as freedom (idea that development within a country = freedom) Less developed societies must become like the rest of the world All countries and people of the world have similar goals (ex. industrialization; increased consumption) o Critiques of these ideas: Development and happiness are not necessarily the same thing Development can have multiple different objectives, outcomes, etc. (not the same everywhere) o THEREFORE… The goal of development should be to increase FREEDOM not wealth, goods, industry, etc. Freedom – can be divided into “freedom from” and “freedom to” o Freedom from – protection from abuses of government or other people o Freedom to – freedom to do certain things Also is the idea of libertarian freedom (American freedom) Freedoms should be guaranteed by the laws (ex. Constitution) th November 10 (Stiglitz) FREEDOM (con.) Restrictions on freedom Illiteracy Hunger Unemployment Illness Poverty o Essentially, political liberties are irrelevant to those who do not have the capacity to be free (for example, someone who falls under any of the above conditions) Relationship between freedom and responsibility Different types of freedom o Individual – your own personal rights and liberties; unconnected to society o Communal – wanting / having freedom for an entire population Usually in the context of colonialism, when an entire nation is oppressed equally by an outside force Can also be looked at in terms of social class (ex. socialist movements) or race, etc. o Relationship between INDIVIDUAL and COMMUNAL freedom Not necessarily opposite ideas A community is made up of individuals with individual freedoms A free individual is responsible to make others free However, freedom becomes irrelevant when resources, institutions, leisure time, etc. are not available HUMAN CAPITAL – idea that humans are entities capable of being development and having “worth” Can also be expressed as the idea that a certain amount of investment has gone into the population Can be measured (or increased by)… o Health of the population and the healthcare systems available o Education levels of the people o Life expectancy averages o Amount of free / leisure time that is available after working Adam Smith and Karl Marx (capitalism and socialism) Smith – “invisible hand” of the market; laissezfaire economic theory o Believed that when every person pursued their own selfinterest, society as a whole benefits Marx – discussed the idea of progress (rather than development) and the uneven distribution of wealth Relationship between the two – actually very similar ideologies and beliefs o Often seen as opposing viewpoints because their two texts were interpreted incorrectly November 12th (Sassen) GLOBAL DEMOCRACY Rights of the People Citizenship rights – you have the rights given to you by the state that you live in Global rights – ex. UN Declaration on Human Rights o Rights that all people have, regardless of their state Also encompasses those who do not belong to a “state” o Supersede citizenship rights Global Institutions Largest / most significant institutions o UN Established after WWII as a replacement for the League of Nations Membership organized in terms of states Critiques (undemocratic because…) Authoritarian and democratic states have an equal say Security council (15 members) make many decisions Permanent members (5) have complete veto power and unproportional share of influence o EU Organized in terms of states (same as UN); 27 member countries Critiques (undemocratic because…) Individual member states can pass controversional policy changes and justify them as necessary for EU regulations / membership, etc. Only European countries involved o IMF and World Bank Development projects and loans Critiques (undemocratic because…) Force changes in state policy as stipulations for loans Impede on state sovereignty o WTO “The real engine of globalization today” One of the most ambitious projects in modern history o WEF (World Economic Forum) More of a debating organization as opposed to the others Annual meeting of political and corporate leaders Critiques o Only the “elite of the world” rather than the masses, which have no say o World Social Forum (in response to the WEF) Meeting of all of the people of the world (rather than just the elite) Includes trade unions, individual activists, people from different political parties, etc. o These groups DO NOT have individual states that represent their specific interests, and therefore are often unrepresented in the other organizations above Justification / reasoning for formation: all of the globalizationpromoting organizations of the world are made up solely of the elite; people have no say November 17th (Bamyeh) LESSONS FROM THE HISTORICAL STRUCTURE OF THE MUSLIM WORLD 3 Historical Principles of Global Order 1. Partial control (modern concept) a. Idea that modern states have some degree of control over their populations (ex. police forces, social services, etc.) i. This control is seen to be effective enough ii. Control felt most in urban centers, such as the capital city 2. Free Movement a. Movement of people (not the same as “free trade”, which is the movement of things) b. Idea of lenient borers; political borders were meaningless of populations c. Things that catalyzed the movement of people: i. Pilgrimages (ex. Islamic) ii. Trading iii. Education 1. People would study in different places to get a more wellrounded education d. In modern times… i. Seen today only in Europe (EU) ii. This is a reawakening of an old idea 3. Cultural Heteroglossia a. Idea that there is significant cultural diversity in a community that sees itself to be homogenous i. The community is very fragmented from within but is imagined to be very unified from the outside and from different groups within who believe that everyone else is essentially the same as them 1. Ex. Religious sects (Islam) b. This idea connects to the idea of inquisition, which shares some similarities but is not the same thing i. Inquisition: recurrent activity but ONLY when the state is strong enough to enforce it (ex. Spain) 1. Associated with very high costs, resulting in short durations ii. Difference between inquisitions and heteroglossic systems 1. Heteroglossia is constant; this consistency is allowed by the fact that costs are very low ISLAM Acts like a house in Muslim countries There is a sense of fellowship and belonging (culturally, not politically) The territory in which you live feels like home 3 Principles of Global Order (in terms of Islam) Partial Control – Shari’a o Code of personal conduct with moral implications (code of how you should live) o Not a law in the traditional sense but acted like one in some ways (ex. controlled the actions of the Muslim people) Fatwa o Learned persons who were asked to make situational rulings (essentially were judges) o Sort of judiciary system on a basic local level Free Movement of People Pilgrimage to Mecca (expected to happen at least once in a lifetime) o Catalyst for the movement of people o Very long process because of the resources and preparations required o Cause Islamic people to become involved in trade, other cultures, etc. Cultural Heteroglossia Shari’a multiple schools of thought within one Muslim community, which appeared to be homogenous from the outside November 19 (Halle) GLOBALIZATION’S IMPACT ON DOMESTIC SPHERE Relationship of Globalization to Domestic Dynamics Globalization reduces ideological differences within communities through exposure to other peoples and cultures Globalization processes are out of domestic control o Can be slightly adjusted by not controlled completely Cultural consequences that come with globalization o Creates a global culture ( ? ) o Films, books, TV shows, etc. Culture is not static, but fluent throughout time Interzone Is the area between two different zones; “no man’s land” (can be local or global) Area where very different people encounter each other o This produces new possibilities that are not possible in wellestablished neighborhoods with pre determined norms Is represented in movies, books, etc. The internet can be considered an Interzone as well November 24 (Robbins) (no notes; missed class) st December 1 (Teivainen) CONTEMPORARY GLOBALIZATION Development Idea that development is always beneficial to everyone; will always improve quality of life for developing countries o Problems with this idea Strengthening of the state; corruption; authoritarian often (at least at first) Ex. South Korea, Turkey, Singapore Who is the agent of development? (no clear answer) Capitalism – variety of systems American capitalism Statepromoted capitalism (workers’ welfare, ensured employment, etc.) German capitalism (unions had power within corporations) Social democracy (essentially free economy with welfare included) Globalization since the 1990s Increased GDPs accompanied by inequalities o Increased wealth, but not for the entire society Beneficiaries and losers within most countries o Different from the colonial world in which the core benefitted at the expense of the periphery o Globalization cannot be completely explained in terms of geography; winners and losers within societies rather than across them Benefits those who are most positioned to already benefit o Does not benefit local industry, etc. Ascendance of material values o Associated with Adam Smith, “invisible hand” / trickledown economy Economic growth and success will solve social / economic problems, poverty, etc. Undermining sovereignty and democracy (even as the idea spreads) o SOVEREIGNTY Reduces the sovereignty of the nationstate almost everywhere; expected result Countries as entities do not have as much meaning because they have lost power o Ex. treaties, trade agreements, etc. Domestic governments have less power o Can be either positive or negative o How do governments behave when they are not capable of doing as much for their people? European Union – voluntary decrease in sovereignty Ex. free travel across borders, industrial regulations (transcend borders), etc. o DEMOCRACY Has spread but also become less meaningful as a system of government Rise of new centers o BRICS, Asian Tigers, etc. The Road Ahead – Interdependence of economic life and noneconomic values o More holistic view of globalization is necessary Freedoms Human values (gender equality) Human and civic rights Toward a critical perspective on the idea of development o Move away from the idea that development is meant to result in homogeneity “Another world is possible” – the question of global governance o Existence of a global society but no global democracy World leaders are not chosen by the people of the world as a whole Ex. corporations o Enormous power but not democratically elected
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